Norman Wolmark

Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States

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Publications (294)3716.08 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Positive interim analysis findings from four large adjuvant trials evaluating trastuzumab in patients with early-stage human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) -positive breast cancer were first reported in 2005. One of these reports, the joint analysis of North Central Cancer Treatment Group NCCTG N9831 (Combination Chemotherapy With or Without Trastuzumab in Treating Women With HER2-Overexpressing Breast Cancer) and the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project NSABP B-31 (Doxorubicin and Cyclophosphamide Plus Paclitaxel With or Without Trastuzumab in Treating Women With Node-Positive Breast Cancer That Overexpresses HER2), was updated in 2011. We now report the planned definitive overall survival (OS) results from this joint analysis along with updates on the disease-free survival (DFS) end point.
    Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The optimal chemotherapy regimen administered concurrently with preoperative radiation therapy (RT) for patients with rectal cancer is unknown. National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project trial R-04 compared four chemotherapy regimens administered concomitantly with RT. Patients with clinical stage II or III rectal cancer who were undergoing preoperative RT (45 Gy in 25 fractions over 5 weeks plus a boost of 5.4 Gy to 10.8 Gy in three to six daily fractions) were randomly assigned to one of the following chemotherapy regimens: continuous intravenous infusional fluorouracil (CVI FU; 225 mg/m(2), 5 days per week), with or without intravenous oxaliplatin (50 mg/m(2) once per week for 5 weeks) or oral capecitabine (825 mg/m(2) twice per day, 5 days per week), with or without oxaliplatin (50 mg/m(2) once per week for 5 weeks). Before random assignment, the surgeon indicated whether the patient was eligible for sphincter-sparing surgery based on clinical staging. The surgical end points were complete pathologic response (pCR), sphincter-sparing surgery, and surgical downstaging (conversion to sphincter-sparing surgery). From September 2004 to August 2010, 1,608 patients were randomly assigned. No significant differences in the rates of pCR, sphincter-sparing surgery, or surgical downstaging were identified between the CVI FU and capecitabine regimens or between the two regimens with or without oxaliplatin. Patients treated with oxaliplatin experienced significantly more grade 3 or 4 diarrhea (P < .001). Administering capecitabine with preoperative RT achieved similar rates of pCR, sphincter-sparing surgery, and surgical downstaging compared with CVI FU. Adding oxaliplatin did not improve surgical outcomes but added significant toxicity. The definitive analysis of local tumor control, disease-free survival, and overall survival will be performed when the protocol-specified number of events has occurred.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 05/2014; · 18.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) R-04 was a randomized controlled trial of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in patients with resectable stage II-III rectal cancer. We hypothesized that patients who underwent abdominoperineal resection (APR) would have a poorer quality of life than those who underwent sphincter-sparing surgery (SSS). To obtain patient-reported outcomes (PROs) we administered two symptom scales at baseline and 1 year postoperatively: the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Colorectal (FACT-C) and the European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer module for patients with Colorectal Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-CR38). Scoring was stratified by nonrandomly assigned definitive surgery (APR vs SSS). Analyses controlled for baseline scores and stratification factors: age, gender, stage, intended surgery, and randomly assigned chemoradiotherapy. Of 1,608 randomly assigned patients, 987 had data for planned analyses; 62% underwent SSS; 38% underwent APR. FACT-C total and subscale scores were not statistically different by surgery at 1 year. For the EORTC QLQ-CR38 functional scales, APR patients reported worse body image (70.3 vs 77.0, P = 0.0005) at 1 year than did SSS patients. Males undergoing APR reported worse sexual enjoyment (43.7 vs 54.7, P = 0.02) at 1 year than did those undergoing SSS. For the EORTC QLQ-CR38 symptom scale scores, APR patients reported worse micturition symptoms than the SSS group at 1 year (26.9 vs 21.5, P = 0.03). SSS patients reported worse gastrointestinal tract symptoms than did the APR patients (18.9 vs 15.2, P < 0.0001), as well as weight loss (10.1 vs 6.0, P = 0.002). Symptoms and functional problems were detected at 1 year by EORTC QLQ-CR38, reflecting different symptom profiles in patients who underwent APR than those who underwent SSS. Information from these PROs may be useful in counseling patients anticipating surgery for rectal cancer.
    Annals of surgery 03/2014; · 7.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pathological complete response has been proposed as a surrogate endpoint for prediction of long-term clinical benefit, such as disease-free survival, event-free survival (EFS), and overall survival (OS). We had four key objectives: to establish the association between pathological complete response and EFS and OS, to establish the definition of pathological complete response that correlates best with long-term outcome, to identify the breast cancer subtypes in which pathological complete response is best correlated with long-term outcome, and to assess whether an increase in frequency of pathological complete response between treatment groups predicts improved EFS and OS. We searched PubMed, Embase, and Medline for clinical trials of neoadjuvant treatment of breast cancer. To be eligible, studies had to meet three inclusion criteria: include at least 200 patients with primary breast cancer treated with preoperative chemotherapy followed by surgery; have available data for pathological complete response, EFS, and OS; and have a median follow-up of at least 3 years. We compared the three most commonly used definitions of pathological complete response-ypT0 ypN0, ypT0/is ypN0, and ypT0/is-for their association with EFS and OS in a responder analysis. We assessed the association between pathological complete response and EFS and OS in various subgroups. Finally, we did a trial-level analysis to assess whether pathological complete response could be used as a surrogate endpoint for EFS or OS. We obtained data from 12 identified international trials and 11 955 patients were included in our responder analysis. Eradication of tumour from both breast and lymph nodes (ypT0 ypN0 or ypT0/is ypN0) was better associated with improved EFS (ypT0 ypN0: hazard ratio [HR] 0·44, 95% CI 0·39-0·51; ypT0/is ypN0: 0·48, 0·43-0·54) and OS (0·36, 0·30-0·44; 0·36, 0·31-0·42) than was tumour eradication from the breast alone (ypT0/is; EFS: HR 0·60, 95% CI 0·55-0·66; OS 0·51, 0·45-0·58). We used the ypT0/is ypN0 definition for all subsequent analyses. The association between pathological complete response and long-term outcomes was strongest in patients with triple-negative breast cancer (EFS: HR 0·24, 95% CI 0·18-0·33; OS: 0·16, 0·11-0·25) and in those with HER2-positive, hormone-receptor-negative tumours who received trastuzumab (EFS: 0·15, 0·09-0·27; OS: 0·08, 0·03, 0·22). In the trial-level analysis, we recorded little association between increases in frequency of pathological complete response and EFS (R(2)=0·03, 95% CI 0·00-0·25) and OS (R(2)=0·24, 0·00-0·70). Patients who attain pathological complete response defined as ypT0 ypN0 or ypT0/is ypN0 have improved survival. The prognostic value is greatest in aggressive tumour subtypes. Our pooled analysis could not validate pathological complete response as a surrogate endpoint for improved EFS and OS. US Food and Drug Administration.
    The Lancet 02/2014; · 39.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Patients with isolated locoregional recurrences (ILRR) of breast cancer have a high risk of distant metastasis and death from breast cancer. We aimed to establish whether adjuvant chemotherapy improves the outcome of such patients. Methods The CALOR trial was a pragmatic, open-label, randomised trial that accrued patients with histologically proven and completely excised ILRR after unilateral breast cancer who had undergone a mastectomy or lumpectomy with clear surgical margins. Eligible patients were enrolled from hospitals worldwide and were centrally randomised (1:1) to chemotherapy (type selected by the investigator; multidrug for at least four courses recommended) or no chemotherapy, using permuted blocks, and stratified by previous chemotherapy, oestrogen-receptor and progesterone-receptor status, and location of ILRR. Patients with oestrogen-receptor-positive ILRR received adjuvant endocrine therapy, radiation therapy was mandated for patients with microscopically involved surgical margins, and anti-HER2 therapy was optional. The primary endpoint was disease-free survival. All analyses were by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00074152. Findings From Aug 22, 2003, to Jan 31, 2010, 85 patients were randomly assigned to receive chemotherapy and 77 were assigned to no chemotherapy. At a median follow-up of 4·9 years (IQR 3·6–6 ·0), 24 (28%) patients had disease-free survival events in the chemotherapy group compared with 34 (44%) in the no chemotherapy group. 5-year disease-free survival was 69% (95% CI 56–79) with chemotherapy versus 57% (44–67) without chemotherapy (hazard ratio 0·59 [95% CI 0·35–0·99]; p=0·046). Adjuvant chemotherapy was significantly more effective for women with oestrogen-receptor-negative ILRR (pinteraction=0·046), but analyses of disease-free survival according to the oestrogen-receptor status of the primary tumour were not statistically significant (pinteraction=0·43). Of the 81 patients who received chemotherapy, 12 (15%) had serious adverse events. The most common adverse events were neutropenia, febrile neutropenia, and intestinal infection. Interpretation Adjuvant chemotherapy should be recommended for patients with completely resected ILRR of breast cancer, especially if the recurrence is oestrogen-receptor negative. Funding US Department of Health and Human Services, Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research (SAKK), Frontier Science and Technology Research Foundation, Australian and New Zealand Breast Cancer Trials Group, Swedish Cancer Society, Oncosuisse, Cancer Association of South Africa, Foundation for Clinical Research of Eastern Switzerland (OSKK), Grupo Español de Investigación en Cáncer de Mama (GEICAM), and the Dutch Breast Cancer Trialists' Group (BOOG).
    The Lancet Oncology 01/2014; 15(2). · 25.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) trial B-31 suggested the efficacy of adjuvant trastuzumab, even in HER2-negative breast cancer. This finding prompted us to develop a predictive model for degree of benefit from trastuzumab using archived tumor blocks from B-31. Case subjects with tumor blocks were randomly divided into discovery (n = 588) and confirmation cohorts (n = 991). A predictive model was built from the discovery cohort through gene expression profiling of 462 genes with nCounter assay. A predefined cut point for the predictive model was tested in the confirmation cohort. Gene-by-treatment interaction was tested with Cox models, and correlations between variables were assessed with Spearman correlation. Principal component analysis was performed on the final set of selected genes. All statistical tests were two-sided. Eight predictive genes associated with HER2 (ERBB2, c17orf37, GRB7) or ER (ESR1, NAT1, GATA3, CA12, IGF1R) were selected for model building. Three-dimensional subset treatment effect pattern plot using two principal components of these genes was used to identify a subset with no benefit from trastuzumab, characterized by intermediate-level ERBB2 and high-level ESR1 mRNA expression. In the confirmation set, the predefined cut points for this model classified patients into three subsets with differential benefit from trastuzumab with hazard ratios of 1.58 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.67 to 3.69; P = .29; n = 100), 0.60 (95% CI = 0.41 to 0.89; P = .01; n = 449), and 0.28 (95% CI = 0.20 to 0.41; P < .001; n = 442; P interaction between the model and trastuzumab < .001). We developed a gene expression-based predictive model for degree of benefit from trastuzumab and demonstrated that HER2-negative tumors belong to the moderate benefit group, thus providing justification for testing trastuzumab in HER2-negative patients (NSABP B-47).
    JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute 11/2013; · 14.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Accurate assessments of recurrence risk and absolute treatment benefit are needed to inform colon cancer adjuvant therapy. The 12-gene Recurrence Score assay has been validated in patients with stage II colon cancer from the Cancer and Leukemia Group B 9581 and Quick and Simple and Reliable (QUASAR) trials. We conducted an independent, prospectively designed clinical validation study of Recurrence Score, with prespecified end points and analysis plan, in archival specimens from patients with stage II and III colon cancer randomly assigned to fluorouracil (FU) or FU plus oxaliplatin in National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project C-07. Recurrence Score was assessed in 892 fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor specimens (randomly selected 50% of patients with tissue). Data were analyzed by Cox regression adjusting for stage and treatment. Continuous Recurrence Score predicted recurrence (hazard ratio for a 25-unit increase in score, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.50 to 2.55; P < .001), as well as disease-free and overall survival (both P < .001). Recurrence Score predicted recurrence risk (P = .001) after adjustment for stage, mismatch repair, nodes examined, grade, and treatment. Recurrence Score did not have significant interaction with stage (P = .90) or age (P = .76). Relative benefit of oxaliplatin was similar across the range of Recurrence Score (interaction P = .48); accordingly, absolute benefit of oxaliplatin increased with higher scores, most notably in patients with stage II and IIIA/B disease. The 12-gene Recurrence Score predicts recurrence risk in stage II and stage III colon cancer and provides additional information beyond conventional clinical and pathologic factors. Incorporating Recurrence Score into the clinical context may better inform adjuvant therapy decisions in stage III as well as stage II colon cancer.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 11/2013; · 18.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: NSABP B-43 is the first prospective, randomized phase III multi-institution clinical trial targeting high-risk, HER2-positive DCIS. It compares whole breast irradiation alone with WBI given concurrently with trastuzumab in women with HER2-positive DCIS treated by lumpectomy. The primary aim is to determine if trastuzumab plus radiation will reduce in-breast tumor recurrence. HER2-positive DCIS was previously estimated at >50 %, occurring primarily in ER-negative, comedo-type DCIS of high nuclear grade. There has been no documented centralized multi-institutional HER2 analysis of DCIS. NSABP B-43 provides a unique opportunity to evaluate this in a large cohort of DCIS patients. Patients undergoing lumpectomy for DCIS without evidence of an invasive component are eligible. A central review of each patient's pure DCIS lesion is carried out by immunohistochemistry analysis. If the lesion is 2+, FISH analysis is performed. Patients whose tumors are HER2 3+ or FISH-positive are randomly assigned to receive two doses of trastuzumab during WBI or WBI alone. NSABP B-43 opened 11/9/08. As of 7/31/2013, 5,861 patients have had specimens received centrally, and 5,645 of those had analyzable blocks; 1,969 (34.9 %) were HER2 positive. A total of 1,428 patients have been accrued, 1,137 (79.6 %) of whom have follow-up information. The average follow-up time for the 1,137 patients is 23.3 months. No grade 4 or 5 toxicity has been observed. In NSABP B-43 the HER2-positive rate for pure DCIS among patients undergoing breast-preserving surgery is 34.9 %, lower than the previously reported rate. No trastuzumab-related safety signals have been observed. Interest in this trial has been robust.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 11/2013; · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We studied the effect on tumour response to neoadjuvant therapy of the substitution of lapatinib for trastuzumab in combination with weekly paclitaxel after doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide treatment, and of the addition of lapatinib and trastuzumab combined after doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide treatment in patients with HER2-positive operable breast cancer to determine whether there would be a benefit of dual HER2 blockade in these patients. For this open-label, randomised phase 3 trial we recruited women aged 18 years or older with an ECOG performance status of 0 or 1 with operable HER2-positive breast cancer. Each received four cycles of standard doxorubicin 60 mg/m(2) and cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m(2) intravenously on day 1 every 3 weeks followed by four cycles of weekly paclitaxel (80 mg/m(2)) intravenously on days 1, 8, and 15, every 4 weeks. Concurrently with weekly paclitaxel, patients received either trastuzumab (4 mg/kg load, then 2 mg/kg intravenously) weekly until surgery, lapatinib (1250 mg orally) daily until surgery, or weekly trastuzumab plus lapatinib (750 mg orally) daily until surgery. After surgery, all patients received trastuzumab to complete 52 weeks of HER2-targeted therapy. Randomisation (ratio 1:1:1) was done centrally with stratification by clinical tumour size, clinical nodal status, hormone-receptor status, and age. The primary endpoint was the pathological complete response in the breast, and analysis was performed on an intention-to-treat population. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00486668. Patient accrual started on July 16, 2007, and was completed on June 30, 2011; 529 women were enrolled in the trial. 519 patients had their pathological response determined. Breast pathological complete response was noted in 93 (52·5%. 95% CI 44·9-59·5) of 177 patients in the trastuzumab group, 91 (53·2%, 45·4-60·3) of 171 patients in the lapatinib group (p=0·9852); and 106 (62·0%, 54·3-68·8) of 171 patients in the combination group (p=0·095). The most common grade 3 and 4 toxic effects were neutropenia (29 [16%] patients in the trastuzumab group [grade 4 in five patients (3%), 28 [16%] in the lapatinib group [grade 4 in eight patients (5%)], and 29 [17%] in the combination group [grade 4 in nine patients (5%)]) and grade 3 diarrhoea (four [2%] patients in the trastuzumab group, 35 [20%] in the lapatinib group, and 46 [27%] in the combination group; p<0·0001). Symptomatic congestive heart failure defined as New York Heart Association Class III or IV events occurred in seven (4%) patients in the trastuzumab group, seven (4%) in the lapatinib group, and one (<1%) in the combination group; p=0·185). Substitution of lapatinib for trastuzumab in combination with chemotherapy resulted in similar high percentages of pathological complete response. Combined HER2-targeted therapy produced a numerically but insignificantly higher pathological complete response percentage than single-agent HER2-directed therapy; these findings are consistent with results from other studies. Trials are being undertaken to further assess these findings in the adjuvant setting. GlaxoSmithKline.
    The Lancet Oncology 10/2013; · 25.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neratinib is an oral, small-molecule inhibitor that irreversibly binds to pan-HER (ErbB) receptor tyrosine kinases. Studies suggest that dual anti-HER therapies utilized in breast cancer patients are more efficacious than single agents in both the metastatic and neoadjuvant settings. In this phase I study, neratinib was combined with trastuzumab and paclitaxel in metastatic HER2-positive patients. Twenty-one patients entered this dose-escalation study to determine the maximum-tolerated dose, safety, and efficacy of neratinib (120 up to 240 mg/day) with trastuzumab (4 mg/kg IV loading dose, then 2 mg/kg IV weekly), and paclitaxel (80 mg/m(2) IV days 1, 8, and 15 of a 28-day cycle) in women with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer previously treated with anti-HER agent(s) and a taxane. The recommended phase II dose of neratinib with trastuzumab and paclitaxel was 200 mg/day. Common grade 3/4 adverse events were diarrhea (38 %), dehydration (14 %), electrolyte imbalance (19 %), and fatigue (19 %). With mandated primary diarrheal prophylaxis, ≥grade 3 diarrhea was not observed. Objective responses, complete (CR) and partial (PR), occurred in eight patients (38 %), with a clinical benefit of CR + PR+ stable disease (SD) ≥24 weeks in 11 patients (52 %). Median time-to-disease progression was 3.7 months. Dual anti-HER blockade with neratinib and trastuzumab resulted in significant clinical benefit despite prior exposure to trastuzumab, lapatinib, T-DM1, a taxane, and multiple lines of chemotherapy. In selected populations, inhibiting multiple ErbB-family receptors may be more advantageous than single-agent inhibition. Based on favorable tolerance and efficacy, this three-drug combination will be further assessed in a randomized phase II neoadjuvant trial (NSABP FB-7:NCT01008150).
    Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 09/2013; · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSEAnthracycline- and taxane-based three-drug chemotherapy regimens have proven benefit as adjuvant therapy for early-stage breast cancer. This trial (NSABP B-38; Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Women Who Have Undergone Surgery for Node-Positive Breast Cancer) asked whether the incorporation of a fourth drug could improve outcomes relative to two standard regimens and provided a direct comparison of those two regimens. PATIENTS AND METHODS We randomly assigned 4,894 women with node-positive early-stage breast cancer to six cycles of docetaxel, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (TAC), four cycles of dose-dense (DD) doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by four cycles of DD paclitaxel (P; DD AC→P), or DD AC→P with four cycles of gemcitabine (G) added to the DD paclitaxel (DD AC→PG). Primary granulocyte colony-stimulating factor support was required; erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) were used at the investigator's discretion.ResultsThere were no significant differences in 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) between DD AC→PG and DD AC→P (80.6% v 82.2%; HR, 1.07; P = .41), between DD AC→PG and TAC (80.6% v 80.1%; HR, 0.93; P = .39), in 5-year overall survival (OS) between DD AC→PG and DD AC→P (90.8% v 89.1%; HR, 0.85; P = .13), between DD AC→PG and TAC (90.8% v 89.6%; HR, 0.86; P = .17), or between DD AC→P versus TAC for DFS (HR, 0.87; P = .07) and OS (HR, 1.01; P = .96). Grade 3 to 4 toxicities for TAC, DD AC→P, and DD AC→PG, respectively, were febrile neutropenia (9%, 3%, 3%; P < .001), sensory neuropathy (< 1%, 7%, 6%; P < .001), and diarrhea (7%, 2%, 2%; P < .001). Exploratory analyses for ESAs showed no association with DFS events (HR, 1.02; P = .95). CONCLUSION Adding G to DD AC→P did not improve outcomes. No significant differences in efficacy were identified between DD AC→P and TAC, although toxicity profiles differed.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 08/2013; · 18.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project protocol C-08 tested the worth of adding 1 year of bevacizumab to oxaliplatin-based standard adjuvant chemotherapy regimen in the treatment of stage II/III colon cancer. Although the overall result was negative, the possibility that a molecularly defined subset could benefit from bevacizumab cannot be ruled out. We performed post hoc Cox regression analyses to test for marker-by-treatment interactions for standard pathological features and survival analyses using the Kaplan-Meier method. All statistical tests were two-sided and considered statistically significant at the .05 level. Patients diagnosed with mismatch repair defective (dMMR) tumors derived statistically significant survival benefit from the addition of bevacizumab (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.52; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.29 to 0.94; P = .02) in contrast with no benefit in patients diagnosed with mismatch repair proficient tumors (HR = 1.03; 95% CI = 0.84 to 1.27; p = .78; P interaction = .04). Although a post hoc finding, this data suggests that a molecularly defined subset of colon cancer patients may derive clinical benefit from antiangiogenesis agents and underscores the need for independent validation in other clinical trials.
    CancerSpectrum Knowledge Environment 07/2013; 105(13):989-992. · 14.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERM) tamoxifen and raloxifene can reduce the occurrence of breast cancer in high-risk women by 50%, but this U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved prevention therapy is not often used. We attempted to identify genetic factors that contribute to variation in SERM breast cancer prevention, using DNA from the NSABP P-1 and P-2 breast cancer prevention trials. An initial discovery genome-wide association study identified common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in or near the ZNF423 and CTSO genes that were associated with breast cancer risk during SERM therapy. We then showed that both ZNF423 and CTSO participated in the estrogen-dependent induction of BRCA1 expression, in both cases with SNP-dependent variation in induction. ZNF423 appeared to be an estrogen-inducible BRCA1 transcription factor. The OR for differences in breast cancer risk during SERM therapy for subjects homozygous for both protective or both risk alleles for ZNF423 and CTSO was 5.71.
    Cancer Discovery 06/2013; · 15.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: One of the first chemoprevention trials conducted in the western hemisphere, the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project's (NSABP) Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (BCPT), demonstrated the need to evaluate all aspects of recruitment in real time and to implement strategies to enroll racial and ethnic minority women. PURPOSE: The purpose of this report is to review various patient recruitment efforts the NSABP developed to enhance the participation of racial and ethnic minority women in the Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) trial and to describe the role that the recruitment process played in the implementation and understanding of breast cancer risk assessment in minority communities. METHODS: The NSABP STAR trial was a randomized, double-blinded study comparing the use of tamoxifen 20 mg/day to raloxifene 60 mg/day, for a 5-year period, to reduce the risk of developing invasive breast cancer. Eligible postmenopausal women were required to have a 5-year predicted breast cancer risk of 1.66% based on the modified Gail Model. For the current report, eligibility and enrollment data were tabulated by race/ethnicity for women who submitted STAR risk assessment forms (RAFs). RESULTS: A total of 184,460 RAFs were received, 145,550 (78.9%) from white women and 38,910 (21.1%) from minority women. Of the latter group, 21,444 (11.6%) were from African Americans/blacks, 7913 (4.5%) from Hispanics/Latinas, and 9553 (5.2%) from other racial or ethnic groups. The percentages of risk-eligible women among African Americans, Hispanics/Latinas, others, and whites were 14.2%, 23.3%, 13.7%, and 57.4%, respectively. Programs targeting minority enrollment submitted large numbers of RAFs, but the eligibility rates of the women referred from those groups tended to be lower than the rates among women referred outside of those programs. The average number of completed risk assessments increased among minority women over the course of the recruitment period compared to those from whites. LIMITATIONS: We have not addressed all identified barriers to the recruitment of minorities in clinical research. Our risk assessments and recruitment results do not reflect the modified Gail Model for African Americans. CONCLUSIONS: Recruitment strategies used in STAR for racial and ethnic minorities contributed to doubling the minority enrollment compared to that in the BCPT and increased the awareness of breast cancer risk assessment in minority communities. Incorporation of new information into models to improve the risk estimation of diverse populations should prove beneficial.
    Clinical Trials 01/2013; · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSEThe National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project trial C-08 was designed to investigate the safety and efficacy of adding bevacizumab to fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX6) for the adjuvant treatment of patients with stage 2-3 colon cancer. Our report summarizes the primary and secondary end points of disease-free and overall survival, respectively, with 5 years median follow-up time.Patients And methodsPatients received modified FOLFOX6 once every 2 weeks for a 6-month period (control group) or modified FOLFOX6 for 6 months plus bevacizumab (5 mg/kg) once every 2 weeks for a 12-month period (experimental group). The primary end point of the study was disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) was a secondary end point.ResultsOf 2,673 analyzed patients, demographic factors were well-balanced by treatment. With a median follow-up of 5 years, the addition of bevacizumab to mFOLFOX6 did not result in an overall significant increase in DFS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.93; 95% CI, 0.81 to 1.08; P = .35). Exploratory analyses found that the effect of bevacizumab on DFS was different before and after a 1.25-year landmark (time-by-treatment interaction P value <.0001). The secondary end point of OS was no different between the two study arms for all patients (HR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.79 to 1.13; P = .56) and for those with stage 3 disease (HR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.83 to 1.21; P = .99). CONCLUSION Bevacizumab for 1 year with modified FOLFOX6 does not significantly prolong DFS or OS in stage 2-3 colon cancer. We observed no evidence of a detrimental effect of exposure to bevacizumab. A transient effect on disease-free survival was observed during bevacizumab exposure in the study's experimental arm.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 12/2012; · 18.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mammographic breast density is an established risk factor for breast cancer. However, results are inconclusive regarding its use in risk prediction models. The current study evaluated 13,409 postmenopausal participants in the NSABP Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene. A measure of breast density as reported on the entry mammogram report was extracted and categorized according to The American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) classifications. An increased risk of invasive breast cancer was associated with higher mammographic breast density (P=0.001). The association remained significant after adjusting for age, treatment, and smoking history (HR 1.32, 95%CI 1.16-1.58), as well as when added to a model including the Gail score (HR 1.33, 95%CI 1.14-1.55). At five years after random assignment, time-dependent AUC improved from 0.63 for a model with Gail score alone to 0.64 when considering breast density and Gail score. Breast density was also significant when added to an abbreviated model tailored for estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers (P=0.02). In this study, high BI-RADS breast density was significantly associated with increased breast cancer risk when considered in conjunction with Gail score but provided only slight improvement to the Gail score for predicting the incidence of invasive breast cancer. The BI-RADS breast composition classification system is a quick and readily available method for assessing breast density for risk prediction evaluations; however, its addition to the Gail model does not appear to provide substantial predictability improvements in this population of postmenopausal healthy women at increased risk for breast cancer.
    Cancer Prevention Research 10/2012; · 4.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the prognostic and oxaliplatin predictive value of mismatch repair (MMR) status and common hot spot mutations which we previously identified in stage II and III colon cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Mutations in BRAF, KRAS, NRAS, MET, and PIK3CA were profiled in 2299 stage II and III colon tumors from NSABP clinical trials C-07 (N=1836) and C-08 (N=463) with Typlex chemistry and Mass Spectrometry. C-07 tested the worth of adding oxaliplatin to 5-fluorouracil plus leucovorin and C-08 tested the worth of adding bevacizumab to FOLFOX. Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess prognostic or oxaliplatin predictive value of mutations for tumor recurrence, overall survival (OS), and survival after recurrence (SAR). RESULTS: BRAF mutations were associated with MMR deficient tumors (P<0.0001), poor OS (HR=1.46, 95%CI 1.20; 1.79, p≤.0002) and poor SAR (HR=2.31, 95%CI 1.83, 2.95, p<.0001). Mutations in KRAS, NRAS, MET and PIK3CA were not associated with recurrence, OS or SAR. MMR deficient tumors were associated with an improved prognosis based on recurrence (HR=0.48, 95%CI 0.33, 0.70 p<0.0001). Mutations and MMR status were not predictive for oxaliplatin benefit. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that BRAF mutations profiled from stage II and III colon cancer tumors were associated with poor SAR and validates and explains at least in part previous observations associating it with poor OS. Profiling of all of these mutations is warranted for future clinical trial testing new targeted therapies which block relevant signaling pathways. Such clinical trials are under development at NSABP.
    Clinical Cancer Research 10/2012; · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSEThe limited information on predictors of locoregional recurrence (LRR) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NC) has resulted in controversy about the optimal use of adjuvant radiotherapy and the timing of sentinel lymph node biopsy.Patients And methodsWe examined patterns and predictors of LRR as first event in combined analysis of two National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) neoadjuvant trials. NC was either doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide (AC) alone or AC followed by neoadjuvant/adjuvant docetaxel. Lumpectomy patients received breast radiotherapy alone; mastectomy patients received no radiotherapy. Pathologic complete response was defined as the absence of invasive tumor in the breast. Multivariate analyses were used to identify independent predictors of LRR. The primary end point was time to LRR as first event.ResultsIn 3,088 patients, 335 LRR events had occurred after 10 years of follow-up. The 10-year cumulative incidence of LRR was 12.3% for mastectomy patients (8.9% local; 3.4% regional) and 10.3% for lumpectomy plus breast radiotherapy patients (8.1% local; 2.2% regional). Independent predictors of LRR in lumpectomy patients were age, clinical nodal status (before NC), and pathologic nodal status/breast tumor response; in mastectomy patients, they were clinical tumor size (before NC), clinical nodal status (before NC), and pathologic nodal status/breast tumor response. By using these independent predictors, groups at low, intermediate, and high risk of LRR could be identified. Nomograms that incorporate these independent predictors were created. CONCLUSION In patients treated with NC, age, clinical tumor characteristics before NC, and pathologic nodal status/breast tumor response after NC can be used to predict risk for LRR and to optimize the use of adjuvant radiotherapy.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 10/2012; · 18.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSECardiac dysfunction (CD) is a recognized risk associated with the addition of trastuzumab to adjuvant chemotherapy for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer, especially when the treatment regimen includes anthracyclines. Given the demonstrated efficacy of trastuzumab, ongoing assessment of cardiac safety and identification of risk factors for CD are important for optimal patient care. PATIENTS AND METHODS In National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B-31, a phase III adjuvant trial, 1,830 patients who met eligibility criteria for initiation of trastuzumab were evaluated for CD. Recovery from CD was also assessed. A statistical model was developed to estimate the risk of severe congestive heart failure (CHF). Baseline patient characteristics associated with anthracycline-related decline in cardiac function were also identified.ResultsAt 7-year follow-up, 37 (4.0%) of 944 patients who received trastuzumab experienced a cardiac event (CE) versus 10 (1.3%) of 743 patients in the control arm. One cardiac-related death has occurred in each arm of the protocol. A Cardiac Risk Score, calculated using patient age and baseline left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) by multiple-gated acquisition scan, statistically correlates with the risk of a CE. After stopping trastuzumab, the majority of patients who experienced CD recovered LVEF in the normal range, although some decline from baseline often persists. Only two CEs occurred more than 2 years after initiation of trastuzumab. CONCLUSION The late development of CHF after the addition of trastuzumab to paclitaxel after doxorubicin/ cyclophosphamide chemotherapy is uncommon. The risk versus benefit of trastuzumab as given in this regimen remains strongly in favor of trastuzumab.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 09/2012; · 18.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The impact of arm morbidity following breast cancer surgery on patient-observed changes in daily functioning and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has not been well-studied. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of objective measures such as range of motion (ROM) and lymphedema, with patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in the arm and breast, upper extremity function, activities, and HRQoL. METHODS: The National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Protocol B-32 was a randomized trial comparing sentinel node resection (SNR) with axillary dissection (AD) in women with node-negative breast cancer. ROM and arm volume were measured objectively. PROs included symptoms; arm function; limitations in social, recreational, occupational, and other regular activities; and a global index of HRQoL. Statistical methods included cross-tabulations and multivariable linear regression models. RESULTS: In all, 744 women provided at least 1 postsurgery assessment. About one-third of the patients experienced arm mobility restrictions. A similar number of patients avoided the use of the arm 6 months after surgery. Limitations in work and other regular activities were reported by about a quarter of the patients. In this multivariable analysis, arm mobility and sensory neuropathy were predictors of patient-reported arm function and overall HRQoL. Predictors for activity limitations also included side of surgery (dominant vs nondominant). Edema was not significant after adjustment for sensory neuropathy and ROM. LIMITATIONS: Arm mobility and edema were measured simultaneously only once during the follow-up (6 months). CONCLUSION: Clinical measures of sensory neuropathy and restrictions in arm mobility following breast cancer surgery are associated with self-reported limitations in activity and reductions in overall HRQoL.
    The journal of supportive oncology 08/2012;

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32k Citations
3,716.08 Total Impact Points

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Institutions

  • 1996–2014
    • Allegheny General Hospital
      • Department of Surgical Oncology
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
    • Shadyside Hospital
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2013
    • Government of Quebec
      Québec, Quebec, Canada
  • 2012
    • University of British Columbia - Vancouver
      • School of Population and Public Health
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    • Michigan State University
      East Lansing, Michigan, United States
  • 2003–2012
    • Virginia Commonwealth University
      Richmond, Virginia, United States
  • 2001–2012
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • Department of Immunology
      Seattle, WA, United States
  • 1975–2012
    • University of Pittsburgh
      • • Department of Biostatistics
      • • Graduate School of Public Health
      • • Department of Radiation Oncology
      • • Department of Surgery
      • • School of Medicine
      • • Department of Medicine
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2011
    • Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research
      Rochester, Michigan, United States
    • University of California, San Francisco
      San Francisco, California, United States
    • Childrens Hospital of Pittsburgh
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2006–2011
    • Stanford University
      • Department of Surgery
      Stanford, CA, United States
  • 2004–2011
    • University of Vermont
      • • Department of Pathology
      • • Department of Surgery
      • • College of Medicine
      Burlington, VT, United States
    • National Cancer Institute (USA)
      • Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis
      Maryland, United States
  • 2010
    • Washington Hospital Center
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
    • University of Florida
      • Division of Hematology and Oncology
      Gainesville, FL, United States
    • University of Iowa
      Iowa City, Iowa, United States
    • Centre hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (CHUM)
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2008
    • Northwestern University
      Evanston, Illinois, United States
  • 2003–2008
    • University of Chicago
      • Department of Health Studies
      Chicago, IL, United States
  • 2002–2008
    • Magee-Womens Hospital
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2007
    • Arthritis Research Centre of Canada
      Richmond, British Columbia, Canada
    • National Institutes of Health
      Maryland, United States
  • 1998–1999
    • American University of Health Sciences
      United States
    • Technion - Israel Institute of Technology
      H̱efa, Haifa District, Israel
    • Allegheny Health Education and Research Foundation
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
    • Allegheny University
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1996–1997
    • Carnegie Mellon University
      • Department of Mechanical Engineering
      Pittsburgh, PA, United States
  • 1978–1990
    • Montefiore Medical Center
      • Department of Surgery
      New York City, NY, United States