ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were to determine the tissue effects of ultrasonic and pneumatic lithotripsy on the rat urothelium. The rats were divided into three groups. Groups I and II consisted of ten rats each that underwent intracorporeal lithotripsy (pneumatic and ultrasonic lithotripsy, respectively). Group III contained ten control rats and no lithotripsy method was used, they served as references for absence of injury. The light microscopy findings were evaluated as follows: squamous metaplasia, papillary projection, inflammation, increased stratification, and stone formation. In five (71.4%) animals of group II, bladders were edematous and hemorrhagic, macroscopically. Histologically, the bladder wall was normal in four rats of group I and in one of group II. There was a significant increase in inflammation (31.5%), squamous metaplasia (85.7%), papillary projection (71.4%), increased stratification (71.4%), and microscopic or macroscopic stone formation (85.7%) in the bladder wall of group II rats in comparison with group I and control group. In the rat model, we noted that ultrasonic devices have a potential risk for tissue injury. In turn, this was associated with a markedly increased deposition of CaOx stones in the kidney. When confronted with harder stones, pneumatic lithotripsy can be more effective while also minimizing tissue injury.
Urological Research 11/2011; 40(4):409-13. · 1.23 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To investigate the effect of Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS), on renal tubular apoptosis and on expressions of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and apoptosis protease-activating factor-1 (Apaf-1) in the ipsilateral kidney after an experimentally formed partial nephrectomy in a rat model.
The study was performed in 2009 at the Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Animal Laboratory Center, Ankara, Turkey. We divided 24 Wistar rats into the following 4 groups. Group I (GI) - partial nephrectomy (PN) with hilar control as the conventional technique, Group II (GII)-the conventional technique with ABS, Group III (GIII) - received ABS application to the renal parenchyma and collecting duct with hilar control (non-sutured group). Group IV (GIV) - PN and ABS were performed without hilar control. The ABS solution (1 cc) was applied during the surgery to stop bleeding from resected renal tissue. At first month, all rats were sacrificed. Renal tubular apoptosis was investigated.
The mean percentage of apoptotic cell counts in GI were 20% iNOS, 20% eNOS, and 10% Apaf-1. In GII they were 10% iNOS, 20% eNOS, 5% Apaf-1, in GIII they were 40% iNOS, 50% eNOS, 30% Apaf-1, and in GIV they were 5% iNOS, 5% eNOS, and 3% Apaf-1. There was no significant decrease in apoptotic cells in GII, GIII, and GIV, to which we applied ABS. The highest percentage of apoptosis was shown in GIII accompanied by significant inflammation. The lowest percentage was determined in GIV, the non-warm ischemia group. The ABS has a dual biphasic de novo effects on apoptosis.
The challenge of severe hemorrhage in the renal tubular cellular micro-environment causes ABS-induced down-regulations in the expressions of apoptotic molecules, indicating that ABS may act as a topical biological response modifier.
Saudi medical journal 08/2010; 31(8):864-8. · 0.52 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to investigate the preventive effects of propofol and ketamine as anesthetics on renal injury in unilateral ureteral obstruction (UO).
Twenty-four male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly assigned to four groups of six rabbits each. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with propofol in groups 1 and 2 and with ketamine in groups 3 and 4. Groups 2 and 4 received complete left ureteral ligation. Groups 1 and 3 (control groups) underwent an identical surgical procedure without ureteral ligation. At 14 days of obstruction, animals were sacrificed and ipsilateral kidneys were removed for determination of tissue nitric oxide (NO) levels and immunohistochemical evaluation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), inducible NOS (iNOS), and apoptosis protease-activating factor 1 (APAF-1).
Between groups 1 and 3, there were no differences in tissue NO levels and eNOS, iNOS, and APAF-1 expressions. iNOS and APAF-1 expressions were at the mild to moderate levels in group 2, but these parameters were markedly increased in group 4 at 14 days of obstruction. Also, elevated expression of iNOS was accompanied by a high NO production in group 4 compared with group 2. Although eNOS expressions were increased in both groups 2 and 4, there were no significant differences between these groups.
Propofol as an anesthetic agent may attenuate NO-induced renal tubular cell apoptosis by downregulating the expression of iNOS in an animal model of unilateral UO.
Journal of Anesthesia 02/2010; 24(1):73-80. · 0.83 Impact Factor