[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplant is a well established curative therapy for some hematological malignancies. However, achieving adequate supply of HSC from some donor tissues can limit both its application and ultimate efficacy. The theory that this limitation could be overcome by expanding the HSC population before transplantation has motivated numerous laboratories to develop ex vivo expansion processes. Pioneering work in this field utilized stromal cells as support cells in cocultures with HSC to mimic the HSC niche. We hypothesized that through translation of this classic coculture system to a three-dimensional (3D) structure we could better replicate the niche environment and in turn enhance HSC expansion. Herein we describe a novel high-throughput 3D coculture system where murine-derived HSC can be cocultured with mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) in 3D microaggregates--which we term "micromarrows." Micromarrows were formed using surface modified microwells and their ability to support HSC expansion was compared to classic two-dimensional (2D) cocultures. While both 2D and 3D systems provide only a modest total cell expansion in the minimally supplemented medium, the micromarrow system supported the expansion of approximately twice as many HSC candidates as the 2D controls. Histology revealed that at day 7, the majority of bound hematopoietic cells reside in the outer layers of the aggregate. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction demonstrates that MSC maintained in 3D aggregates express significantly higher levels of key hematopoietic niche factors relative to their 2D equivalents. Thus, we propose that the micromarrow platform represents a promising first step toward a high-throughput HSC 3D coculture system that may enable in vitro HSC niche recapitulation and subsequent extensive in vitro HSC self-renewal.
Tissue Engineering Part C Methods 11/2011; 18(5):319-28. · 4.64 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ascorbic acid (AA) is a common culture medium and dietary supplement. While AA is most commonly known for its antioxidant properties, it is also known to function as a pro-oxidant under select conditions. However, the complexity and often unknown composition of biological culture systems makes prediction of AA behaviour in supplemented cultures challenging. The frequent observation of outcomes inconsistent with antioxidant behaviour suggests that AA may be playing a pro-oxidant role more often than appreciated. In this work we explored the intracellular and extracellular impact of AA supplementation on KG1a myeloid leukaemia cells over a 24-h culture period following the addition of the AA supplement. At 24h we found that supplementation of AA up to 250μM resulted in intracellular antioxidant behaviour. However, when these same cultures were evaluated at 2 or 4h we observed pro-oxidant activity at the higher AA concentrations indicating that the outcome was very much time and dose dependent. In contrast, pro-oxidant activity was never observed in the extracellular medium. Paradoxically, and to our knowledge not previously reported, we observed that intracellular pro-oxidant activity and extracellular antioxidant activity could occur simultaneously. These results indicate that the precise activity of AA supplementation varies as a function of dose, time and cellular location. Further, these results demonstrate how in the absence of careful culture characterization the true impact of AA on cultures could be underappreciated.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 10/2010; 400(4):466-70. · 2.41 Impact Factor