Michelle A Emrick

University of Washington Seattle, Seattle, Washington, United States

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Publications (3)20.61 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Regulation of L-type calcium current is critical for the development, function, and regulation of many cell types. CaV1.2 channels that conduct L-type calcium currents are regulated by many protein kinases, but the sites of action of these kinases remain unknown in most cases. We combined mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and whole-cell patch clamp techniques in order to identify sites of phosphorylation of CaVβ subunits in vivo and test the impact of mutations of those sites on CaV1.2 channel function in vitro. Using the CaV1.1 channel purified from rabbit skeletal muscle as a substrate for phosphoproteomic analysis, we found that Ser(193) and Thr(205) in the HOOK domain of CaVβ1a subunits were both phosphorylated in vivo. Ser(193) is located in a potential consensus sequence for casein kinase II, but it was not phosphorylated in vitro by that kinase. In contrast, Thr(205) is located in a consensus sequence for cAMP-dependent phosphorylation, and it was robustly phosphorylated in vitro by PKA. These two sites are conserved in multiple CaVβ subunit isoforms, including the principal CaVβ subunit of cardiac CaV1.2 channels, CaVβ2b. In order to assess potential modulatory effects of phosphorylation at these sites separately from effects of phosphorylation of the α11.2 subunit, we inserted phosphomimetic or phosphoinhibitory mutations in CaVβ2b and analyzed their effects on CaV1.2 channel function in transfected nonmuscle cells. The phosphomimetic mutation CaVβ2b(S152E) decreased peak channel currents and shifted the voltage dependence of both activation and inactivation to more positive membrane potentials. The phosphoinhibitory mutation CaVβ2b(S152A) had opposite effects. There were no differences in peak CaV1.2 currents or voltage dependence between the phosphomimetic mutation CaVβ2b(T164D) and the phosphoinhibitory mutation CaVβ2b(T164A). However, calcium-dependent inactivation was significantly increased for the phosphomimetic mutation CaVβ2b(T164D). This effect was subunit-specific, as the corresponding mutation in the palmitoylated isoform, CaVβ2a, had no effect. Overall, our data identify two sites of conserved phosphorylation of the HOOK domain of CaVβ subunits in vivo and reveal differential modulatory effects of phosphomimetic mutations in these sites. These results reveal a new dimension of regulation of CaV1.2 channels through phosphorylation of the HOOK domains of their β subunits. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.yjmcc.2015.08.006 · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ca(V)1 channels initiate excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal and cardiac muscle. During the fight-or-flight response, epinephrine released by the adrenal medulla and norepinephrine released from sympathetic nerves increase muscle contractility by activation of the β-adrenergic receptor/cAMP-dependent protein kinase pathway and up-regulation of Ca(V)1 channels in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Although the physiological mechanism of this pathway is well defined, the molecular mechanism and the sites of protein phosphorylation required for Ca(V)1 channel regulation are unknown. To identify the regulatory sites of phosphorylation under physiologically relevant conditions, Ca(V)1.1 channels were purified from skeletal muscle and sites of phosphorylation on the α1 subunit were identified by mass spectrometry. Two phosphorylation sites were identified in the proximal C-terminal domain, serine 1575 (S1575) and threonine 1579 (T1579), which are conserved in cardiac Ca(V)1.2 channels (S1700 and T1704, respectively). In vitro phosphorylation revealed that Ca(V)1.1-S1575 is a substrate for both cAMP-dependent protein kinase and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, whereas Ca(V)1.1-T1579 is a substrate for casein kinase 2. Treatment of rabbits with isoproterenol to activate β-adrenergic receptors increased phosphorylation of S1575 in skeletal muscle Ca(V)1.1 channels in vivo, and treatment with propranolol to inhibit β-adrenergic receptors reduced phosphorylation. As S1575 and T1579 in Ca(V)1.1 channels and their homologs in Ca(V)1.2 channels are located at a key regulatory interface between the distal and proximal C-terminal domains, it is likely that phosphorylation of these sites in skeletal and cardiac muscle is directly involved in calcium channel regulation in response to the sympathetic nervous system in the fight-or-flight response.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10/2010; 107(43):18712-7. DOI:10.1073/pnas.1012384107 · 9.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During the fight-or-flight response, the sympathetic nervous system stimulates L-type calcium ion (Ca2+) currents conducted by Ca(V)1 channels through activation of β-adrenergic receptors, adenylyl cyclase, and phosphorylation by adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase [also known as protein kinase A (PKA)], increasing contractility of skeletal and cardiac muscles. We reconstituted this regulation of cardiac Ca(V)1.2 channels in non-muscle cells by forming an autoinhibitory signaling complex composed of Ca(V)1.2Δ1800 (a form of the channel truncated at the in vivo site of proteolytic processing), its noncovalently associated distal carboxyl-terminal domain, the auxiliary α₂δ₁ and β(2b) subunits, and A-kinase anchoring protein 15 (AKAP15). A factor of 3.6 range of Ca(V)1.2 channel activity was observed from a minimum in the presence of protein kinase inhibitors to a maximum upon activation of adenylyl cyclase. Basal Ca(V)1.2 channel activity in unstimulated cells was regulated by phosphorylation of serine-1700 and threonine-1704, two residues located at the interface between the distal and the proximal carboxyl-terminal regulatory domains, whereas further stimulation of channel activity through the PKA signaling pathway only required phosphorylation of serine-1700. Our results define a conceptual framework for Ca(V)1.2 channel regulation and identify sites of phosphorylation that regulate channel activity.
    Science Signaling 09/2010; 3(141):ra70. DOI:10.1126/scisignal.2001152 · 6.28 Impact Factor