Natália Brucker

Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Pôrto de São Francisco dos Casaes, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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Publications (20)35.39 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Objective Since we have previously demonstrated the relation between polyphenol-rich foods (PRF) consumption and ductus arteriosus (DA) constriction, in this work pregnant sheep were submitted to oral PRF intake for 14 days to understand how this process occurs. Fetal Doppler echocardiography, oxidative and inflammatory biomarkers and total polyphenol (TP) excretion were evaluated.ResultsThe high polyphenol intake induced DA constriction by 71.6% increase in systolic (p = 0.001) and 57.8% in diastolic velocities (p = 0.002), and 18.9% decrease in pulsatility index (p = 0.033), along with 1.7-fold increase in TP excretion, 2.3-fold decrease in inflammatory mediator nitric oxide and following redox status changes (mean ± SD): higher protein carbonyls (PCO, 1.09 ± 0.09 and 1.49 ± 0.31), catalase (CAT, 0.69 ± 0.39 and 1.44 ± 0.33) and gluthatione peroxidase (GPx, 37.23 ± 11.19 and 62.96 ± 15.03) in addition to lower lipid damage (17.22 ± 2.05 and 12.53 ± 2.11) and nonprotein thiols (0.11 ± 0.04 and 0.04 ± 0.01) found before and after treatment, respectively. Ductal parameters correlated to NOx, CAT, GPx and PCO.Conclusion Our results highlight the need to reduce maternal PRF intake in late pregnancy to prevent fetal duct constriction through NO-mediated vasoconstrictive action of polyphenols. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Prenatal Diagnosis 07/2014; · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gas-station attendants and taxi drivers are occupationally exposed to xenobiotics which may be harmful to their health. Atmospheric pollutants and benzene can lead to DNA damage. Genotoxicity and mutagenicity assays can be used to evaluate the effects of these pollutants. We have evaluated genotoxicity and mutagenicity in workers occupationally exposed to xenobiotics, by application of the 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), comet, and micronucleus (MN) assays. Biomarkers of benzene and carbon monoxyde exposure were also measured: urinary t,t-muconic acid (t,t-MA) and carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) in whole blood, respectively. The study groups comprised 43 gas-station attendants (GSA), 34 taxi drivers (TD), and 22 persons without known occupational exposures (NE). Levels of t,t-MA in the GSA group were significantly elevated compared to the NE group (p < 0.001), however these levels were below of levels established by ACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists). COHb levels were not significantly different between the TD and NE groups (p>0.05). DNA damage index (DI) and 8-OHdG levels were significantly higher for both the GSA and TD groups, compared to the NE group (p < 0.001), but MN frequencies were not elevated. Spearman correlation analysis showed that the frequency of MN was positively correlated with 8-OHdG. A positive correlation between DNA DI levels and 8-OHdG was also observed. In conclusion, our results indicated that low levels of occupational exposure to benzene and atmospheric pollutants may be linked to genotoxicity and oxidative DNA damage.
    Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis 01/2014; · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several studies have associated exposure to environmental pollutants, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), with the development of cardiovascular diseases. Considering that 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) is the major biomarker of exposure to pyrenes, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential association between 1-OHP and oxidative stress/inflammatory biomarkers in patients who had suffered an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). After adopting the exclusion criteria, 58 post-infarction patients and 41 controls were sub-divided into smokers and non-smokers. Urinary 1-OHP, hematological and biochemical parameters, oxidative stress biomarkers (MDA, SOD, CAT, GPx and exogenous antioxidants) and the inflammatory biomarker (hs-CRP) were analyzed. 1-OHP levels were increased in post-infarct patients compared to controls (p < 0.05) and were correlated to MDA (r = 0.426, p < 0.01), CAT (r = 0.474, p < 0.001) and β-carotene (r = -0.309; p < 0.05) in non-smokers. Furthermore, post-infarction patients had elevated hs-CRP, MDA, CAT and GPx levels compared to controls for both smokers and non-smokers. Besides, β-carotene levels and SOD activity were decreased in post-infarction patients. In summary, our findings indicate that the exposure to pyrenes was associated to lipid damage and alterations of endogenous and exogenous antioxidants, demonstrating that PAHs contribute to oxidative stress and are associated to acute myocardial infarction.
    International journal of environmental research and public health. 01/2014; 11(9):9024-9037.
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    ABSTRACT: Children's exposure to metals can result in adverse effects such as cognitive function impairments. This study aimed to evaluate some toxic metals and levels of essential trace elements in blood, hair, and drinking water in children from a rural area of Southern Brazil. Cognitive ability and δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) activity were evaluated. Oxidative stress was evaluated as a main mechanism of metal toxicity, through the quantification of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. This study included 20 children from a rural area and 20 children from an urban area. Our findings demonstrated increase in blood lead (Pb) levels (BLLs). Also, increased levels of nickel (Ni) in blood and increase of aluminum (Al) levels in hair and drinking water in rural children were found. Deficiency in selenium (Se) levels was observed in rural children as well. Rural children with visual-motor immaturity presented Pb levels in hair significantly increased in relation to rural children without visual-motor immaturity (p < 0.05). Negative correlations between BLLs and ALA-D activity and positive correlations between BLLs and ALA-RE activity were observed. MDA was significantly higher in rural compared to urban children (p < 0.05). Our findings suggest that rural children were co-exposed to toxic metals, especially Al, Pb and Ni. Moreover, a slight deficiency of Se was observed. Low performance on cognitive ability tests and ALA-D inhibition can be related to metal exposure in rural children. Oxidative stress was suggested as a main toxicological mechanism involved in metal exposure.
    International journal of environmental research and public health. 01/2014; 11(10):10806-10823.
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    ABSTRACT: Consistent evidence has indicated that the exposure to environmental air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to evaluate the possible effects of occupational exposure to air pollution, especially to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and the influence of co-morbidities on the atherosclerotic process and inflammation. For that, biomarkers of exposure such as 1-hydroxypyrene urinary, oxidative damage and markers of cardiovascular risk were determined in plasma, serum and blood. In addition, inflammation models such as carotid intima-media thickness and serum inflammatory cytokines were analyzed in 58 taxi drivers with and without co-morbidity. The results demonstrated that considering only taxi drivers without co-morbidities, 15% presented carotid intima-media thickness above reference values. For the first time it has been demonstrated that urinary 1-hydroxypyrene levels were associated with carotid intima-media thickness and with serum homocysteine levels. The multiple linear regression analysis showed that several factors may contribute to the increased carotid intima-media thickness, among which age, interleukin-6, fibrinogen and exposure to PAHs stand out. In summary, our results suggest that chronic occupational exposure to atmospheric pollution could be an additional contributor to the atherogenesis process, leading to impaired vascular health. Moreover, carotid intima-media thickness, serum homocysteine levels, fibrinogen and the total cholesterol/HDL-c ratio could be suggested as preventive measures to monitor drivers’ health.
    Environmental Research 01/2014; 131:31–38. · 3.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Exposure to environmental pollutants has been recognised as a risk factor for cardiovascular events. 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) is a biomarker of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from traffic-related air pollution. Experimental studies indicate that PAH exposure could be associated with inflammation and atherogenesis. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the biomarker of PAH exposure is associated with biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress and if these effects modulate the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases in workers exposed to air pollution. This study included 60 subjects, comprising 39 taxi drivers and 21 non-occupationally exposed persons. Environmental PM2.5 and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) levels, in addition to biomarkers of exposure and oxidative damage, were determined. Inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ and hs-CRP) and serum levels of oxidised LDL (ox-LDL), auto-antibodies (ox-LDL-Ab) and homocysteine (Hcy) were also evaluated. PM2.5 and BaP exhibited averages of 12.4±6.9μgm(-3) and 1.0±0.6ngm(-3), respectively. Urinary 1-OHP levels were increased in taxi drivers compared to the non-occupationally exposed subjects (p<0.05) and were positively correlated with pro-inflammatory cytokines and negatively correlated with antioxidants. Furthermore, taxi drivers had elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines, biomarkers of oxidative damage, and ox-LDL, ox-LDL-Ab and Hcy levels, although antioxidant enzymes were decreased compared to the non-occupationally exposed subjects (p<0.05). In summary, our findings indicate that taxi drivers showed major exposure to pollutants, such as PAHs, in relation to non-occupationally exposed subjects. This finding was associated with higher inflammatory biomarkers and Hcy, which represent important predictors for cardiovascular events. These data suggest a contribution of PAHs to cardiovascular diseases upon occupational exposure.
    Science of The Total Environment 07/2013; 463-464C:884-893. · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Occupational exposure to organic solvents present in paints is responsible for an increased production of reactive species, thus enabling the development of several diseases. Besides, both exo- and endogenous antioxidant defense systems are necessary to avoid oxidative tissue damage. This study investigated possible protective effects of the exo- and endogenous antioxidants on oxidative damage in painters occupationally exposed to organic solvents (n = 42) and controls (n = 28). Retinol, lycopene and β-carotene were significantly lower in the exposed group. Despite the fact that blood toluene was below the biological exposure limits, malondialdehyde levels and antioxidant enzyme activities were increased, whereas reduced glutathione levels were decreased in painters, compared to nonexposed subjects. Moreover, multivariate regression models showed that reduced glutathione and carotenoids (mainly β-carotene) have the major influence on lipid peroxidation (LPO). The present work suggests that the exogenous antioxidants, such as carotenoids, could protect occupationally exposed subjects to xenobiotics from LPO.
    Drug and Chemical Toxicology 07/2013; · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated genotoxic effects of exposure to low levels of benzene, a class I human carcinogen, among gasoline station attendants (GSA). Oxidative stress and the protective effects of antioxidants on DNA damage were also analyzed. Although exposures were below ACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists) limits, the GSA group presented higher DNA damage indices and micronucleus frequencies, increased oxidative protein damage, and decreased antioxidant capacity relative to the control group. Duration of benzene exposure was correlated with DNA and protein damage. The biomarkers evaluated in this work may provide early signals of damage in subjects occupationally exposed to benzene.
    Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 04/2013; · 3.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A method for the simultaneous quantification of lycopene, β-carotene, retinol and α-tocopherol by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with Vis/fluorescence detection with isocratic elution was optimized and validated. The method consists of a rapid and simple liquid-liquid extraction procedure and a posterior quantification of extracted supernatants by HPLC. Aliquots of plasma were stored at -20°C for three months for stability study. The methodology was applied to samples from painters and individuals not exposed to paints (n = 75). The assay was linear for all vitamins (r > 0.99). Intra- and inter-run precisions were obtained with coefficient of variation smaller than 5%. The accuracies ranged from 0.29 to -5.80% and recoveries between 92.73 and 101.97%. Plasma samples and extracted supernatants were stable for 60 days at -20°C. A significant decrease of lycopene, β-carotene and retinol concentrations in plasma from exposed individuals compared to non-exposed individuals (p < 0.05) was observed. The method is simple, reproducible, precise, accurate and sensitive, and can be routinely utilized in clinical laboratories.
    Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society 07/2012; 23(8):1441-1449. · 1.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Toluene is an organic solvent used in numerous processes and products, including industrial paints. Toluene neurotoxicity and reproductive toxicity are well recognized; however, its genotoxicity is still under discussion, and toluene is not classified as a carcinogenic solvent. Using the comet assay and the micronucleus test for detection of possible genotoxic effects of toluene, we monitored industrial painters from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The putative involvement of oxidative stress in genetic damage and the influences of age, smoking, alcohol consumption, and exposure time were also assessed. Although all biomarkers of toluene exposure were below the biological exposure limits, painters presented significantly higher DNA damage (comet assay) than the control group; however, in the micronucleus assay, no significant difference was observed. Painters also showed alterations in hepatic enzymes and albumin levels, as well as oxidative damage, suggesting the involvement of oxidative stress. According to multiple linear regression analysis, blood toluene levels may account for the increased DNA damage in painters. In summary, this study showed that low levels of toluene exposure can cause genetic damage, and this is related to oxidative stress, age, and time of exposure.
    Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 02/2012; 746(1):42-8. · 3.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: an exogenous antioxidant, is essential to human health. In this study, a method was validated to serum vitamin C quantification by HPLC-UV. Its stability with and without the use of tris [2-carboxy-ethyl] phosphine hydrochloride (TCEP), at -20 and -80 °C, in serum and supernatant were also evaluated. Analysis showed r 2 > 0.99, precision CV% < 15% and % bias < 15%, being linear, precise and accurate. The stability test revealed that using TCEP in serum storage at -20 and -80 °C or in supernatant at -80 °C the vitamin C levels remain stable for 30 and 12 days, respectively.
    Química Nova 01/2012; 35:403-407. · 0.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin C, an exogenous antioxidant, is essential to human health. In this study, a method was validated to serum vitamin C quantification by HPLC-UV. Its stability with and without the use of tris [2-carboxy-ethyl] phosphine hydrochloride (TCEP), at -20 and -80 °C, in serum and supernatant were also evaluated. Analysis showed r2 > 0.99, precision CV% < 15% and % bias < 15%, being linear, precise and accurate. The stability test revealed that using TCEP in serum storage at -20 and -80 °C or in supernatant at -80 °C the vitamin C levels remain stable for 30 and 12 days, respectively.
    Química Nova 12/2011; 35(2):403-407. · 0.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a potent mucolitic agent and also an antioxidant. Its antioxidant action is due to its ability to stimulate reduced glutathione (GSH) synthesis, therefore maintaining intracellular levels. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of NAC administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) in a decreasing of oxidative tissue damage in the liver and kidney of alloxan-induced diabetic rats, especially on thiolic groups (nonproteic and proteic groups). Adult male Wistar rats (200-350 g) were used; diabetes was induced accordingly by a single i.p. injection of alloxan monohydrate, and the control group received a similar volume of the vehicle. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) biomarker (malondialdehyde; MDA), δ-ALA-D activity, GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were quantified to assess the oxidative stress. All tests were performed in tissue homogenates. Creatinine, urea, aspartate transaminase, and alanine transaminase were determined by commercial kits, using serum samples. A significant decrease in LPO (i.e., hepatic and renal) and an increase in δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase activity, especially in the renal tissue, were observed. Also, NAC at 75 mg/kg showed more effective restoration of oxidative stress biomarkers than NAC at 25 mg/kg. Our findings suggest that NAC can be used as an antioxidant agent in diabetes, exhibiting modulatory action on the oxidative stress biomarkers analyzed in this work. Moreover, these findings can contribute to others' research, regarding the utilization of NAC to ALA-D activity restoration in the kidneys.
    Drug and Chemical Toxicology 08/2011; 34(4):467-74. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: Hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus (DM) may be one of the most important factors responsible for the development of oxidative stress, which promotes the main complications in DM patients. Therefore, this study evaluated if the hyperglycemia could be related to oxidative stress biomarkers, lipid profile, and renal function in type 2 diabetes patients without clinic complications. Methods: Plasmatic malondialdehyde (MDA), serum protein carbonyl (PCO), serum creatinine levels, microalbuminuria, glycated hemoglobin, and lipid profile were analyzed in 37 type 2 diabetic patients and 25 subjects with no diabetes. Results: Serum creatinine levels were within the reference values, but microalbuminuria presented increased levels in all the patients compared with controls (P < 0.05) and above of the reference values. The MDA, PCO, low-density lipoprotein, and triglyceride levels showed positive correlation with microalbuminuria levels. Moreover, glycated hemoglobin presented positive correlation with MDA, PCO, and microalbuminuria levels. Conclusions: The hyperglycemia could be responsible for the increase of the microalbuminuria levels and for the oxidation process in lipids and proteins in DM patients. Therefore, we suggested that the microvascular lesion is a direct consequence from hyperglycemia and an indirect one from the increased oxidative stress. Malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl levels could be suggested as additional biochemical evaluation to verify tissue damage in type 2 DM patients.
    Journal of Investigative Medicine 03/2011; 59(4):649-654. · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus (DM) may be one of the most important factors responsible for the development of oxidative stress, which promotes the main complications in DM patients. Therefore, this study evaluated if the hyperglycemia could be related to oxidative stress biomarkers, lipid profile, and renal function in type 2 diabetes patients without clinic complications. Plasmatic malondialdehyde (MDA), serum protein carbonyl (PCO), serum creatinine levels, microalbuminuria, glycated hemoglobin, and lipid profile were analyzed in 37 type 2 diabetic patients and 25 subjects with no diabetes. Serum creatinine levels were within the reference values, but microalbuminuria presented increased levels in all the patients compared with controls (P < 0.05) and above of the reference values. The MDA, PCO, low-density lipoprotein, and triglyceride levels showed positive correlation with microalbuminuria levels. Moreover, glycated hemoglobin presented positive correlation with MDA, PCO, and microalbuminuria levels. The hyperglycemia could be responsible for the increase of the microalbuminuria levels and for the oxidation process in lipids and proteins in DM patients. Therefore, we suggested that the microvascular lesion is a direct consequence from hyperglycemia and an indirect one from the increased oxidative stress. Malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl levels could be suggested as additional biochemical evaluation to verify tissue damage in type 2 DM patients.
    Journal of Investigative Medicine 02/2011; 59(4):649-54. · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We sought to investigate the relationships among the plasma levels of carotenoids, tocopherols, endogenous antioxidants, oxidative damage and lipid profiles and their possible effects on the cardiovascular risk associated with hemodialysis (HD) patients. The study groups were divided into HD and healthy subjects. Plasma carotenoid, tocopherol and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, as well as erythrocyte reduced glutathione (GSH), were measured by HPLC. Blood antioxidant enzymes, kidney function biomarkers and the lipid profiles were analyzed by spectrophotometric methods. Plasma lycopene levels and blood glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity were significantly decreased in HD patients compared with healthy subjects. Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), creatinine, urea, MDA, GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were significantly increased in HD (p < 0.05). Lycopene levels were correlated with MDA (r = -0.50; p < 0.01), LDL-c (r = -0.38; p = 0.01) levels, the LDL-c/HDL-c index (r = -0.33; p = 0.03) and GPx activity (r = 0.30; p = 0.03). Regression models showed that lycopene levels were correlated with LDL-c (β estimated = -31.59; p = 0.04), while gender was correlated with the TC/HDL-c index and triglycerides. Age did not present a correlation with the parameters evaluated. GPx activity was negatively correlated with MDA levels and with the LDL-c/HDL-c and CT/HDL-c indexes. Lycopene may represent an additional factor that contributes to reduced lipid peroxidation and atherogenesis in hemodialysis patients.
    BMC Nephrology 01/2011; 12:59. · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Paints are composed of an extensive variety of hazardous substances, such as organic solvents and heavy metals. Biomonitoring is an essential tool for assessing the risk to occupational health. Thus, this study analyzed the levels of biomarkers of exposure for toluene, xylene, styrene, ethylbenzene, and lead, as well as the oxidative stress biomarker alterations in painters of an industry. Lipid peroxidation biomarker (MDA), delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D), nonprotein thyol groups, superoxide dismutase and catalase (CAT) were analyzed in exposed and nonexposed subjects. We estimated which of the paint constituents have the greatest influence on the changes in the biomarkers of oxidative stress in this case of co-exposure. The results demonstrated that despite the fact that all the biomarkers of exposure were below the biological exposure limits, the MDA levels and antioxidant enzyme activities were increased, while nonprotein thyol groups and ALA-D levels were decreased in painters when compared with nonexposed subjects. After statistic test, toluene could be suggested as the principal factor responsible for increased lipid peroxidation and inhibition of ALA-D enzyme; however, further studies on the inhibition of ALA-D enzyme by toluene are necessary.
    Science of The Total Environment 09/2010; 408(20):4461-7. · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress is a complicating factor in chronic renal failure, especially in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Also, aluminum intoxication may occur during hemodialysis treatment. Aluminum has been shown to inhibit the sulfhydryl-containing enzyme delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D). Thus, the involvement of -SH oxidation in ALA-D inhibition and its relationship with serum Al levels and lipid peroxidation in HD patients were evaluated. Blood ALA-D activity, plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and serum aluminum levels were measured in HD patients (n=37) and healthy controls (n=20). TBARS and Al levels were higher in HD patients than in controls (p<0.01), while ALA-D activity was lower (p<0.05). The sulfhydryl-reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT) reactivated ALA-D of HD patients, but activity was still lower than that of controls. ALA-D activity was negatively correlated with TBARS (r=-0.63, p<0.01) and aluminum levels (r=-0.31, p<0.05). Reduced ALA-D activity in HD patients was found to be related to the oxidation of -SH groups essential for enzyme activity. Our results suggest that increased oxidative stress may have contributed to enzyme inhibition in HD patients.
    Clinical Biochemistry 06/2007; 40(9-10):591-4. · 2.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We focused on the importance of laboratorial parameters as risk factors for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). AMI is one of the major problems of public health in the world. However, approximately two thirds of patients that attend emergency rooms do not have any cardiac injury or life risk illness, therefore not requiring to be hospitalized. Fibrinogen concentrations measured during the acute phase of AMI were related to cardiovascular death or a new AMI event. This incidence was higher in the age range of 44 to 75 years in men, and 56 to 90 in women. Approximately 73% of patients presented family history of coronary heart disease (CHD), 66% were smokers, 63% presented hypertension and most of them were sedentary. Increased incidence of AMI in extreme temperatures was also observed. For fibrinogen concentrations (Fbr), results demonstrated significant difference (p < 0.05) between control and AMI patients. Considering troponin (TROP), creatine kinase (CK), the MB fraction of creatine kinase (CK-MB) and leukocytes count, results showed statistically significant differences. However, partial thromboplastin time activated (PTAT), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and triglyceride levels presented no significant difference between the studied groups. In conclusion, this work demonstrated a trend towards increasing fibrinogen concentration in patients with AMI, revealing that it may be considered one of the cardiac markers for AMI.
    Jornal Brasileiro de Patologia e Medicina Laboratorial 04/2007; 43(2):87-94.
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    Jornal Brasileiro de Patologia e Medicina Laboratorial 01/2007; 43(2).

Publication Stats

49 Citations
35.39 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2010–2014
    • Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
      • Faculty of Pharmacy
      Pôrto de São Francisco dos Casaes, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
  • 2007–2011
    • Universidade Federal de Santa Maria
      • Department of Clinical and Toxicological Analysis
      Santa Maria, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil