[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Most patients with advanced cancer are frequently malnourished and frequently they develop decreased oral fl uid in-take and dehidratation. Home parenteral nutrition (HPN) is an in-creasingly used therapy for patients with advanced cancer. A central venous access device is often an essential component allowing par-enteral nutrition and hidratation. However central venous catheter (CVC) insertion represents a risk for pneumothorax or other me-chanical complications. This study aimed to determine the reduc-tion of risks related to central venous catheter positionement in the setting of cancer patients with palliative programm. Methods: Consecutive patients with a variety of cancer in advanced phase requiring palliative care who were undergoing placement of central venous catheter for parenteral nutrition or hydratation have been prospectively studied in a program of ultrasound-guid-ed CVC placement. Four types of possible complications were defi ned:mechanical, thrombotic, infection and malfunctioning. Af-ter sterilization, local anesthesia is applied and a 7.5 MHZ punctur-ing US probe is placed in the supraclavicular site and a 16-gauge needle is advanced under real-time US guidance, into the last por-tion of internal jugular vein by experienced physicians. The Seld-inger tecnique is used to place the catheter that is advanced into the superior vena cava until insertion to right atrium. Two hours after each procedure a chest X-ray and US scanning are carried out to confi rm CVC position and rule out a pneumotorax. Results: From 30 October 2000 to 31 October 2008: 209 CVC in-sertional procedure were applied in 207 patients with cancer in the palliative phase only. There were 101 women and 106 men with a mean age of 67.68 year (range 22-86). A single needle puncture of the vein was performed on 206 of 209 procedures (98.6%), the technique was effi cacious at the fi rst attempt in 98.6% of cases, in 2 patients (0.96%) the CVC was positioned at the second attempt. The procedure failed only one case (0.44%). No cases of pneu-mothorax, of major bleeding or nerve punctured were reported. Symptomatic vein thrombosis developed in one patient (0.44%). Infection episodes were reported in two cases. Mean time for CVC permanence was 92.5±9.1 days (range 8-158). Conclusions: This study indicates that US-guided CVC inserction is a safe, cheap procedure for cancer patients in advanced phase and with palliative program, allowing parenteral nutrition and hydratation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A central venous catheter (CVC) currently represents the most frequently adopted intravenous line for patients undergoing infusional chemotherapy and/or high-dose chemotherapy with hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation and parenteral nutrition. CVC insertion represents a risk for pneumothorax, nerve or arterial punctures. The aim of this prospective observational study was to explore the safety and efficacy of CVC insertion under ultrasound (US) guidance and to confirm its utility in clinical practice in cancer patients.
Consecutive adult patients attending the oncology-hematology department were eligible if they had solid or hematologic malignancies and required CVC insertion. Four types of possible complication were defined a priore: mechanical, thrombotic, infection and malfunctioning. The patient was placed in Trendelenburg's position, a 7.5 MHZ puncturing US probe was placed in the supraclavicular site and a 16-gauge needle was advanced under real-time US guidance into the last portion of internal jugular vein. The Seldinger technique was used to place the catheter, which was advanced into the superior vena cava until insertion into right atrium. Within two hours after each procedure, an upright chest X-ray and ultrasound scanning were carried out to confirm the CVC position and to rule out a pneumotorax. CVC-related infections, symptomatic vein thrombosis and malfunctioning were recorded.
From December 2000 to January 2009, 1,978 CVC insertional procedures were applied to 1,660 consecutive patients. The procedure was performed 580 times in patients with hematologic malignancies and 1,398 times those with solid tumors. A single-needle puncture of the vein was performed on 1,948 of 1,978 procedures (98.48%); only eighteen attempts among 1,978 failed (0.9%). No pneumotorax, no major bleeding, and no nerve puncture were reported; four cases (0.2%) showed self-limiting hematomas. The mean lifespan of CVC was 189.7 +/- 18.6 days (range 7-701). Symptomatic deep-vein thrombosis of the upper limbs developed in 48 patients (2.42%). Catheter-related infections occurred in 197 (9.96%) of the catheters inserted. They were successfully treated with antibiotics and only in 48 (2.9%) patients definitive CVC removal was required for infection and/or thrombosis or malfunctioning.
This study represents the largest published series of consecutive patients with cancer undergoing CVC insertion under US guidance; this procedure allowed the completion of the therapeutic program for 1,930/1,978 (97.6%) of the catheters inserted. The absence of pneumotorax and other major complications indicates that US guidance should be mandatory for CVC insertion in patients with cancer.
World Journal of Surgical Oncology 10/2010; 8:91. · 1.09 Impact Factor