[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: We still do not have any information on the interaction between radiofrequency radiation (RF) and miRNAs, which play paramount role in growth, differentiation, proliferation and cell death by suppressing one or more target genes. The purpose of this study is to bridge this gap by investigating effects of long term 900 MHz mobile phone exposure on some of the miRNAs in brain tissue. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on fourteen Wistar Albino adult male rats by dividing them into two groups: sham (n: 7) and exposure (n: 7). Rats in the exposure group were exposed to 900 MHz RF radiation for 3 h per day (7 d a week) for twelve months (one year). The same procedure was applied to the rats in the sham group except the generator was turned off. Immediately after the last exposure, rats were sacrificed and their brains were removed. rno-miR-9-5p, rno-miR-29a-3p, rno-miR-106b-5p, rno-miR-107 and rno-miR-125a-3p in brain were investigated in detail. Results: Results revealed that long term exposure of 900 MHz RF radiation only decreased rno-miR107 (adjP(*)= 0,045) value where the whole body (rms) SAR value was 0.0369 W/kg. However, our results indicated that other micro RNAs evaluated in this study was not altered by 900 MHz RF radiation. Conclusion: 900 MHz RF radiation can alter some of the miRNAs, which, in turn, may lead to adverse effects. Therefore, further studies should be performed.
International Journal of Radiation Biology 12/2014; · 1.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the effect of insulin therapy on biomechanical properties of bone in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in rats.
A total of 28 male Wistar-Albino rats (12-week-old; 210-300g) were divided into 4 groups (n=7 for each) including control [C; no treatment], sham [Sh; distilled water i.p., for 8 weeks], diabetes [T1DM; 65mg/kg of STZ, single i.p.] and diabetes+insulin treatment [T1DM+I; 65mg/kg of STZ, single i.p.+insulin; 2-4UI/day/rat, i.p., for 8 weeks] groups. Body weight, blood glucose levels (BGLs), bone mineral density (BMD) and geometric/mechanical properties of bone tissue were evaluated.
BGLs in diabetic rats were significantly increased compared to non-diabetic rats, while the body weights were decreased (p<0.05). Femur length and cross-sectional area of femur were significantly decreased in both T1DM and T1DM+I groups (p<0.05). The significant reduction obtained in BMD in T1DM rats compared with C and Sh (p<0.05) groups was reversed by insulin treatment (p<0.05). Displacement, absorbed energy, maximum load, ultimate stress and toughness were significantly decreased inT1DM and T1DM+I groups compared to C and Sh groups (p<0.05).
In conclusion, insulin treatment seems to be ineffective in restoration of biomechanical deterioration of bone specific to STZ-induced T1DM.
Diabetes research and clinical practice 04/2012; 97(3):461-7. · 2.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This animal study evaluated the radioprotective effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and amifostine on the biomechanical properties of bone in Wistar albino rats of both genders. The rats were randomly divided into four groups of eight: a control group (C); a group given a single dose of 40 Gy of γ-irradiation (R); a group given γ-irradiation plus 200 mg/kg amifostine (R + amifostine); and a group given γ-irradiation plus 1000 mg/kg NAC (R + NAC). Extrinsic and intrinsic properties of bone, bone mineral density (BMD) and the cross-sectional area of the femoral shaft were determined. The cross-sectional area was significantly higher in the R + NAC and R + amifostine groups compared with the R and C groups. The BMD, maximum load and stiffness were also significantly higher in the R + NAC and R + amifostine groups than in the R group, and energy absorption capacity was higher in the R + NAC group than in the R group. These findings indicate that NAC and amifostine preserve bone quality in rats exposed to γ-irradiation.
The Journal of international medical research 12/2011; 39(6):2393-401. · 1.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have various skeletal disorders and bone quality can be impaired in DM leading to fractures. Wistar albino male rats (270-300 g; n = 16) were assigned randomly to nondiabetic and diabetic rats (single dose intravenous injection of 45 mg/kg streptozotocin). All rats in each group were perpetuated for 8 weeks, and blood glucose levels as well as body weights were measured once weekly. Biomechanical measurements were performed at the mid-diaphysis of the left femur with tensile test. Extrinsic and intrinsic properties were measured or calculated. Bone mineral density (BMD) was also evaluated and measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Cross-sectional area of the femoral shaft was evaluated by computerized tomography. Blood glucose levels in diabetic rats were significantly increased compared to that of the nondiabetic rats, while the body and femur weights were decreased (P < 0.05). In respect to the BMD, cross-sectional area and femur length, there were no statistically significant differences between the nondiabetic and diabetic rats (P > 0.05). The maximum load, ultimate stress, and toughness endpoints in diabetic rats were significantly decreased compared to that of the nondiabetics (P < 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between the nondiabetic and diabetic rats with regard to the displacement and stiffness (P > 0.05). Femurs of diabetic rats had less absorbed energy than that in nondiabetics (P < 0.05). Ultimate strain was lower in diabetic rats than that in nondiabetics, while the elastic modulus was higher (P > 0.05). The bone quality of rats is decreased by streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Biological trace element research 05/2010; 140(3):342-53. · 1.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone is composed of a mineral matrix reinforced by a network of collagen that governs the biomechanical functions of the skeletal system in the body. The purpose of the study was to investigate the possible effect of extremely low-frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) on geometric and biomechanical properties of rats' bone. In this study, 30 male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. The rats were divided into three groups: two experimental and one control sham. The first and second experimental group (n=10) were exposed to 100 microT and 500 microT-MF during 10 months, 2 h a day, respectively, and the third (sham) (n=10) group was treated like experimental group except ELF-MF exposure in methacrylate boxes. After ELF-MF and sham exposure, geometric and the biomechanical properties of rats' bone, such as cross-sectional area of the femoral shaft, length of the femur, cortical thickness of the femur, ultimate tensile strength (maximum load), displacement, stiffness, energy absorption capacity, elastic modulus, and toughness of bone were determined. The geometric and biomechanical analyses showed that a significant decrease in rats exposed to 100 microT-MF in comparison to sham and 500 microT-MF exposed rats about the values of cross-sectional area of the femoral shaft (P<0.05). Maximum load increased in 100 muT-MF and 500 microT-MF exposed rats when compared to that of the sham rats (P<0.05). The cortical thickness of the femurs of MF-exposed rats (100 microT and 500 microT) were significantly decreased in comparison to that of sham groups' rats (P<0.05 and P<0.001). However, no significant differences were found in the other biomechanical endpoints between each other groups, such as: length of the femur, displacement, stiffness, energy absorption capacity, elastic modulus, and toughness of bone (P>0.05). These experiments demonstrated that 100 microT-MF and 500 microT-MF can affect biomechanical and geometrical properties of rats' bone.
Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine 03/2010; 29(1-2):9-18. · 0.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the potential radioprotective effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) comparing its effects with that of amifostine (WR-2721), as a representative of clinically used radioprotector, in ameliorating skin injury from irradiation in rats (single dose, 18 Gy to the left hind legs of the rats).
The rats (n=28) were divided randomly and equally into 4 groups: Control (C), Radiation (R), R+WR-2721 (received irradiation and 200 mg/kg of WR- 2721) and R+NAC (received irradiation and 1000 mg/kg of NAC). Acute skin reactions were assessed every 3 days by a radiation oncologist and a biophysicist. Light microscopic findings were assessed by an expert pathologist.
Clinically and histopathologically, irradiation increased dermatitis when compared with the control group (p<0.05). The severity of radiodermatitis of the rats in the R+NAC and R+WR-2721 groups was significantly lower than in the R group (p<0.05). The protective effects of NAC and WR-2721 on irradiation-increased dermatitis were clinically and histopathologically similar (p>0.05).
The study gives clues about the beneficial effects of NAC against radiation-induced dermatitis.
Journal of B.U.ON.: official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology 01/2010; 15(3):577-82. · 0.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential radioprotective effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) against genotoxicity and cytotoxicity. The effect of WR-2721, as a representative of clinically used radioprotector, was compared with that of NAC, using the chromosomal aberration (CA) and micronucleus (MN) test systems in the irradiated rat's femoral bone marrow cells. We also investigated the mitotic index (MI), and the ratio of polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) to normochromatic erythrocytes (NCEs). The rats (n = 16) were divided randomly and equally into four groups: Control (C), Radiation (R), R+NAC (received irradiation and 1000 mg/kg NAC) and R+WR-2721 (received irradiation and 200 mg/kg WR-2721) rats. All the irradiated groups received whole-body gamma irradiation as a single dose of 6 Gy. Group R showed higher CA and MN formation when compared to C. Group R showed higher frequency of MN formation when compared to both R+NAC and R+WR-2721. The mean MI and PCE/NCE ratios were lower in Group R when compared to those of Group C. The mean MI and PCE/NCE ratios of both R+NAC and R+WR-2721 groups were lower when compared to those of Group C. The MI in Group R was lower when compared to that of both R+NAC and R+WR-2721 groups. In this study, the results give clues about the beneficial effects of NAC against radiation-induced genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in rat bone marrow and its effect may be comparable to that observed for WR-2721.
Journal of Radiation Research 02/2009; 50(1):43-50. · 1.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our study aimed to investigate the potential radioprotective effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) by comparing its biochemical effects with those of WR-2721, as a representative of clinically used radioprotectors, in preventing oxidative damage caused by gamma irradiation (single dose, 6Gy) in normal rat tissue. The rats (n=40) were divided randomly and equally into 4 groups:Control (C), Radiation (R), R+NAC (received irradiation and 1,000 mg/kg NAC) and R+WR-2721 (received irradiation and 200 mg/kg WR-2721) rats. Liver tissues and blood samples were harvested and utilized for reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) detection. Serum and tissue GSH levels of R rats decreased compared to those of other groups (p<0.01). Tissue MDA levels of R+NAC and R+WR-2721 rats decreased compared to R rats (p<0.01; p<0.05, respectively). Tissue MPO activities of R+NAC and R+WR-2721 rats were higher than those of R rats (p<0.001). Serum MPO levels of R+WR-2721 rats were lower than those of C rats and R rats (p<0.01, p<0.001, respectively). In conclusion, the study suggests that the radioprotective effect against radiation-induced oxidative damage of NAC may be similar to that of WR-2721.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thirty-two adult Wistar-Albino female and male rats were used to investigate the long-term (45 days) effects of extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF; 50Hz, 1mT, 4h/day) exposure on oxidative/nitrosative stress in liver tissues of rats. The rats were divided randomly into four groups: female control (FC; n = 8) and MF-exposed female rats (F-MF; n = 8); male control (MC; n = 8) and MF-exposed male rats (M-MF; n = 8). Liver tissue from each animal was harvested and utilized for malondialdehyde (MDA) and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) detection. MDA levels were measured by MDA-TBA method, while the 3-NT levels were determined by the HPLC-UV system. There were no significant differences between the MDA levels of the control (FC; MC) and MF-exposed (F-MF; M-MF) rats (P > 0.05). In the F-MF rats, 3-NT levels were significantly increased when compared to those of the FC rats (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the 3-NT levels of the MC and M-MF rats. In conclusion, our study suggests that the long-term ELF-MF exposure may enhance the oxidative/nitrosative stress in liver tissue of the female rats and could have a deteriorative effect on cellular proteins rather than lipids by enhancing 3-NT formation.
Journal of Radiation Research 03/2008; 49(2):181-7. · 1.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of long-term (45 days) magnetic field (50 Hz, 1 mT; MF) on femur biomechanical parameters of rats. Bone mineral density (BMD) and histological investigation were also evaluated. For this purpose, twenty-four 8-week-old, Wistar-Albino female and male rats were assigned randomly to female control (FC) and MF-exposed rats (F-MF); male control (MC) and MF-exposed rats (M-MF). BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Cross-sectional area of the femoral shaft was evaluated by computerized tomography. Biomechanical measurements were performed at the mid-diaphysis of the left femur with tensile test. Maximum load, displacement, stiffness, energy absorption capacity (structural properties); ultimate stress, ultimate strain, elastic modulus and toughness (material properties) were calculated. Diaphysial cortical bone thickness was measured by using histological method from the right femur. In respect to the cortical thickness of the rats' femurs, there was statistically significant interaction between the gender and group (P<0.05), while the BMD and cortical area were not (P>0.05). The BMD, cortical thickness and area values of the femurs of MF-exposed rats (F-MF, M-MF) were significantly decreased in comparison to that of the controls (FC, MC) (P<0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between the control and the MF-exposed rats in respect to the femur length (P>0.05). There were no statistically significant interaction between the gender and group with regard to the maximum load, displacement, stiffness, ultimate stress, ultimate strain, elastic modulus and toughness endpoints, while the energy absorption capacity was significant (P<0.05). Maximum load, displacement and stiffness values of MF-exposed rats were significantly decreased compared to that of the controls (P<0.05). Femurs of M-MF rats had less absorbed energy than that in controls (P<0.05). Ultimate stress and elastic modulus parameters were significantly decreased in MF-exposed rats in comparison to that of the controls (P<0.05). Ultimate strain was higher in MF-exposed rats than that in controls (P>0.05). The mean of toughness was decreased in MF-exposed rats compared to that of the controls (P>0.05). In conclusion, the bone quality of rats is decreased by magnetic field exposure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, the genotoxic and cytotoxic potential of extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) was investigated in Wistar rat tibial bone marrow cells, using the chromosomal aberration (CA) and micronucleus (MN) test systems. In addition to these test systems, we also investigated the mitotic index (MI), and the ratio of polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) to normochromatic erythrocytes (NCEs). Wistar rats were exposed to acute (1 day for 4h) and long-term (4h/day for 45 days) to a horizontal 50Hz, 1mT uniform magnetic field generated by a Helmholtz coil system. Mitomycin C (MMC, 2mg/kg BW) was used as positive control. Results obtained by chromosome analysis do not show any statistically significant differences between the negative control and both acute and long-term ELF-MF exposed samples. When comparing the group mean CA of long-term exposure with the negative control and acute exposure, the group mean of the long-term exposed group was higher, but this was not statistically significant. However, the mean micronucleus frequency of the longer-term exposed group was considerably higher than the negative control and acutely exposed groups. This difference was statistically significant (p<0.01). The results of the MI in bone marrow showed that the averages of both A-MF and L-MF groups significantly decreased when compared to those in the negative control (p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively). No significant differences were found between the group mean MI of A-MF exposure with L-MF. We found that the average of PCEs/NCEs ratios of A-MF exposed group was significantly lower than the negative control and L-MF exposed groups (p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively). In addition, the group mean of the PCEs/NCEs ratios of L-MF was significantly lower than negative control (p<0.01). We also found that the MMC treated group showed higher the number of CA and the frequency of MN formation when compared to those in all other each groups (p-values of all each groups <0.01) and also MMC treated group showed lower MI and the PCEs/NCEs ratios when compared to those in all other each groups (p-values of all groups <0.01). These observations indicate the in vivo suspectibility of mammals to the genotoxicity potential of ELF-MF.
Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 06/2007; 630(1-2):69-77. · 4.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the significance of the A218C polymorphism of the tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) gene in migraine.
Fifty-nine migraineurs and 62 healthy controls were included in the study, and polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism assays were used to determine TPH A218C polymorphism.
There was no association between TPH gene polymorphism and gender, family history of migraine and epilepsy, or aura. There was no significant difference between the allele frequencies of both groups (p>0.05). A significant difference was found between the genotypes of the migraineurs and controls regarding the AA genotype. Homozygosity for the C allele or heterozygosity for the A or C was not associated with the occurrence of migraine (p>0.05), but homozygosity for the A allele was less frequent in the migraineurs (p=0.02).
Since it is unlikely that TPH polymorphism alters serotonin biosynthesis, its association with migraine may be attributed to linkage disequilibrium with a functional variant within the TPH gene or a nearby gene.
Journal of Clinical Neuroscience 04/2007; 14(3):249-51. · 1.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Long-term exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) may be a risk factor for human cancer. One mechanism through which ELF-MFs could influence neoplastic development is the deletion/mutation of cancer-related genes. Cellular proliferation follows an orderly progression through the cell cycle, which is governed by different cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs). The putative tumor suppressor gene p18(INK4C) encodes a specific inhibitor of cyclin D-cyclin-dependent kinase 4 inhibitor complexes having an important role in cell-cyclin regulation. It has been found to be deleted/mutated in a variety of human cancers. Therefore, this study is to investigate whether or not long-term extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure may be a risk factor for human cancer due to the gene p18(INK4C) deletion/mutation.
The study was carried out on 31 male electric workers and 30 healthy males between 30 and 40 years of age from the same geographic area and with similar lifestyles. We studied both groups by polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP).
In comparison to the controls, band migration of exon 1 was found to be indifferent in all the subjects tested. However, only exon 2 of two electric workers was slow in migration with respect to both control and other subjects in the same class. This slow migration suggests that point mutations or polymorphisms may exist in this region of the p18(INK4C) gene. The relative risk (RR) for the unmatched analysis was 1,069 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.975-1.172).
The results suggest that long-term ELF-MFs exposure does not significantly increase the risk of cancer.
Archives of Medical Research 01/2005; 36(2):120-3. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fibromyalgia syndrome (FS) is associated with a neuroendocrinal disorder characterized by abnormal function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, including hyperactive adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) release and adrenal hyporesponsiveness. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzyme inactivates catecholamines and catecholamine-containing drugs. Polymorphism in the gene encodes for the COMT enzyme. For this study, the significance of COMT polymorphism was assessed in FS. There were three polymorphisms of the COMT gene: LL, LH, and HH. The analysis of COMT polymorphism was performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sixty-one patients with FS and 61 healthy volunteers were included in the study. Although no significant difference was found between LL and LH separately, the LL and LH genotypes together were more highly represented in patients than controls ( P=0.024). In addition, HH genotypes in patients were significantly lower than in the control groups ( P=0.04). There was no significant difference between COMT polymorphism and psychiatric status of the patients as assessed by several psychiatric tests ( P>0.05). In conclusion, COMT polymorphism is of potential pharmacological importance regarding individual differences in the metabolism of catechol drugs and may also be involved in the pathogenesis and treatment of FS through adrenergic mechanisms as well as genetic predisposition to FS.
Rheumatology International 05/2003; 23(3):104-7. · 1.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Disturbances in the serotonergic neurotransmission system have been implicated in the etiology of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). As the importance of genetic factors is well established, genes encoding for proteins of the serotonergic pathway are important candidates to unravel the underlying genetic contribution. We previously demonstrated that the polymorphisms of the serotonin transporter gene promoter and regions of variable number of tandem repeats were involved in the pathogenesis of ADHD. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between ADHD and two polymorphisms (T102C and 1438 G/A) in the 5-HT2A gene in a sample of Turkish children. Using the PCR technique, these polymorphisms were assessed in 70 patients with ADHD and in 100 healthy controls. There was no significant difference between the frequencies of the T, C, G and A alleles of both groups. No association was found between the studied polymorphisms of the 5-HT2A gene and ADHD in this sample consisting of Turkish children. Overall, our results suggest that the investigated 5-HT2A polymorphisms are not major susceptibility factors in the etiology of ADHD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serotonergic system abnormalities have been implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. The 5-HT2A receptor gene polymorphism has long been implicated to play a role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.
In this study, we assessed the relationship of schizophrenia and its subgroups with 5-HT2A receptor gene polymorphism, and attempted to evaluate a possible correlation between the severity and prognosis of the illness and 5-HT2A receptor gene polymorphism.
Our study comprised 141 unrelated subjects who strictly met DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia, and 79 healthy unrelated controls, all of Turkish origin. A clinical evaluation of all patients was accomplished applying the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) test. The analysis of 5-HT2A receptor gene polymorphism was performed using the polymerase chain reaction technique.
Regarding 5-HT2A receptor gene polymorphisms, no statistically significant difference was found between schizophrenic patients and control subjects (p > 0.05). There was no significant difference between the average of BPRS points of the patients and 5-HT2A receptor gene polymorphisms (p > 0.05). Although there was no correlation between the duration of illness and polymorphism (p > 0.05), the frequency of hospitalization was found to be higher in the patients with T/C and T/T genotypes compared with the patients with C/C genotype (p < 0.05).
Our findings indicate that the T102C polymorphisms of the 5-HT2A receptor gene does not play a substantial role in schizophrenia nor help evaluate susceptibility to schizophrenia. Since the 5-HT2A receptor gene polymorphism is associated with the frequency of hospitalization of the patients, it may be an indicator of prognosis in schizophrenia or help differentiate the patients who are somewhat refractory to antipsychotic treatment.