[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ca(V)1 channels initiate excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal and cardiac muscle. During the fight-or-flight response, epinephrine released by the adrenal medulla and norepinephrine released from sympathetic nerves increase muscle contractility by activation of the β-adrenergic receptor/cAMP-dependent protein kinase pathway and up-regulation of Ca(V)1 channels in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Although the physiological mechanism of this pathway is well defined, the molecular mechanism and the sites of protein phosphorylation required for Ca(V)1 channel regulation are unknown. To identify the regulatory sites of phosphorylation under physiologically relevant conditions, Ca(V)1.1 channels were purified from skeletal muscle and sites of phosphorylation on the α1 subunit were identified by mass spectrometry. Two phosphorylation sites were identified in the proximal C-terminal domain, serine 1575 (S1575) and threonine 1579 (T1579), which are conserved in cardiac Ca(V)1.2 channels (S1700 and T1704, respectively). In vitro phosphorylation revealed that Ca(V)1.1-S1575 is a substrate for both cAMP-dependent protein kinase and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, whereas Ca(V)1.1-T1579 is a substrate for casein kinase 2. Treatment of rabbits with isoproterenol to activate β-adrenergic receptors increased phosphorylation of S1575 in skeletal muscle Ca(V)1.1 channels in vivo, and treatment with propranolol to inhibit β-adrenergic receptors reduced phosphorylation. As S1575 and T1579 in Ca(V)1.1 channels and their homologs in Ca(V)1.2 channels are located at a key regulatory interface between the distal and proximal C-terminal domains, it is likely that phosphorylation of these sites in skeletal and cardiac muscle is directly involved in calcium channel regulation in response to the sympathetic nervous system in the fight-or-flight response.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10/2010; 107(43):18712-7. · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During the fight-or-flight response, the sympathetic nervous system stimulates L-type calcium ion (Ca2+) currents conducted by Ca(V)1 channels through activation of β-adrenergic receptors, adenylyl cyclase, and phosphorylation by adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase [also known as protein kinase A (PKA)], increasing contractility of skeletal and cardiac muscles. We reconstituted this regulation of cardiac Ca(V)1.2 channels in non-muscle cells by forming an autoinhibitory signaling complex composed of Ca(V)1.2Δ1800 (a form of the channel truncated at the in vivo site of proteolytic processing), its noncovalently associated distal carboxyl-terminal domain, the auxiliary α₂δ₁ and β(2b) subunits, and A-kinase anchoring protein 15 (AKAP15). A factor of 3.6 range of Ca(V)1.2 channel activity was observed from a minimum in the presence of protein kinase inhibitors to a maximum upon activation of adenylyl cyclase. Basal Ca(V)1.2 channel activity in unstimulated cells was regulated by phosphorylation of serine-1700 and threonine-1704, two residues located at the interface between the distal and the proximal carboxyl-terminal regulatory domains, whereas further stimulation of channel activity through the PKA signaling pathway only required phosphorylation of serine-1700. Our results define a conceptual framework for Ca(V)1.2 channel regulation and identify sites of phosphorylation that regulate channel activity.