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Publications (4)9.48 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) whose disease is associated with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection have a significantly better outcome than those with HPV-negative disease, but the reasons for the better outcome are not known. We postulated that they might relate to an ability of HPV proteins to confer a better response to radiotherapy, a commonly used treatment for OSCC. We stably expressed the specific splicing-derived isoforms, E6∗I and E6∗II, or the entire E6 open reading frame (E6total), which gives rise to both full length and E6∗I isoforms, in OSCC cell lines. Radiation resistance was measured in clonogenicity assays, p53 activity was measured using transfected reporter genes, and flow cytometry was used to analyze cell cycle and apoptosis. E6∗I and E6total sensitized the OSCC cells to irradiation, E6∗I giving the greatest degree of radiosensitization (approximately eightfold lower surviving cell fraction at 10 Gy), whereas E6∗II had no effect. In contrast to radiosensitivity, E6∗I was a weaker inhibitor than E6total of tumor suppressor p53 transactivator activity in the same cells. Flow cytometric analyses showed that irradiated E6∗I expressing cells had a much higher G2M:G1 ratio than control cells, indicating that, after G2, cells were diverted from the cell cycle to programmed cell death. This study supports a role for E6∗I in the enhanced responsiveness of HPV-positive oropharyngeal carcinomas to p53-independent radiation-induced death.
    International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 03/2011; 79(3):860-5. · 4.59 Impact Factor
  • Oral Oncology - ORAL ONCOL. 01/2011; 47.
  • Oral Oncology - ORAL ONCOL. 01/2011; 47.
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    ABSTRACT: Keratinocytes are the cells in vertebrates that form the frontline barrier to the environment, and are also the most common origin of human cancer. They normally retain tight cell-cell adhesion and low motility, allowing them to terminally differentiate as they stratify. However, they must be able to respond to tissue damage by migrating into and across wounds. This requires reduced mutual adhesion, suppressed terminal differentiation and increased motility, processes driven by the Snail family of transcriptional repressors. The quantity, location and activity of Snail proteins are regulated by growth factors and cytokines to mediate these responses and invoke an inflammatory response. Subversion of these same pathways can promote carcinoma invasion and metastasis. Signaling network facts: • Snail1 and Snail2 in keratinocytes are important in promoting migration, inflammation and carcinogenesis, and suppressing terminal differentiation. • Extracellular stimuli, including TGFR and EGFR ligands, regulate Snails transcriptionally, via SMAD and MAPK pathways, and post-translationally, by modulating GSK3 and PAK1 activity, which determine Snail stability and intracellular location. • Snails directly repress transcription of genes important for cell-cell adhesion and cornified envelope formation. • Down-regulation of epithelial cadherins by Snails allows LIMDPs to relocate from adherens junctions to the cytoplasm, where they stimulate MAPK pathways, and to the nucleus, where they bind directly to Snails and act as corepressors. • Snail2 is essential for re-epithelialization of healing wounds and can be up-regulated in the keratinocytes at wound margins by p38, ERK1/2 and ERK5 MAPKs, and the arylhydrocarbon receptor. • Further information on signaling related to Snail proteins can be found online at KEGG: http://www.genome.jp/kegg-bin/show pathway?hsa04520 http://www.genome.jp/kegg-bin/show_pathway?hsa04350 http://www.genome.jp/kegg-bin/show pathway?hsa04012.
    The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology 12/2010; 42(12):1940-4. · 4.89 Impact Factor