Monica Smith

Palmer Chiropractic University, San Jose, California, United States

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Publications (12)12.32 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We gathered information about health behaviors on a chiropractic campus, including compliance with recent guidelines for exercise as well as diet, smoking, and binge drinking. We also assessed the perceived importance of the chiropractic physician in role modeling and teaching healthy behaviors to patients. A survey instrument composed of 16 questions was designed and distributed to 279 students, faculty, and staff at a chiropractic college campus in northern California. Confidentiality was maintained throughout the process, and a response rate of 92% was obtained. Statistical analysis was performed on the data collected. The levels of obesity, inactivity, and smoking on this college campus are lower than the levels reported for the metropolitan area, the state, and the nation. The level of binge drinking among our students was high but similar to the reported rates for college students generally. We found interesting and significant relationships between the behaviors of physical activity and diet (red meat consumption), obesity, and self-reported perceived health in our surveyed chiropractic college population. Without exception, all surveyed members of our campus community view doctors of chiropractic as having a responsibility to role model healthy behaviors and to educate their patients with regard to healthy behaviors; however, we also found that less importance was placed on role modeling and patient education by those who were obese or who consumed red meat in excess. This chiropractic college campus places a high level of importance on both educating patients and role modeling healthy behaviors. In the behavioral domain, the rates of smoking, obesity, and inactivity are lower than what is seen in the general population. However, there remains room for considerable improvement to bring actual health behaviors closer in line with evidence-informed behavioral health practices.
    Journal of manipulative and physiological therapeutics 01/2009; 32(6):477-84. · 1.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Immunization Information Resource Web site is provided as a public service by the Chiropractic Health Care Section of the American Public Health Association. The site compiles annotated bibliographies of citations from the scientific literature, as well as other authoritative peer-reviewed information sources on this topic. Our intent was to create a resource of information for health care professionals that is current, accurate, objective, evidence based, and as user-friendly as possible. This article describes the Internet-based Immunization Information Resource Web site developed and sponsored by the Chiropractic Health Care Section of the American Public Health Association and discusses current issues and future challenges for sustaining and further advancing such evidence-based initiatives for the chiropractic profession.
    Journal of manipulative and physiological therapeutics 01/2009; 32(6):500-4. · 1.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This article provides an overview of primary chiropractic issues as they relate to public health. This collaborative summary documents the chiropractic profession's current involvement in public health, reflects on past barriers that may have prevented full participation within the public health movement, and summarizes the relationship of current chiropractic and public health topics. Topics discussed include how the chiropractic profession participates in preventive health services, health promotion, immunization, geriatrics, health care in a military environment, and interdisciplinary care.
    Journal of manipulative and physiological therapeutics 01/2008; 31(6):397-410. · 1.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: With the increasing popularity of chiropractic care in the United States, inter-professional relationships between conventional trained physicians (MDs and DOs) and chiropractors (DCs) will have an expanding impact on patient care. The objectives of this study are to describe the intra-professional referral patterns amongst DCs, describe the inter-professional referral patterns between DCs and conventional trained medical primary care physicians (MDPCPs), and to identify provider characteristics that may affect these referral behaviors. A survey instrument to assess the attitudes and patterns of referral and consultation between MD primary care physicians (MDPCPs) and DCs was developed and sent to all DCs in the state of Iowa. Multivariable logistic regression models were built to assess the impact of provider characteristics on intra-professional and inter-professional referral patterns. Of all DCs contacted, 452 (40.7%) participated in the study. Close to 8% of DCs reported that they never send a case report when referring a patient to another DC, while 13% never send a case report to a MDPCP. About 10% of DCs never send follow-up clinical information to referring doctors. DCs that perform differential diagnosis were significantly more likely to have engaged in inter-professional referral than DCs who did not perform differential diagnosis. The tendency toward informality, in both referral practices and sharing of clinical documentation for referred patients between MDPCPs and DCs, is an explicit marker of concerns that need to be addressed in order to improve coordination and continuity of care for patients shared between these provider types.
    Chiropractic & Osteopathy 02/2006; 14:12.
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the increasing usage and popularity of chiropractic care, there has been limited research conducted to examine the professional relationships between conventional trained primary care physicians (PCPs) and chiropractors (DCs). The objectives of our study were to contrast the intra-professional referral patterns among PCPs with referral patterns to DCs, and to identify predictors of PCP referral to DCs. We mailed a survey instrument to all practicing PCPs in the state of Iowa. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize their responses. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify demographic factors associated with inter-professional referral behaviors. A total of 517 PCPs (33%) participated in the study. PCPs enjoyed strong intra-professional referral relationships with other PCPs. Although patients exhibited a great deal of interest in chiropractic care, PCPs were unlikely themselves to make formal referral relationships with DCs. PCPs in a private practice arrangement were more likely to exhibit positive referral attitudes towards DCs (p = 0.01). PCPs enjoy very good professional relationships with other PCPs. However, the lack of direct formalized referral relationships between PCPs and chiropractors has implications for efficiency, continuity, quality, and patient safety in the health care delivery system. Future research must focus on identifying facilitators and barriers for developing positive relationships between PCPs and chiropractors.
    BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 02/2006; 6:5. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report on a multidisciplinary focus group project related to the appropriate care of chiropractic patients who present with chest pain. The prevalence and clinical management, both diagnosis and treatment, of musculoskeletal chest pain in ambulatory medical settings, was explored as the second dimension of the focus group project reported here. This project collected observational data from a multidisciplinary focus group composed of both chiropractic and medical professionals. The goals of the focus group were to explore the attitudes and experiences of medical and chiropractic clinicians regarding their patients with chest pain who receive care from both medical and chiropractic providers, to identify important clinical or research questions that may inform the development of 'best practices' for coordinating or managing care of chest pain patients between medical and chiropractic providers, to identify important clinical or research questions regarding the diagnosis and treatment of chest pain of musculoskeletal origin, to explore various methods that might be used to answer those questions, and to discuss the feasibility of conducting or coordinating a multidisciplinary research effort along this line of inquiry. The convenience-sample of five focus group participants included two chiropractors, two medical cardiologists, and one dual-degreed chiropractor/medical physician. The focus group was audiotaped and transcripts were prepared of the focus group interaction. Content analysis of the focus group transcripts were performed to identify key themes and concepts, using categories of narratives. Six key themes emerged from the analysis of the focus group interaction, including issues surrounding (1) Diagnosis; (2) Treatment and prognosis; (3) Chest pain as a chronic, multifactorial, or comorbid condition; (4) Inter-professional coordination of care; (5) Best practices and standardization of care; and (6) Training and education. This study carries implications for chiropractic clinical training relative to enhancing diagnostic competencies in chest pain, as well as the need to ascertain and improve those skills, competencies, and standards for referrals and sharing of clinical information that may improve cross-disciplinary coordination of care for chest pain patients.
    Chiropractic & Osteopathy 10/2005; 13:18.
  • Journal of Interprofessional Care 09/2004; 18(3):320-1. · 1.48 Impact Factor
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    Monica Smith, Lynne Carber
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    ABSTRACT: We compared chiropractic practice volume in areas of high versus areas of low or no shortages of primary care providers. Using data from a cross-sectional survey of US chiropractors and data from the Bureau of Health Professions' Area Resource File, we conducted multiple linear and logistic regression modeling of the effects of rural or Health Professional Shortage Area location on chiropractic practice volume and wait times. Chiropractors in rural and high-shortage areas have busier, higher-volume practices than do those in other locales (after control for other chiropractors in the same market service area). Chiropractic providers render a substantial amount of care to underserved and rural populations. Health policy planners should consider the full complement of providers available to improve access to care.
    American Journal of Public Health 01/2003; 92(12):2001-9. · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High and increasing consumer demand for complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) services necessitates a concerted focus to determine the effectiveness of such practices and to ensure that future possible integration of CAM with conventional medicine is founded on sound evidence-based principles of quality health care delivery. The example of chiropractic provides useful insights to guide further research and integration of evidence-based CAM into mainstream health care in the United States. A critical point of departure for this area of inquiry is identifying and addressing barriers to conducting scientifically sound and meaningful cross-disciplinary, practice-based research.
    The Journal of ambulatory care management 05/2002; 25(2):1-16.
  • Monica Smith, Lynne Carber
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    ABSTRACT: Federally funded national surveys are routinely conducted to provide reliable, valid, and relevant data on health and health care, and these "public-use" survey data are typically made available for further study by the wider scientific community. The full potential for using such data to examine the delivery, utilization, organization, and costs of chiropractic or complementary/alternative (CAM) health care remains largely untapped. To report on a project that identifies and indexes public-use survey databases that contain explicit reference to chiropractic and CAM health care, and compiles that information into a web-based resource for the scientific community. Review of database source collections. The utility and efficiency of secondary analyses as a cost-effective research strategy are well appreciated within the larger health-services research community, creating many possible opportunities for productive cooperative research endeavors across scientific disciplines. The Chiropractic and Complementary/Alternative Compilation User's Manual is available for free download at http://w3.palmer.edu/carber/manualhome.asp, or by following the links at the Palmer Center for Chiropractic Research homepage.
    Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 01/2002; 25(9):573-8. · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Findings from recent studies suggest that there are poor interprofessional referral relationships between primary care physicians (MDs) and chiropractors (DCs) and this can lead to fragmentation of care. The objective of this study is to identify potential facilitators and barriers to developing positive interprofessional referrals relationships between MDs and DCs. We conducted 2 rounds of focus group interviews on a convenience sample of MDs and DCs. The focus groups were audiotaped, and transcripts were prepared for each focus group interaction. These data were analyzed through content analysis by 2 independent evaluators to determine the key themes and concepts provided by the focus groups. Both MDs and DCs suggested that good communication, openness to discussion by providers, and patient interest are key factors for developing positive interprofessional referral relationships and implementing interprofessional practice-based research networks. Barriers to interprofessional relationships include lack of good communication between the 2 provider types, bias toward alternative medicine, lack of knowledge or understanding of chiropractic care, geographic constraints, and economic considerations. This study identified several facilitators and barriers for developing positive referral relationships between primary care physicians and chiropractors. Future studies must focus on demonstrating the role of these factors on developing positive interprofessional relationships.
    The Journal of ambulatory care management 30(4):347-54.
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of our study is to document how often MD/DOs and doctors of chiropractic (DCs) receive patient information from referring MD/DOs and DCs and highlight to what extent there is a lack of formal intraprofessional and interprofessional referral relationships between MD/DOs and DCs. A total of 517 MD/DOs and 452 DCs participated in this study. The study results suggest that patient information is not regularly provided by either MD/DOs or DCs, even when making formal referrals to a provider of the same type. This was more pronounced when MDs made formal referrals to DCs.
    The Journal of ambulatory care management 30(4):344-6.