Megan A O'Brien

Merck, Whitehouse Station, New Jersey, United States

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Publications (5)11.95 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: To evaluate the impact of universal vaccination with a pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) on the healthcare burden and costs associated with rotavirus gastroenteritis (RGE) in Japan. Methods: The model included a hypothetical cohort of 1,091,156 children followed for their first 5 years of life. In the absence of universal vaccination, there are 19 deaths, 78,000 hospitalizations, and 678,000 outpatient visits due to RGE. The efficacy of RV5 is based on international clinical trial data, which was similar to the efficacy observed in clinical trials conducted in Japan. The primary outcome measure is the cost per quality-adjusted-life-year (QALY) gained. In the base case, the QALY loss per 1000 RGE episodes included 2.2 for children and 1.8 per parent. Results: Universal vaccination is projected to reduce hospitalizations by 92%, outpatient visits by 74% and work-loss days by 73%. For the base case analysis, the total vaccination cost was ¥26 billion. The estimated reduction in medical costs was ¥16 billion. Of 2500 QALYs gained with the vaccination program, approximately half are directly attributed to the child. In the base case analysis, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for vaccination vs. no vaccination is ¥4 million and ¥2 million per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained from the healthcare payer and societal perspectives respectively. The ICERs are ¥8 million and ¥4million if parental disutilities are excluded. Key Limitation: The QALY decrements for children and parents were evaluated using different instruments, and the QALY decrements do not vary based on episode severity. Given the interdependence between children and their parents, excluding parental disutilities may understimate the impact of RGE. Conclusion: Universal vaccination with RV5 in Japan is projected to have a substantial public health impact and may be cost-effective from both the payer and societal perspectives if parental disutilities are included in the cost-effectiveness ratios.
    Journal of Medical Economics 08/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: In 2012, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) revised recommendations for adult pneumococcal vaccination to include a sequential regimen of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) followed by 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) for certain high-risk adults with immunocompromising conditions. This study, from a payer perspective, examined: (1) the cost-effectiveness of the new 2012 ACIP vaccine policy recommendation relative to the 1997 ACIP recommendation; (2) the cost-effectiveness of potential future pneumococcal vaccination policies; and (3) key assumptions that influence study results. A static cohort model that incorporated costs, health outcomes, and quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) losses associated with invasive pneumococcal disease and non-bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia (NBPP) was developed to evaluate seven pneumococcal vaccination strategies for a 50-year-old adult cohort over a 50-year period using incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). For objective 1, the 2012 ACIP recommendation is the more economically efficient strategy (ICER was $25,841 per QALY gained vs. no vaccination). For objective 2, the most efficient vaccination policy would be to maintain the 2012 recommendation for PPSV23 for healthy and immunocompetent adults with comorbidities, and to modify the recommendation for adults with immunocompromising conditions by replacing PPSV23 with a sequential regimen of PCV13 and PPSV23 at age 65 (ICER was $23,416 per QALY gained vs. no vaccination). For objective 3, cost-effectiveness ratios for alternative pneumococcal vaccine policies were highly influenced by assumptions used for vaccine effectiveness against NBPP and accounting for the herd protection effects of pediatric PCV13 vaccination on adult pneumococcal disease. Modifying the 2012 recommendation to include an additional dose of PCV13 at age 65, followed by PPSV23, for adults with immunocompromising conditions appears to be a cost-effective vaccine policy. Given the uncertainty in the available data and the absence of key influential data, comprehensive sensitivity analyses should be conducted by policy-makers when evaluating new adult pneumococcal vaccine strategies.
    Value in Health 05/2013; 16(3):A93. · 2.19 Impact Factor
  • Megan A O'Brien, Martin Senecal, Praveen Dhankhar
    Vaccine 04/2013; · 3.77 Impact Factor
  • John D Grabenstein, Megan A O'Brien, Jieling Chen
    Vaccine 11/2012; · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Secondary bacterial infections (especially pneumococcal infections) were a major cause of death during prior influenza pandemics. One strategy to prevent pneumococcal infections in adults during a future pandemic is to stockpile 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23). Stockpiling a pneumococcal vaccine can ensure that it is available when needed most-that is, at the onset of a pandemic. The purpose of this article was to project the health and economic impact of stockpiling PPSV23 to prevent secondary pneumococcal infections among high-risk adults aged 18 to 64 years during an influenza pandemic within the United States. A cost-effectiveness model was developed to evaluate the health and economic effects of stockpiling PPSV23 versus not stockpiling this vaccine for preventing secondary pneumococcal infections among 20 million high-risk US adults aged 18 to 64 years during an influenza pandemic. The model was used to project the number of pneumococcal cases, hospitalizations, deaths, and days of work loss averted. Three health outcomes (deaths, hospitalizations, and outpatient care) were estimated from secondary pneumococcal infections. To assess the overall effectiveness of the different strategies, the quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) was used as a measure of these 3 health outcomes. The results are presented for 3 scenarios based on the pandemic severity and anticipated prepandemic influenza vaccine availability: base case, more-severe case, and less-severe case. In the base-case scenario, vaccinating 20 million high-risk adults with PPSV23 avoided 2858 deaths, 878 hospitalizations, 41,881 pneumococcal pneumonia cases, and 232,891 days of work loss during a pandemic. Under the more-severe case scenario, vaccination avoided 21,921 deaths, 10,280 hospitalizations, 70,345 pneumococcal cases, and approximately 1.12 million days of work loss. Under the less-severe case scenario, pneumococcal vaccination avoided 715 deaths, 219 hospitalizations, 10,470 pneumococcal cases, and 58,235 days of work loss. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for stockpiling PPSV23 versus no stockpiling for the base-case and less-severe case scenarios was $39,946 and $198,653 per QALY, respectively. For the more-severe case scenario, stockpiling PPSV23 was cost saving. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses found that the range of incremental cost-effectiveness ratio values was broad due to the large uncertainty regarding the timing and impact of the next pandemic. In addition, the shelf life of PPSV23 and stockpile management substantially influenced the cost-effectiveness ratio. For severe pandemics or pandemics in which prepandemic influenza vaccine is unavailable, stockpiling of PPSV23 can be a cost-effective strategy for reducing the health and economic burden associated with secondary pneumococcal infections in a high-risk US population. However, for a mildly severe pandemic in which prepandemic influenza vaccine is available, stockpiling of PPSV23 may not be cost-effective.
    Clinical Therapeutics 08/2010; 32(8):1501-16. · 2.23 Impact Factor