Michael W. Morris

CUNY Graduate Center, New York City, New York, United States

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Publications (79)145.52 Total impact

  • Michael W Morris, Chi-Yue Chiu, Zhi Liu
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    ABSTRACT: We review limitations of the traditional paradigm for cultural research and propose an alternative framework, polyculturalism. Polyculturalism assumes that individuals' relationships to cultures are not categorical but rather are partial and plural; it also assumes that cultural traditions are not independent, sui generis lineages but rather are interacting systems. Individuals take influences from multiple cultures and thereby become conduits through which cultures can affect each other. Past literatures on the influence of multiple cultural identities and cultural knowledge legacies can be better understood within a polyculturalist rubric. Likewise, the concept elucidates how cultures are changed by contact with other cultures, enabling richer psychological theories of intercultural influence. Different scientific paradigms about culture imply different ideologies and policies; polyculturalism's implied policy of interculturalism provides a valuable complement to the traditional policy frames of multiculturalism and colorblindness. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Psychology Volume 66 is November 30, 2014. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
    Annual review of psychology. 09/2014;
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    Shira Mor, Pranjal Mehta, Ilona Fridman, Michael W Morris
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    ABSTRACT: The present research aims to explain within-gender differences in negotiation performance by introducing an individual difference approach to the gender and negotiations literature. We propose that women who perceive their gender and professional roles as compatible—high on gender/professional identity integration—display a behavioral repertoire that facilitates competitive negotiation performance. Identity integration was positively associated with economic performance and the absence of social backlash among women (but not men) (Study 1A), and reduced social backlash concerns (Study 1B). In Study 2, women high on identity integration negotiated higher salaries for themselves without incurring social backlash. These effects were mediated by behaviors associated with female (warmth) and professional identities (dominance). Our final studies experimentally manipulated identity integration and revealed that inducing high identity integration (Study 3A) activated goals to combine warmth with dominance, while inducing low identity integration (Study 3B) decreased women’s intentions to do so.
    International Association of Conflict Management, Lieden, The Netherlands; 07/2014
  • Zhi Liu, Michael W. Morris
    Asian Journal Of Social Psychology 06/2014; 17(2). · 0.83 Impact Factor
  • Michael W Morris, Shu Zhang
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/2013; 110(47):E4404. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    Shira Mor, Michael W. Morris, Johann Joh
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    ABSTRACT: For managers, intercultural effectiveness requires forging close working relationships with people from different cultural backgrounds (Black, Mendenhall, & Oddou, 1991). Recent research with executives has found that higher cultural metacognition is associated with affective closeness and creative collaboration in intercultural relationships (Chua, Morris, & Mor, & 2012). However, little is known about the social cognitive mechanisms that facilitate the performance of individuals who score high on cultural metacognition. We propose that one important question for cross-cultural research and training is identifying which metacognitive strategies enable successful intercultural collaborations. We suggest that one such strategy is “cultural perspective taking”—considering how another's cultural background shapes their behavior in a given context. We hypothesized that cultural perspective taking facilitates intercultural coordination and cooperation, and that a manipulation that boosts cultural perspective taking would be especially beneficial for individuals who score low in dispositional cultural metacognition. We found support for the above hypotheses in five studies using both quasi-field and experimental approaches. We discuss the implications of these findings for literatures on expatriate managers, cross-cultural training, cultural intelligence, and intercultural negotiations.
    Academy of Management Learning and Education, The 09/2013; 12(3):453-475. · 4.80 Impact Factor
  • Shu Zhang, Michael W Morris, Chi-Ying Cheng, Andy J Yap
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    ABSTRACT: For bicultural individuals, visual cues of a setting's cultural expectations can activate associated representations, switching the frames that guide their judgments. Research suggests that cultural cues may affect judgments through automatic priming, but has yet to investigate consequences for linguistic performance. The present studies investigate the proposal that heritage-culture cues hinder immigrants' second-language processing by priming first-language structures. For Chinese immigrants in the United States, speaking to a Chinese (vs. Caucasian) face reduced their English fluency, but at the same time increased their social comfort, effects that did not occur for a comparison group of European Americans (study 1). Similarly, exposure to iconic symbols of Chinese (vs. American) culture hindered Chinese immigrants' English fluency, when speaking about both culture-laden and culture-neutral topics (study 2). Finally, in both recognition (study 3) and naming tasks (study 4), Chinese icon priming increased accessibility of anomalous literal translations, indicating the intrusion of Chinese lexical structures into English processing. We discuss conceptual implications for the automaticity and adaptiveness of cultural priming and practical implications for immigrant acculturation and second-language learning.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/2013; · 9.81 Impact Factor
  • Aurelia Mok, Michael W. Morris
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    ABSTRACT: Studies of social judgment found that the way bicultural individuals respond to cultural cues depends on their cultural identity structure. Biculturals differ in the degree to which they represent their two cultural identities as integrated (vs. nonintegrated), which is assessed as high (vs. low) bicultural identity integration (BII), respectively. High BII individuals assimilate to cultural cues, yet low BII individuals contrast to these cues. The current studies reveal that this dynamic extends to consumer behavior and elucidate the underlying psychological mechanism. We found that high (low) BII individuals exhibit assimilation (contrast) responses to cultural cues in consumer information-seeking and choice. Furthermore, the pattern occurs with both subliminal (study 1) and supraliminal (study 2) cultural primes, and is mediated by the experience of identity exclusion threat (study 2). Results suggest that the interactive effect of BII and cultural cues arises from nonconscious defense against the exclusion of a cultural identity. Implications for self-protective processes, automatic behavior, and marketing are discussed.
    Journal of Consumer Psychology 04/2013; 23(2):175–188. · 1.71 Impact Factor
  • Aurelia Mok, Michael W. Morris
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    ABSTRACT: Studies of social judgment found that the way bicultural individuals respond to cultural cues depends on their cultural identity structure. Biculturals differ in the degree to which they represent their two cultural identities as integrated (vs. nonintegrated), which is assessed as high (vs. low) bicultural identity integration (BII), respectively. High BII individuals assimilate to cultural cues, yet low BII individuals contrast to these cues. The current studies reveal that this dynamic extends to consumer behavior and elucidate the underlying psychological mechanism. We found that high (low) BII individuals exhibit assimilation (contrast) responses to cultural cues in consumer information-seeking and choice. Furthermore, the pattern occurs with both subliminal (study 1) and supraliminal (study 2) cultural primes, and is mediated by the experience of identity exclusion threat (study 2). Results suggest that the interactive effect of BII and cultural cues arises from nonconscious defense against the exclusion of a cultural identity. Implications for self-protective processes, automatic behavior, and marketing are discussed.
    Journal of Consumer Psychology 04/2013; 23(2):175–188. · 1.71 Impact Factor
  • Aurelia Mok, Michael W. Morris
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    ABSTRACT: Do situational cues to individuals’ social identities shift the way they look at objects? Do such shifts hinge on the structure of individuals’ self-concept? We hypothesized individuals with integrated identities would exhibit attentional biases congruent with identity cues (assimilative response), whereas those with nonintegrated identities would exhibit attentional biases incongruent with identity cues (contrastive response). Dual identity participants (Asian Americans, Study 1; female lawyers, Study 2) were exposed to identity primes and then asked to focus on central, focal objects in a stimulus display. Among participants with high identity integration, American (Study 1) or lawyer priming (Study 2) shifted attention toward focal objects (assimilative response). Among participants with low identity integration, Asian (Study 1) or female priming (Study 2) shifted attention toward focal objects (contrastive response). Dual identity integration moderates responses to identity cues in attentional focus. Implications for identity structure, object perception, and task performance are discussed.
    Social Psychological and Personality Science. 09/2012; 3(5):597-604.
  • Aurelia Mok, Michael W Morris
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    ABSTRACT: Increasingly, individuals identify with two or more cultures. Prior research has found the degree to which individuals chronically integrate these identities (bicultural identity integration; BII) moderates responses to cultural cues: High BII individuals assimilate (adopting biases that are congruent with norms of the cued culture), whereas low BII individuals contrast (adopting biases that are incongruent with these norms). The authors propose BII can also be a psychological state and modulated by shifts in processing styles. In four experiments, the authors induced a global or local processing style using physical posture (Experiment 1) and cognitive manipulations (Experiments 2-4) and found that BII is enhanced in contexts facilitating a more global processing style (i.e., smiling, high-level construal, and similarity focus). The authors also found that contrastive responses to cultural cues are diminished when BII is situationally enhanced. Implications for research on processing style, identity integration, and performance in culture-based situations are discussed.
    Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 02/2012; 38(2):233-46. · 2.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This research investigates a new type of team that is becoming prevalent in global work settings, namely self-managing multicultural teams. We argue that challenges that arise from cultural diversity in teams are exacerbated when teams are leaderless, undermining performance. A longitudinal study of multicultural master of business administration study teams found that in the early stage of team formation, teams with a low average level of, but moderate degree of variance in, uncertainty avoidance performed best. Four months post formation, however, teams with a high average level of relationship orientation performed better than teams with a low average level of relationship orientation. Furthermore, a moderate degree of variance in relationship orientation among team members produced better team performance than a low or high degree of variance. These findings suggest that different cultural value orientations exert different patterns of effects on the performance of self-managing multicultural teams, depending on the stage of team formation. We discuss implications for the composition of self-managing multicultural teams and its influence on team processes and performance. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior 01/2012; 33(3):389 - 411. · 3.85 Impact Factor
  • Krishna Savani, Michael W Morris, N V R Naidu
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    ABSTRACT: We examine the claim that Indians are more likely than Americans to act deferentially in the presence of authority figures and explore 2 possible psychological mechanisms for this cultural difference: introjected goals and injunctive norms. Studies 1 and 2 showed that after reflecting upon an authority's expectations, Indians were more likely than Americans to make clothing and course choices consistent with the authority's expectations, but there was no such cultural difference for peers' expectations. Study 3 showed that merely activating the concept of authority figures, without highlighting specific expectations, was sufficient to influence Indians' choices but not their evaluations. Examining a more basic distinction underlying introjected goals versus injunctive norms, Study 4 showed that authority primes influenced Indians' sense of what they should do but not what they want to do. Study 5 showed that, inconsistent with the internalized goal mechanism, the effect of explicit authority primes did not increase after brief delays. However, Indian participants who were less likely to accommodate to the salient authority experienced more guilt across delay conditions, which supported the injunctive norms mechanism. The findings suggest that manipulating injunctive norms can be an effective means for inducing or eliminating deferential behaviors in Indian settings.
    Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 12/2011; 102(4):685-99. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    Michael W. Morris, Aurelia Mok, Shira Mor
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    ABSTRACT: Political theorists of globalization have argued that foreign inflows to a society can give rise to collective-identity closure—social movements aiming to narrow the in-group, and exclude minorities. In this research we investigate whether exposure to the mixing of a foreign culture with one's heritage culture can evoke need for closure, a motive that engenders ethnocentric social judgments. On the basis of a proposed identity threat mechanism, we tested the hypothesis that exposure to situations mixing foreign and heritage cultures would evoke need for closure for individuals with low foreign identification but not those with high foreign identification. An experiment with Hong Kong Chinese students varied linguistic and visual cues of Western and Chinese culture and found, as predicted, that exposure to mixed Western/Chinese conditions elevated need for closure for those low in Western identification but not those high in Western identification.
    Journal of Social Issues 12/2011; 67(4). · 1.96 Impact Factor
  • Aurelia Mok, Michael W. Morris
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    ABSTRACT: Bicultural individuals vary in the degree to which their two cultural identities are integrated – Bicultural Identity Integration (BII). Among Asian-Americans, for example, some experience their Asian and American sides as integrated (high BII) whereas others experience the two as divided (low BII). Past research on social judgement found that individual differences in BII affect the way biculturals respond to cultural cues or norms in their situation. Asian-Americans with low BII tend to contrast to the cultural norm (e.g. they exhibit typically American judgements when in Asian cultural situations) rather than assimilate to them, a response observed more among high BII individuals (e.g., they exhibit typically Asian judgements when in Asian cultural situations). Research has interpreted the contrastive response as reflecting implicit identity motives, yet past studies used measures that make cultural differences salient. Conscious awareness of the experimental hypothesis could elicit contrastive responses. The present research assessed forecasts of others' behaviour in which cultural group differences are less obvious: Asians, compared to Westerners, forecast more positive behaviours from others. In three experiments with Asian-Americans, we found the contrastive response by low BII individuals persisted. They made more positive forecasts after exposure to American versus Asian cultural cues. This suggests that the moderating role of BII on responses to cultural cues is not a matter of demand characteristics or limited to stereotypical cultural differences. Implications for bicultural identity, implicit processes, and organizational behaviour are discussed.
    Asian Journal Of Social Psychology 11/2011; 14(4):294 - 301. · 0.83 Impact Factor
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    Aurelia Mok, Michael W. Morris
    Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. 03/2011; 47(2):520.
  • Michael W. Morris, Aurelia Mok
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    ABSTRACT: Cross-national research on social description documents that Westerners favor abstract linguistic categories (e.g. adjectives rather than verbs) more than East Asians. Whereas culture-related schemas are assumed to underlie these differences, no research has examined this directly. The present study used the cultural priming paradigm to distinguish the role of cultural schemas from alternative country-related explanations involving linguistic structures or educational experiences. It compared Asian-Americans' descriptions of others and memory for social information following American versus Asian priming. Asian priming fostered more concrete, contextualized verb-based descriptions and reduced memory errors associated with trait inference, compared to American priming (and to separate samples of non-primed Asian-Americans and Euro-Americans). This provides the first incisive evidence that cultural schemas influence the linguistic categories used to describe and remember social targets. Implications for research on biculturals, culture-related schemas, and linguistic practices are discussed.
    Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. 01/2011;
  • Aurelia Mok, Michael W. Morris
    Journal of Experimental Social Psychology - J EXP SOC PSYCHOL. 01/2011; 47(2):520-520.
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    Michael W. Morris, Kwok Leung
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    ABSTRACT: abstractThis Editors' Forum –‘Creativity East and West’– presents five papers on the question of cultural differences in creativity from the perspective of different research literatures, followed by two integrative commentaries. The literatures represented include historiometric, laboratory, and organizational studies. Investigation of cultural influences through country comparisons and priming manipulations, focusing on how people perform creatively and how they assess creativity. This introduction notes parallels in the findings across these research perspectives, suggesting some cultural universals in creativity and some systematic differences. Many differences can be explained in terms of the model that creativity means a solution that is both novel/original and useful/appropriate, yet that Western social norms prioritize novelty whereas Eastern norms prioritize usefulness – an account which predicts cultural differences would arise in contexts that activate social norms. The commentaries elaborate this argument in terms of processes – at the micro cognitive level and at the macro societal level – through which creativity occurs.
    Management and Organization Review 10/2010; 6(3):313 - 327. · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We argue that differences between the landscapes of influence situations in Indian and American societies induce Indians to accommodate to others more often than Americans. To investigate cultural differences in situation-scapes, we sampled interpersonal influence situations occurring in India and the United States from both the influencee's (Study 1) and the influencer's (Study 2) perspectives. We found that Indian influence situations were dramatically more likely than U.S. situations to feature other-serving motives and to result in positive consequences for the relationship. Yet Study 3 found that targets of influence felt no less free to decide whether to accommodate in India than the United States, but felt more concerned about the influencer. To investigate the effects of situation-scapes on people's expectations and decisions, we exposed Indian and American participants to descriptions of situations from both societies (with their origins obscured). Study 4 found that both groups of participants expected more positive consequences from accommodation in Indian situations than in American situations. Finally, Study 5 found that both groups decided to accommodate more often in Indian situations than in American situations. At the same time, Indian participants were more likely than Americans to accommodate across all situations, but both groups converged over 100 trials as they were exposed to more and more situations drawn from each other's cultures. We interpret these effects in terms of the default decisions or biases conditioned by people's recently encountered situations.
    Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 10/2010; 100(1):84-102. · 5.08 Impact Factor
  • ROY Y. J. CHUA, MICHAEL W. MORRIS, PAUL INGRAM
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    ABSTRACT: This article examines how managers' tendency to discuss new ideas with others in their professional networks depends on the density of shared ties surrounding a given relationship. Consistent with prior research which found that embeddedness enhances information flow, an egocentric network survey of mid-level executives shows that managers tend to discuss new ideas with those who are densely embedded in their professional networks. More specifically, embeddedness increases the likelihood to discuss new ideas by engendering affect-based trust, as opposed to cognition-based trust. Implications for network and creativity research are discussed.
    The Journal of Creative Behavior. 06/2010; 44(2).

Publication Stats

2k Citations
145.52 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • CUNY Graduate Center
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2004–2013
    • Columbia University
      • • Division of Management
      • • Columbia Business School
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2012
    • The University of Hong Kong
      Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  • 2011
    • New York University
      • Pain Management
      New York City, NY, United States
  • 2010
    • University of Texas at Austin
      • McCombs School of Business
      Austin, TX, United States
  • 2007
    • Nanyang Technological University
      • Nanyang Business School (College of Business)
      Singapore, Singapore
    • Cornell University
      Ithaca, New York, United States
  • 1994–2002
    • University of Michigan
      • Department of Psychology
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
  • 1998–2001
    • Stanford University
      • Graduate School of Business
      Palo Alto, California, United States
    • City University of Hong Kong
      • Department of Management
      Chiu-lung, Kowloon City, Hong Kong