[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Periductal angiogenesis in ductal carcinoma in situ is associated with an increased risk of subsequently developing a recurrence. This study aimed to (1) identify the relation between periductal and stromal vascularity and recurrence and (2) determine whether thymidine phosphorylase (TP) is associated with angiogenesis or recurrence in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS).
Twenty cases of DCIS that did not subsequently recur, 20 that developed a subsequent in situ recurrence, and 12 that developed a subsequent invasive recurrence were investigated. Periductal and stromal (hotspot) microvessel density were determined quantitatively using antibodies to CD34 and von Willebrandt factor (vWF). TP expression by DCIS was assessed semiquantitatively using the H score method.
Stromal and periductal microvessel density assessed by anti-vWF gave similar mean values, and showed a strong positive correlation. When angiogenesis was assessed with anti-CD34 this association was lost. Not only were the mean values for both types of microvessel density higher than those obtained with anti-vWF, but the periductal microvessel density was significantly greater than the stromal microvessel density. TP expression was associated with stromal microvessel density assessed with anti-vWF, but not with anti-CD34. TP expression was not related to recurrence. No significant difference was identified in TP expression or stromal vascularity in DCIS between cases that recurred as DCIS and those that recurred as invasive carcinoma.
Recurrent in situ or invasive disease after excision of DCIS does not appear to be related to stromal microvessel density or to TP expression by DCIS cells.
Journal of Clinical Pathology 01/2004; 56(12):919-23. · 2.44 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The development of an invasive recurrence following treatment for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) converts a non-fatal disease to one associated with mortality. To date, no pathological or molecular features have been found to predict for the type of recurrence. Previous studies have suggested that in DCIS angiogenesis may be an important factor in determining the transformation from in situ to invasive carcinoma. We looked at 355 cases of DCIS and found that 32 had subsequently developed recurrent disease. In these 32 cases and in matched controls, periductal vascular density was determined using morphometry and anti-endothelial antibodies, von Willebrand factor (vWF) and CD34. Vascular density was related to the risk of both invasive and in situ recurrence. Normal lobules at least 2 mm away were used as controls. Differences in the phenotype of individual blood vessels was detected by performing dual staining immunofluorescence on selected cases. The microvessel density (MVD), as detected with the CD34 antibody, was higher around foci of DCIS than around normal breast lobules (P=0.001). Furthermore, it was significantly higher in cases of DCIS that recurred (P<0.0001). The findings with the vWF antibody were less clear cut and suggested a trend in decreasing MVD with increasingly aggressive disease. Dual immunofluorescence staining shows that the increase in MVD seen around DCIS is due to an increase in CD34+/vWF-blood vessels. An increase in CD34+/vWF-of blood vessels may be able to predict cases of DCIS that are at a high risk of developing a recurrence.
European Journal of Cancer 01/2003; 39(1):38-44. · 5.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Up to 50% of recurrences of ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast are associated with invasive carcinoma but no pathological or molecular features have yet been found to predict for the development of invasive disease. For a tumour to invade, it requires the formation of new blood vessels. Previous studies have described a vascular rim around ducts involved by ductal carcinoma in situ, raising the possibility that the characteristics of periductal vascularisation may be important in determining transformation from in situ to invasive disease. Periductal vascular density and phenotype were determined using morphometry and a panel of anti-endothelial antibodies (von Willebrand factor, CD31, CD141 and CD34) and related to the presence of invasive carcinoma and other histological features. Compared to normal lobules, pure ductal carcinoma in situ exhibited a greater density of CD34+ and CD31+ vessels but a decrease in those that were immunopositive for vWF, indicating a difference in phenotype and in density. Ductal carcinoma in situ associated with invasive carcinoma showed a profile of vascular immunostaining similar to that of pure ductal carcinoma in situ but there were significantly greater numbers of CD34+ and CD141+ vessels and fewer staining for vWF. There was a significant negative correlation between vascular density and both the cross-sectional areas of the ducts involved and the extent of the necrosis of the tumour they contained. A correlation between vascular density and nuclear grade was also noted, being highest in the intermediate grade. The greater density of CD34+ and CD141+ vessels around ductal carcinoma in situ associated with invasive carcinoma could reflect a greater predisposition to invade but a direct effect of co-existent invasive carcinoma cannot entirely be ruled out in the present study. The relationship between vascular density, grade, duct size and nuclear grade suggests that periductal angiogenesis increases with tumour growth rate but is unable to keep pace with the most rapidly growing lesions.
British Journal of Cancer 04/2002; 86(6):905-11. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To date, research in the role of angiogenesis in cancer has focused mainly on invasive diseases. Measurement of the intra-tumoural microvessel density (MVD) has also been found to be an independent prognostic marker. More recently, natural angiogenic inhibitors and pharmacological drugs capable of suppressing specific stages of neovascularisation have been reported.
This review article concentrates on those angiogenesis-related findings in pre-invasive disease.
The study of angiogenesis in early and preneoplastic lesions is still at a preliminary stage. Current work provides indirect evidence, either from clinical or experimental studies only, most of which have used animal models. The use of the MVD as a marker of potential tumour invasion in pre-neoplastic disease is an attractive proposition. However, its prognostic values remain to be evaluated. Measurement of angiogenic factors, or their expression in certain pre-malignant conditions, may provide further information as to which disease may become invasive, and could possibly be used as a follow-up tool. The current treatment of pre-malignant conditions is usually surgical, although the early results of anti-angiogenesis therapy in animal models show encouraging results. Prevention is always better than cure, and the identification of pre-malignant lesions with intervention to prevent malignant transformation may soon become a realistic goal.
Anticancer research 22(4):2061-72. · 1.71 Impact Factor