[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase (T2) deficiency is an inborn error of metabolism that affects the catabolism of isoleucine and ketone bodies. This disorder is characterized by intermittent ketoacidotic episodes. Recently, we diagnosed T2 deficiency in two patients (GK45 and GK47) by the absence of potassium ion-activated acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase activity, whereas these patients were previously misinterpreted as normal by a coupled assay with tiglyl-CoA as a substrate. This method has been widely used for the enzymatic diagnosis of the T2 deficiency in the United States and Europe. We hypothesized that some residual T2 activity showed normal results in the assay. To prove this hypothesis, we analyzed these two patients together with three typical T2-deficient patients (GK46, GK49, and GK50) at the DNA level. Expression analysis of mutant cDNAs clearly showed that GK45 and GK47 had "mild" mutations (A132G, D339-V340insD) that retained some residual T2 activity, at least one of two mutant alleles, whereas the other three patients had null mutations (c.52-53insC, G152A, H397D, and IVS8+1g>t) in either allele. These results raise the possibility that T2-deficient patients with mild mutations have been misinterpreted as normal by the coupled assay with tiglyl-CoA.
Pediatric Research 08/2004; 56(1):60-4. · 2.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Initiator codon mutations are relatively uncommon and less well characterized compared to other types of mutations. We identified a novel initiator codon mutation (c.2T>C) heterozygously in a Japanese patient (Patient GK30) with mitochondrial acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase (T2) gene deficiency (ACAT1 deficiency); c.149delC was on the other allele. We examined translation efficiencies of nine mutant T2 cDNAs harboring one-base substitutions at the initiator methionine codon using in vivo transient expression analysis. We found that all the mutants produced wild-type T2 polypeptide, to various degrees (wild type (100%) > c.1A>C (66%) > c.2T>C, c.3G>C, c.3G>T (22%) > c3G>A, c.1A>G (11%) > c.2T>A, c.2T>G, c.1A>T (7.4%)). T2 mRNA expression levels in Patient GK08 (a homozygote of c.2T>A) and Patient GK30 fibroblasts, respectively, were almost the same as in control fibroblasts, when examined using semiquantitative PCR. This means that initiator codon mutations did not affect T2 mRNA levels. We propose that all one-base substitutions at the initiator methionine codon in the T2 gene could be mutations, which retain some residual T2 activity.
Human Mutation 07/2003; 21(6):587-92. · 5.05 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase (T2) deficiency is an inborn error of metabolism affecting isoleucine and ketone bodies in the catabolic process. Mutation analysis and expression analysis of mutant cDNAs have facilitated the division of T2-deficient patients into two groups: those with null mutations in either allele (group 1) and those with mutation(s) retaining some residual T2 activity in at least one of two mutant alleles (group II). Among 5 Japanese T2-deficient patients, GK01 belonged to group I and the other patients (GK19, GK19B, GK30 and GK31) to group II. As we have suggested previously, the severity of ketoacidotic episodes in the group II patients was similar to that in the group I patient. However, the urinary organic acid and blood spot acylcarnitine profiles under stable conditions differed between the two groups. The group I patient had typical profiles for the T2 deficiency. In contrast, in all four patients in group II, tiglylglycine was not or was only faintly detected and the 2-methyl-3-hydroxybutyrate levels were less than the cutoff value. Their tiglylcarnitine levels were within the normal range and 2-methyl-3-hydroxy-, butyrylcarnitine was detected just around the cutoff value in our newborn screening pilot test. Hence, these analyses under stable conditions are not reliable for diagnosing the T2 deficiency in the group II patients. The T2 deficiency (group II) can be misdiagnosed as normal if these analyses are performed under nonepisodic conditions and possibly during the newborn screening for inborn errors of metabolism.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In ketone body metabolism, hepatocyte-specific silencing of the succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid CoA transferase (SCOT) gene appears to be physiologically important to avoid a futile cycle in the liver, whereas the SCOT gene is expressed in extrahepatic tissues. It is not possible to explain hepatocyte-specific silencing by cis-elements in the 2.2-kb 5' flanking region. The molecular basis of this gene silencing is unknown thus far. In the present study, the methylation status of CpG islands around exon 1 in the SCOT gene was analyzed by sodium bisulfite treatment and by sequencing of genomic DNA from the HepG2, Chang liver and HeLa human cell lines, and also from mouse liver, heart and kidney cells. Most CpG dinucleotides in the CpG island of the human SCOT promoter region were not methylated in the DNA of HeLa and Chang cells, while HepG2 DNA was hypomethylated in this CpG island. CpG dinucleotides in the mouse SCOT CpG island were almost completely unmethylated in the liver DNA as well as in the heart and kidney DNA. CpG islands around the promoter region of the SCOT gene were hypomethylated in the DNA from both human HepG2 cells and mouse liver. Hence, methylation status does not contribute to hepatocyte-specific SCOT gene silencing.
Molecular Medicine Reports 3(2):355-9. · 1.48 Impact Factor