[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of the present study was to observe and compare properties of nine maize hybrids biomass in order to determine their suitability for animal feed production. Yields, structure of the dry matter of the investigated maize hybrids, as well as the yield of the digestible dry matter were determined in maize hybrids harvested in the full waxy maturity stage. The content of lignocellulosic fibres, their respective ratios and the in vitro dry matter digestibility of the whole maize plant as well as the neutral detergent fibre digestibility (NDFD) were established. The results indicated significant differences in dry matter in vitro digestibility of the whole plant among different hybrids in the most optimal harvest stage. The whole plant dry matter digestibility of the investigated maize hybrids ranged from 59.67 to 65.53%. Very significant positive correlation was determined between NDFD and in vitro dry matter digestibility of the whole maize plant (r=0.66). Biomass of the selected maize hybrids was rated as feed of high quality and can, therefore, be used for animal feed production in different ratios depending on animal species, category and dietary needs. Keywords: maize hybrids, biomass, pepsin-cellulase in vitro dry matter digestibility, animal feed INTRODUCTION
XVI International Symposium: Feed Technology, Novi Sad, Serbia; 10/2014
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 2013): Variability of factors that affect availability of iron, manganese and zinc in maize lines. Genetika, Vol 45, No. 3, 907-920 Deficiencies of some mineral elements are causing serious health problems, which could be prevented by increase of mineral nutrients in food with supplementation, food fortification or plant breeding. From this point, experiment with 78 maize inbred lines was set up to determine maize lines with improved contents of Fe, Zn and Mn, as well as their relations with phytic acid, inorganic phosphorus and β-carotene, as factors which affect their absorption. Obtained results suggest that investigated maize lines show high variability in concentration of Fe, Mn and Zn, as well as phytic acid (which sustain availability of mineral elements) and β-carotene (which enables better absorption of mineral element and minimize negative effect of phytic acid). From this point of view, group of genotypes with phytic P ≤ 3 g kg -1 was interesting. Among them, L2 and L23 are maize lines with relatively high inorganic P, Fe and Zn contents, and together with relatively low ratio between phytic and inorganic P, they could be used as a good source of P, Fe and Zn. On the other hand, L1 and L4 are also maize lines with high inorganic P, β-carotene and Mn, and favourable ratio between phytic acid and Fe and Zn, what could give them advance as source of Mn in breeding programs. The same maize lines could also be candidates with improved ability for Fe and Zn absorption, what is based on high β-carotene content. Maize line L14, with relatively high concentration of all three Key words: maize lines, microelements, phytic acid, β-carotene INTRODUCTION For normal functioning, human body needs more than 22 mineral elements, which can be provided by an appropriate diet. Some diets, based on cereals and legumes, as well as foods produced on soils deficient in some minerals, could cause serious health problems. These
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 2012): An assessment of nutritional quality of hybryd maize grain based on chemical composition. -Genetika, Vol. 44, No. 3, 571-582. The aim of this study was to investigate chemical composition of grain of 20 maize hybrids, from different maturity groups, to define their nutritional quality from the point of main grain constituents: starch, total proteins, soluble proteins, oil, phytate, inorganic phosphorus, and soluble phenolics, as well as mass of 1.000 grains. A set of 20 ZP hybrids, FAO 400-800, were grown in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) at Zemun Polje (Serbia), during the summer of 2009. Average content of proteins, oil and starch of analyzed maize hybrids was 10.5%, 4.7% and
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sixteen hybrids of different genetic background were tested under field conditions at Zemun
Polje in the vicinity of Belgrade, Serbia. The aim of the study was to observe genetic variability
of yields and yield components of the stated hybrids under our agroecological conditions.
Hybrids belong to different FAO maturity groups and have different kernel type. The obtained
yield significantly varied over hybrids at the probability level of P=0.05. Yield components (ear
length, kernel row number, number of kernels per row and ear diameter) also differed at the
probability level of P=0.05. The strongest positive correlation (0.755) was recoded between the
ear length and the kernel row number, while the weakest positive correlation (0.183) was
detected between the yield and the kernel row number.
46th Croatian and 6th International Symposium on Agriculture, Opatija, Croatia; 02/2011
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The level of weed infestation directly affects the intensity of competitive relationship between sunflower crops and weeds. The greatest damage is caused by annual, broad-leaf and invasive weeds, such as Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., Xanthium strumarium L. and Datura stramonium L. Suppression of these weeds is difficult because of deficiency of adequate herbicides and because in years with dry springs, such as in 2009, the use of herbicides gives no results. This two-year study dealt with the observed effects of pre-emergence flurochloridone + s-metolachlor herbicides on the distribution of weeds in different stages of sunflower development. Weed infestation was estimated over the sunflower developmental stages, i.e., in the periods when weeds were removed and when the total fresh and dry biomass of the weed species was determined. Simultaneously, in order to monitor the effects of weeds in dependence on herbicides application and the duration of competition, the sunflower plant height was measured. At the end of the life cycle, the yield and the oil content of the sunflower seeds were established. The total fresh weed biomass changed in dependence on the sunflower developmental stages and was always lower on the herbicide-treated area. This affected the sunflower plant height, yield and the oil content, which were higher, on the average, in the variants with herbicide applications (70.4 cm, 2959.7 kg ha-1 and 42.0%) than in the variants without herbicides application (57.4 cm, 2711.1 kg ha-1 and 40.1%). Weed suppression in the sunflower crop has to be done with adequate herbicides and in due time in order to suppress a significant reduction in morphological and yield parameters.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The breeding programme on speciality maize with specific traits was established at the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje, several decades ago. The initial material was collected, new methods applying to breeding of speciality maize, i.e. popping maize, sweet maize and white-seeded maize, were introduced. The aim was to enhance and improve variability of the initial material for breeding these three types of maize. Then, inbred lines of good combining abilities were developed and used as components for deriving new superior popping maize hybrids, sweet maize hybrids and white-seeded maize hybrids. Breeding was aimed at the increase of the popping volume of new inbred lines and hybrids of popping maize, then at the improvement of quality of popped kernels - flakes, and at yield increasing. Furthermore, the aim was to improve quality of sweet maize for different purposes, industrial processing and consumption as fresh food and also to improve yield and quality of white-seeded maize. As a result of such breeding, 28, 11 and 9 sweet maize, popping maize and white-seeded maize hybrids were released, respectively.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The organisation of germplasm into genetically divergent groups is of extreme importance for the development of hybrid varieties in which the identification and exploitation of heterosis is very important for the final result of breeding. It can also be beneficial for breeding of self-pollination varieties, clones and synthetics. The discovery of heterotic groups in standard grain quality maize significantly improved the process of testing. The improvement in sweet maize was relatively modest in comparison to standard grain quality maize due to a relatively narrow genetic base of sweet maize, then poorly defined heterotic relations, scarce sources of germplasm that satisfy commercial standards, poor seed vigour, low quality of root and stalk, as well as, a short period of time for the estimation of yield and quality. The efficiency of hybrid breeding programmes would be significantly higher if heterosis could be predicted prior to the evaluation in the field. The application of the multivariate analysis method to data of phenotypic characterization according to the UPOV Descriptor was an attempt to establish whether such a procedure can be beneficial for the determination of related groups and whether the phenotypic distance, obtained on the basis of a visual estimation of a plant group, can be an indicator of heterosis. Obtained results indicate that clustering is highly analogous to the pedigree. Since sweet maize breeders have at their disposal less significant genetic variability and search for the development and defining of heterotic groups, as such a procedure can be useful in both, the process of the hybrids development and the process of new inbreed development and genetic variability increasing. Certainly, further systematic studies aimed at this direction are necessary to reliably ascertain that the phenotypic distance is a justifiable indicator of heterosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Maize is one of the most important crops, and as such, one of the most significant naturally renewable carbohydrate raw materials of energy and numerous very different products. The dominance and superiority of maize are primarily caused by the extremely wide, very diversified and enormous possibilities of its utilisation. Previous accomplishments are presented and prospective developments of the maize chemistry and technology, i.e. maize utilisation in our country and worldwide were discussed in the present study. The objective of this study was to advert to this section of science that is full of real and great challenges. Changes in the maize production and utilisation are described. Some very important questions were asked, such as: what is it that makes maize such a valuable, naturally renewable raw material, how and why do we sow maize and harvest energy and products?.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The combined effect of cytoplasmic male sterility and xenia on maize hybrid traits is referred to as the plus-hybrid effect. Two studied ZP hybrids differently responded to this effect for grain yield. All plus-hybrid combinations of the firstly observed hybrid had a higher yield than their fertile counterparts, but not significantly, while only one combination of the second hybrid positively responded, also without statistical significance. It seems that the observed effect mostly depended on the genotype of the female component.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study conforms the hypothesis that there are elite maize inbred lines with erect top leaves that have a property of an efficient photosynthetic model and that as such are successfully used in the processes of breeding in which the number of plants is increased per area unit (plant density). This proof was established by the application of non- invasive photosynthetic-fluorescence method suitable for the evaluation of the efficiency of the photosynthetic model. The obtained photosynthetic and fluorescence properties of observed prestigious maize inbred lines with the erect top leaves are based on the effects and the nature of changes in chlorophyll fluorescence occurring in their thylakoid membranes. Their principal parameters are temperature dependence of the chlorophyll delayed fluorescence intensity, the Arrhenius plot for the determination of the phase transition in thylakoid membranes and the estimated activation energies. The displayed results on the size of an angle between the direction of the propagation of the above-ear leaf and the direction of the stalk propagation, as well as, results on the dynamics of grain dry-down during the maturation period, additionally indicate that traits of observed maize inbred lines with erect top leaves are the prominent base for more exact, rational and faster proceeding of current processes of breeding.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Data are given on the dynamics of water loss from grain of elite maize lines during ripening and on their photosynthetic-fluorescence
properties based on the effects and nature of structural and functional changes in thylakoid membranes and chemical structures
of grain tissues.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since the mid 1960's, when the Maize Re- search Institute "Zemun Polje" began its maize breeding activities, there have been five cycles of selection primari- ly referring to the period of introducing new, higher-yield hybrids into mass production. This paper provides genetic characterization of 30 maize hybrids developed by the Maize Research Institute "Zemun Polje", by RAPD mark- ers, in order to determine genetic relatedness of hybrids of different breeding cycles. The Jaccard similarity coeffi- cients have been computed and used for cluster analysis by UPGMA and by Wards' method, discriminant analysis and correspondence analysis. Cluster analysis clearly de- lineates groups of hybrids by time cycles, while the corre- spondence analysis indicates that a division into three cy- cles could be more adequate. The territorial map of the discrimination area, reduced to two dimensions, is an in- dication of the proximity between the cycles III and IV. Also the proximity of group centroids, of different cycles, by delineation lines indicates that the discrimination among groups is not so strong. The results of all three analysis indicate that in genetic terms there are three dif- ferent selection cycles. Introduction of novel germ plasma into existing breeding material implies, in genetic terms, a beginning of new selection cycle.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study conforms our hypothesis that there are elite maize inbred lines, which can be considered actual and prestigious as they have not only a property of the water status and a greater grain dry down rate during the maturation period, but also a property of the efficient photosynthetic-fluorescence model that is successfully used in the contemporary processes of breeding, and thereby in the development of new and yielding maize hybrids. Presented results obtained on the dynamics of grain dry down during the maturation period and on photosynthetic-fluorescence parameters (temperature dependence of the chlorophyll delayed fluorescence intensity, the Arrhenius plot for the determination of critical temperatures, i.e. phase transition temperatures and the activation energy) show that properties of the observed inbreeds are based on effects and nature of conformational and functional changes occurring in their thylakoid membranes and other chemical structures of grain tissues. Summarized results of studies on actual and prestigious properties of maize inbreeds will contribute to more exact, rational and expeditious proceedings of contemporary processes of breeding.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Popping volume and yield are traits caused by several heredity factors. It is difficult to obtain superior genotypes for both traits but it is possible to develop genotypes with good popping volume and satisfactory yield. The hybrid ZPPL2 x ZPPL5 was superior in yield, heterosis and SCA for both yield and popping volume. As inbred ZPPL4 in all combinations has a good value for popping volume could be concluded that this inbred may be used as parent in further crosses. Analysis of variance of the combining ability indicating significant SCA effect for grain yield, and significant both GCA and SCA effects for popping volume. Therefore it can be stated that yield is influenced by non-additive and popping volume by both additive and non- additive gene effects. Analysis of variance of genetic components for popping volume indicates that the additive as well as dominant components significantly affected the inheritance of this trait in popcorn. The objective of this study was to evaluate heteorsis and combing ability for grain yield and popping volume in dialalel set of six maize inbred lines.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clear description of maze is useful in planning crosses for hybrids, in classifying inbreds to heterotic groups, and in the plant variety protection. The objection to visual assessment of morphological traits is its subjectivity. But it can be very useful for plant breeders especially when they work with a material of unknown genetic origin. The phenotypic characterization (30 traits) of 45 inbred lines according to the UPOV Descriptor, with a known pedigree, is used with the main goal to investigate a possibility of exploiting such a kind of information for the classification of inbred lines in homogenous groups according to their relatedness. Ward's method of cluster analysis had the best concordance with pedigree data. This method divided 45 inbreds into two large clusters, each of them containing two subclusters. Quality of the cluster analysis with four groups was tested by the discrimination analysis. All of the tree discrimination functions were significant and enclosed 64%, 20% and 16% of variance, respectively. In plant breeding such information can be useful for a more precise description of existing heterotic groups, as well as, for grouping lines of unknown genetic origin. On the basis of obtained grouping, the decision on their crossing can be made. Hence they either should be crossed to related (F2 populations for a new selection) or unrelated materials (testing of combining abilities).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Information about the genetic diversity of inbred lines is essential in planning maize breeding programmes. Utilization of diverse parents in the process of hybridization has the greatest influence on producing high yielding hybrids. The aim of this research was to determine genetic diversity of ten maize inbred lines of different origin on the basis of protein and RAPD markers and to compare these results with pedigree and grain yield heterosis data. Results of genetic distances, based on protein and RAPD markers were similar and in concurrence with the date on the origin of inbreds. Usefulness of protein and RAPD markers for assigning inbreds to heterotic groups was examined by the cluster analysis. Cluster analysis based on protein markers, RAPD and heterosis showed clear grouping of lines into two main heterotic groups. Only few deviations were noticed, and those among inbreds not belonging to those heterotic groups. According to the observed results it could be concluded that grouping of inbred lines based on molecular markers, generally agrees with their pedigrees and that clusters are representatives of heterotic groups. Very high and highly significant estimate of rank correlation coefficient between RAPD and heterosis (0,876**) also confirmed that.