Michael W. Morris

Columbia University, New York, New York, United States

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Publications (91)235.03 Total impact

  • Source
    Michael W. Morris, Ying-yi Hong, Chi-yue Chiu, Zhi Liu
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    ABSTRACT: This paper integrates social norm constructs from different disciplines into an integrated model. Norms exist in the objective social environment in the form of behavioral regularities, patterns of sanctioning, and institutionalized practices and rules. They exist subjectively in perceived descriptive norms, perceived injunctive norms, and personal norms. We also distil and delineate three classic theories of why people adhere to norms: internalization, social identity, and rational choice. Additionally, we articulate an emerging theory of how perceived descriptive and injunctive norms function as two distinct navigational devices that guide thoughts and behavior in different ways, which we term “social autopilot” and “social radar.” For each type of norms, we suggest how it may help to understand cultural dynamics at the micro level (the acquisition, variable influence and creative mutation of cultural knowledge) and the macro level (the transmission, diffusion and evolution of cultural practices). Having laid the groundwork for an integrated study of norm—normology, we then introduce the articles of this special issue contributing theoretical refinements and empirical evidence from different methods and levels of analysis. Managerial implications are discussed.
    Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 03/2015; 50. DOI:10.1016/j.obhdp.2015.03.001 · 3.13 Impact Factor
  • Jeanne Ho-Ying Fu, Michael W. Morris, Ying Yi Hong
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    ABSTRACT: Past research encourages expatriates to immerse themselves in the host culture, avoiding reminders of their home culture. We counter that, for expatriates still struggling to adjust, home culture stimuli might prime a sense of relational security, emboldening them to reach out to locals and hence boost cultural adjustment. In Study 1, American exchange students in Hong Kong felt more adjusted to Hong Kong after incidental exposure to iconic American practices (vs. Chinese or neutral), an effect partially mediated by relational security and not by other exchange student concerns. Study 2 surveyed exchange students from Hong Kong at three points in time: before, during and after a study abroad term. The intervention of writing about home culture (vs. host culture) symbols during their trip helped adjustment for those with pre-trip insecurities about interacting with locals but not those lacking these insecurities. The boost in adjustment from the home culture primes had a lasting impact, visible in the post-trip evaluations of the study abroad experience by students in the initially insecure group.
    Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 02/2015; 59. DOI:10.1016/j.jesp.2015.02.004 · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    Michael W. Morris, Krishna Savani, Shira Mor, Jaee Cho
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    ABSTRACT: Learning requires acquiring and using knowledge. How do individuals acquire knowledge of another culture? How do they use this knowledge in order to operate proficiently in a new cultural setting? What kinds of training would foster intercultural learning? These questions have been addressed in many literatures of applied and basic research, featuring disparate concepts, methods and measures. In this paper, we review the insights from these different literatures. We note parallels among findings of survey research on immigrants, expatriate managers, and exchange students. We also draw on experiment-based research on learning to propose the cognitive processes involved in intercultural learning. In the first section, we focus on acquiring cultural knowledge, reviewing longstanding literatures on immigrant acculturation and expatriate adjustment investigating antecedents of intercultural adjustment and performance. In the second section, we focus on displaying proficiency, examining how newcomers to a cultural setting deploy their knowledge of it in order to adjust their behavior and judgments. We draw upon findings about individual differences and situational conditions that predict performance to suggest training for optimal use of cultural knowledge by adapting behaviors and judgments according to situational factors.
    Research in Organizational Behavior 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.riob.2014.09.003 · 2.06 Impact Factor
  • Michael W Morris, Chi-Yue Chiu, Zhi Liu
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    ABSTRACT: We review limitations of the traditional paradigm for cultural research and propose an alternative framework, polyculturalism. Polyculturalism assumes that individuals' relationships to cultures are not categorical but rather are partial and plural; it also assumes that cultural traditions are not independent, sui generis lineages but rather are interacting systems. Individuals take influences from multiple cultures and thereby become conduits through which cultures can affect each other. Past literatures on the influence of multiple cultural identities and cultural knowledge legacies can be better understood within a polyculturalist rubric. Likewise, the concept elucidates how cultures are changed by contact with other cultures, enabling richer psychological theories of intercultural influence. Different scientific paradigms about culture imply different ideologies and policies; polyculturalism's implied policy of interculturalism provides a valuable complement to the traditional policy frames of multiculturalism and colorblindness. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Psychology Volume 66 is November 30, 2014. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
    Annual Review of Psychology 09/2014; 66(1). DOI:10.1146/annurev-psych-010814-015001 · 20.53 Impact Factor
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    Shira Mor, Pranjal Mehta, Ilona Fridman, Michael W Morris
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    ABSTRACT: The present research aims to explain within-gender differences in negotiation performance by introducing an individual difference approach to the gender and negotiations literature. We propose that women who perceive their gender and professional roles as compatible—high on gender/professional identity integration—display a behavioral repertoire that facilitates competitive negotiation performance. Identity integration was positively associated with economic performance and the absence of social backlash among women (but not men) (Study 1A), and reduced social backlash concerns (Study 1B). In Study 2, women high on identity integration negotiated higher salaries for themselves without incurring social backlash. These effects were mediated by behaviors associated with female (warmth) and professional identities (dominance). Our final studies experimentally manipulated identity integration and revealed that inducing high identity integration (Study 3A) activated goals to combine warmth with dominance, while inducing low identity integration (Study 3B) decreased women’s intentions to do so.
    International Association of Conflict Management, Lieden, The Netherlands; 07/2014
  • Zhi Liu, Michael W. Morris
    Asian Journal Of Social Psychology 06/2014; 17(2). DOI:10.1111/ajsp.12047 · 0.83 Impact Factor
  • Michael W Morris, Shu Zhang
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/2013; 110(47):E4404. DOI:10.1073/pnas.1317340110 · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    Shira Mor, Michael W. Morris, Johann Joh
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    ABSTRACT: For managers, intercultural effectiveness requires forging close working relationships with people from different cultural backgrounds (Black, Mendenhall, & Oddou, 1991). Recent research with executives has found that higher cultural metacognition is associated with affective closeness and creative collaboration in intercultural relationships (Chua, Morris, & Mor, & 2012). However, little is known about the social cognitive mechanisms that facilitate the performance of individuals who score high on cultural metacognition. We propose that one important question for cross-cultural research and training is identifying which metacognitive strategies enable successful intercultural collaborations. We suggest that one such strategy is “cultural perspective taking”—considering how another's cultural background shapes their behavior in a given context. We hypothesized that cultural perspective taking facilitates intercultural coordination and cooperation, and that a manipulation that boosts cultural perspective taking would be especially beneficial for individuals who score low in dispositional cultural metacognition. We found support for the above hypotheses in five studies using both quasi-field and experimental approaches. We discuss the implications of these findings for literatures on expatriate managers, cross-cultural training, cultural intelligence, and intercultural negotiations.
    Academy of Management Learning and Education, The 09/2013; 12(3):453-475. DOI:10.5465/amle.2012.0202 · 4.80 Impact Factor
  • Shu Zhang, Michael W Morris, Chi-Ying Cheng, Andy J Yap
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    ABSTRACT: For bicultural individuals, visual cues of a setting's cultural expectations can activate associated representations, switching the frames that guide their judgments. Research suggests that cultural cues may affect judgments through automatic priming, but has yet to investigate consequences for linguistic performance. The present studies investigate the proposal that heritage-culture cues hinder immigrants' second-language processing by priming first-language structures. For Chinese immigrants in the United States, speaking to a Chinese (vs. Caucasian) face reduced their English fluency, but at the same time increased their social comfort, effects that did not occur for a comparison group of European Americans (study 1). Similarly, exposure to iconic symbols of Chinese (vs. American) culture hindered Chinese immigrants' English fluency, when speaking about both culture-laden and culture-neutral topics (study 2). Finally, in both recognition (study 3) and naming tasks (study 4), Chinese icon priming increased accessibility of anomalous literal translations, indicating the intrusion of Chinese lexical structures into English processing. We discuss conceptual implications for the automaticity and adaptiveness of cultural priming and practical implications for immigrant acculturation and second-language learning.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/2013; DOI:10.1073/pnas.1304435110 · 9.81 Impact Factor
  • Aurelia Mok, Michael W. Morris
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    ABSTRACT: Studies of social judgment found that the way bicultural individuals respond to cultural cues depends on their cultural identity structure. Biculturals differ in the degree to which they represent their two cultural identities as integrated (vs. nonintegrated), which is assessed as high (vs. low) bicultural identity integration (BII), respectively. High BII individuals assimilate to cultural cues, yet low BII individuals contrast to these cues. The current studies reveal that this dynamic extends to consumer behavior and elucidate the underlying psychological mechanism. We found that high (low) BII individuals exhibit assimilation (contrast) responses to cultural cues in consumer information-seeking and choice. Furthermore, the pattern occurs with both subliminal (study 1) and supraliminal (study 2) cultural primes, and is mediated by the experience of identity exclusion threat (study 2). Results suggest that the interactive effect of BII and cultural cues arises from nonconscious defense against the exclusion of a cultural identity. Implications for self-protective processes, automatic behavior, and marketing are discussed.
    Journal of Consumer Psychology 04/2013; 23(2):175–188. DOI:10.1016/j.jcps.2012.06.002 · 1.71 Impact Factor
  • Aurelia Mok, Michael W. Morris
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    ABSTRACT: Do situational cues to individuals’ social identities shift the way they look at objects? Do such shifts hinge on the structure of individuals’ self-concept? We hypothesized individuals with integrated identities would exhibit attentional biases congruent with identity cues (assimilative response), whereas those with nonintegrated identities would exhibit attentional biases incongruent with identity cues (contrastive response). Dual identity participants (Asian Americans, Study 1; female lawyers, Study 2) were exposed to identity primes and then asked to focus on central, focal objects in a stimulus display. Among participants with high identity integration, American (Study 1) or lawyer priming (Study 2) shifted attention toward focal objects (assimilative response). Among participants with low identity integration, Asian (Study 1) or female priming (Study 2) shifted attention toward focal objects (contrastive response). Dual identity integration moderates responses to identity cues in attentional focus. Implications for identity structure, object perception, and task performance are discussed.
    09/2012; 3(5):597-604. DOI:10.1177/1948550611432769
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    ABSTRACT: This research investigates a new type of team that is becoming prevalent in global work settings, namely self-managing multicultural teams. We argue that challenges that arise from cultural diversity in teams are exacerbated when teams are leaderless, undermining performance. A longitudinal study of multicultural master of business administration study teams found that in the early stage of team formation, teams with a low average level of, but moderate degree of variance in, uncertainty avoidance performed best. Four months post formation, however, teams with a high average level of relationship orientation performed better than teams with a low average level of relationship orientation. Furthermore, a moderate degree of variance in relationship orientation among team members produced better team performance than a low or high degree of variance. These findings suggest that different cultural value orientations exert different patterns of effects on the performance of self-managing multicultural teams, depending on the stage of team formation. We discuss implications for the composition of self-managing multicultural teams and its influence on team processes and performance. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior 04/2012; 33(3):389 - 411. DOI:10.1002/job.1777 · 3.85 Impact Factor
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    Roy Y. J. Chua, Michael W. Morris, Shira Mor
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    ABSTRACT: We propose that managers’ awareness of their own and others’ cultural assumptions (cultural metacognition) enables them to develop affect-based trust in their relationships with people from different cultures, enabling creative collaboration. Study 1, a multi-rater assessment of managerial performance, found that managers higher in metacognitive cultural intelligence (CQ) were rated as more effective in intercultural creative collaboration by managers from other cultures. Study 2, a social network survey, found that managers lower in metacognitive CQ engaged in less sharing of new ideas in their intercultural ties but not intracultural ties. Study 3 required participants to work collaboratively with a non-acquaintance from another culture and found that higher metacognitive CQ engendered greater idea sharing and creative performance, so long as they were allowed a personal conversation prior to the task. The effects of metacognitive CQ in enhancing creative collaboration were mediated by affect-based trust in Studies 2 and 3.
    Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 03/2012; DOI:10.2139/ssrn.1861054 · 3.13 Impact Factor
  • Aurelia Mok, Michael W Morris
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    ABSTRACT: Increasingly, individuals identify with two or more cultures. Prior research has found the degree to which individuals chronically integrate these identities (bicultural identity integration; BII) moderates responses to cultural cues: High BII individuals assimilate (adopting biases that are congruent with norms of the cued culture), whereas low BII individuals contrast (adopting biases that are incongruent with these norms). The authors propose BII can also be a psychological state and modulated by shifts in processing styles. In four experiments, the authors induced a global or local processing style using physical posture (Experiment 1) and cognitive manipulations (Experiments 2-4) and found that BII is enhanced in contexts facilitating a more global processing style (i.e., smiling, high-level construal, and similarity focus). The authors also found that contrastive responses to cultural cues are diminished when BII is situationally enhanced. Implications for research on processing style, identity integration, and performance in culture-based situations are discussed.
    Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 02/2012; 38(2):233-46. DOI:10.1177/0146167211426438 · 2.52 Impact Factor
  • Krishna Savani, Michael W Morris, N V R Naidu
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    ABSTRACT: We examine the claim that Indians are more likely than Americans to act deferentially in the presence of authority figures and explore 2 possible psychological mechanisms for this cultural difference: introjected goals and injunctive norms. Studies 1 and 2 showed that after reflecting upon an authority's expectations, Indians were more likely than Americans to make clothing and course choices consistent with the authority's expectations, but there was no such cultural difference for peers' expectations. Study 3 showed that merely activating the concept of authority figures, without highlighting specific expectations, was sufficient to influence Indians' choices but not their evaluations. Examining a more basic distinction underlying introjected goals versus injunctive norms, Study 4 showed that authority primes influenced Indians' sense of what they should do but not what they want to do. Study 5 showed that, inconsistent with the internalized goal mechanism, the effect of explicit authority primes did not increase after brief delays. However, Indian participants who were less likely to accommodate to the salient authority experienced more guilt across delay conditions, which supported the injunctive norms mechanism. The findings suggest that manipulating injunctive norms can be an effective means for inducing or eliminating deferential behaviors in Indian settings.
    Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 12/2011; 102(4):685-99. DOI:10.1037/a0026415 · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    Michael W. Morris, Aurelia Mok, Shira Mor
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    ABSTRACT: Political theorists of globalization have argued that foreign inflows to a society can give rise to collective-identity closure—social movements aiming to narrow the in-group, and exclude minorities. In this research we investigate whether exposure to the mixing of a foreign culture with one's heritage culture can evoke need for closure, a motive that engenders ethnocentric social judgments. On the basis of a proposed identity threat mechanism, we tested the hypothesis that exposure to situations mixing foreign and heritage cultures would evoke need for closure for individuals with low foreign identification but not those with high foreign identification. An experiment with Hong Kong Chinese students varied linguistic and visual cues of Western and Chinese culture and found, as predicted, that exposure to mixed Western/Chinese conditions elevated need for closure for those low in Western identification but not those high in Western identification.
    Journal of Social Issues 12/2011; 67(4). DOI:10.1111/j.1540-4560.2011.01726.x · 1.96 Impact Factor
  • Aurelia Mok, Michael W. Morris
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    ABSTRACT: Bicultural individuals vary in the degree to which their two cultural identities are integrated – Bicultural Identity Integration (BII). Among Asian-Americans, for example, some experience their Asian and American sides as integrated (high BII) whereas others experience the two as divided (low BII). Past research on social judgement found that individual differences in BII affect the way biculturals respond to cultural cues or norms in their situation. Asian-Americans with low BII tend to contrast to the cultural norm (e.g. they exhibit typically American judgements when in Asian cultural situations) rather than assimilate to them, a response observed more among high BII individuals (e.g., they exhibit typically Asian judgements when in Asian cultural situations). Research has interpreted the contrastive response as reflecting implicit identity motives, yet past studies used measures that make cultural differences salient. Conscious awareness of the experimental hypothesis could elicit contrastive responses. The present research assessed forecasts of others' behaviour in which cultural group differences are less obvious: Asians, compared to Westerners, forecast more positive behaviours from others. In three experiments with Asian-Americans, we found the contrastive response by low BII individuals persisted. They made more positive forecasts after exposure to American versus Asian cultural cues. This suggests that the moderating role of BII on responses to cultural cues is not a matter of demand characteristics or limited to stereotypical cultural differences. Implications for bicultural identity, implicit processes, and organizational behaviour are discussed.
    Asian Journal Of Social Psychology 11/2011; 14(4):294 - 301. DOI:10.1111/j.1467-839X.2011.01355.x · 0.83 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Aurelia Mok, Michael W. Morris
    Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 03/2011; 47(2):520. DOI:10.1016/j.jesp.2010.11.008 · 2.22 Impact Factor
  • Michael W. Morris, Aurelia Mok
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    ABSTRACT: Cross-national research on social description documents that Westerners favor abstract linguistic categories (e.g. adjectives rather than verbs) more than East Asians. Whereas culture-related schemas are assumed to underlie these differences, no research has examined this directly. The present study used the cultural priming paradigm to distinguish the role of cultural schemas from alternative country-related explanations involving linguistic structures or educational experiences. It compared Asian-Americans' descriptions of others and memory for social information following American versus Asian priming. Asian priming fostered more concrete, contextualized verb-based descriptions and reduced memory errors associated with trait inference, compared to American priming (and to separate samples of non-primed Asian-Americans and Euro-Americans). This provides the first incisive evidence that cultural schemas influence the linguistic categories used to describe and remember social targets. Implications for research on biculturals, culture-related schemas, and linguistic practices are discussed.
    Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 01/2011; 47(1-47):117-126. DOI:10.1016/j.jesp.2010.08.019 · 2.22 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Krishna Savani, Michael W. Morris, N. V. R. Naidu
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    ABSTRACT: We examine the claim that acting deferentially in the presence of authority figures is more pervasive in Indian than in Western cultures, and explore two psychological mechanisms for this cultural difference: internalized goals and injunctive norms. Study 1 found that after reflecting upon an authority’s expectations, Indians but not Americans accommodate in their clothing choices but not in their evaluations of various clothing options. Study 2 found that merely activating the concept of authority figures, without highlighting specific expectations, was sufficient to influence Indians’ choices of various courses but not their evaluations. Examining a more basic distinction underlying internalized goals vs. injunctive norms, Study 3 found that authority primes influenced Indians’ ratings of what they should do but not what they want to do. Study 4 found that the effect of explicit authority primes did not increase after brief delays, thus inconsistent with the internalized goal mechanism. However, participants who were less likely to accommodate to the salient authority experienced more guilt across delay conditions, thus supporting the injunctive norms mechanism. The findings suggest that manipulating injunctive norms, rather than personal values, can be a means for inducing or eliminating deferential behaviors in Indian settings.
    SSRN Electronic Journal 12/2010; DOI:10.2139/ssrn.1719586

Publication Stats

4k Citations
235.03 Total Impact Points


  • 2001–2015
    • Columbia University
      • • Columbia Business School
      • • Division of Management
      • • Department of Economics
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2014
    • CUNY Graduate Center
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 1994–2002
    • University of Michigan
      • Department of Psychology
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
  • 1998–2001
    • Stanford University
      • Graduate School of Business
      Palo Alto, California, United States
    • City University of Hong Kong
      • Department of Management
      Chiu-lung, Kowloon City, Hong Kong
  • 2000
    • The University of Hong Kong
      • Department of Psychology
      Hong Kong, Hong Kong
    • The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
      • Division of Social Science
      Kowloon, Hong Kong