ABSTRACT: Isolated rabbit Clara cells and a transformed human bronchial epithelial cell line, BEAS-2B, were used to investigate the mechanism of cytotoxicity of 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDD), a persistent insecticide and stable metabolite of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2- bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane. Both BEAS-2B cells and rabbit Clara cells were highly susceptible to DDD toxicity and were partially protected by 1-aminobenzotriazole, a suicide substrate inhibitor of cytochrome P450 enzymes. DDD (0.05 mM) killed 47 +/- 1.8% of rabbit Clara cells and 42 +/- 7.9% of BEAS-2B cells after 3 hr and 84 +/- 3.0% of rabbit Clara cells and 80 +/- 14% of BEAS-2B cells after 6 hr. Consequently, DDD is the most potent Clara cell toxicant recognized to date. The cytotoxicity of DDD to these cells was decreased by deuterium substitution at the C-1 position. Rabbit Clara cells and pulmonary microsomes incubated with 14C-DDD produced the fully oxidized acetic acid metabolite 2,2'-bis(p- chlorophenyl)acetic acid (DDA), but DDA was not formed by Clara cells when DDD was coincubated with 1-aminobenzotriazole. These results support the hypothesis that the cytotoxicity of DDD to susceptible subpopulations of rabbit and human lung cells is, at least in part, caused by cytochrome P450-mediated oxidation of DDD at C-1. A required step for the production of the cytotoxic intermediate is proposed to be the formation of a highly reactive acyl halide intermediate that is readily hydrolyzed to a stable, nontoxic metabolite, DDA.
Drug Metabolism and Disposition 06/1995; 23(5):595-9. · 3.73 Impact Factor