ABSTRACT: Two previous clinical trials investigating hypothermia as an adjunct therapy for myocardial infarction have failed. Recently a pilot study has demonstrated a significant reduction in infarct size. The aims of this study were to elucidate the effects of hypothermia on reperfusion injury and to investigate the optimal hypothermia protocol for a future clinical trial. Pigs (40-50 kg) were anesthetized and a normal pig temperature of 38°C was established utilizing an endovascular temperature modulating catheter. The pigs were randomized to a combination hypothermia group (1,000 ml of 4°C saline solution and endovascular cooling, n = 8), or to normothermic controls (n = 8). A PCI balloon was then inflated in the LAD for 40 min (control) or 45 min with hypothermia induced during the last 5 min. Furthermore, hypothermia induced by cold saline alone (n = 8), and prolonged combination hypothermia during reperfusion (n = 7) were also examined. Infarct size and area at risk were determined ex vivo after 4 h of reperfusion using gadolinium-enhanced MRI and Tc-99-tetrofosmin SPECT, respectively. All pigs in the combination hypothermia group were cooled to <35°C within 5 min. Combination hypothermia reduced IS/AAR by 18% compared with normothermic controls despite 5 min longer ischemic time (61 ± 5 vs. 74 ± 4%, p = 0.03). Cold saline did not reduce IS/AAR. Prolonging hypothermia treatment after onset of reperfusion by an additional 45 min over that used in a previous paper did not confer any additional benefit. The cardioprotective effects of hypothermia treatment are due to an attenuation of myocardial injury during both ischemia and reperfusion. The results suggest that a hypothermia protocol using a cold saline infusion and endovascular cooling enables hypothermia to be induced in a clinical setting without delaying reperfusion therapy.
Archiv für Kreislaufforschung 06/2011; 106(5):697-708. · 7.35 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Cardiogenic shock is the main cause of death in patients hospitalized due to an acute myocardial infarction. Mild hypothermia reduces metabolism and could offer protective effects for this condition. The aim of our study was to investigate if mild therapeutic hypothermia would improve outcome and hemodynamic parameters in an ischemic cardiogenic shock pig model.
Twenty-five pigs (40-50 kg) were anesthetized and a normothermic temperature of 38 degrees C was established utilising an endovascular cooling catheter in a closed-chest model. A Swan-Ganz catheter was placed in the pulmonary artery. Hemodynamic parameters were continuously monitored and blood gases were sampled every 30 min. Ischemia was induced by inflation of a PCI balloon in proximal LAD for 40 min. Sixteen pigs that have fulfilled predefined shock criteria were randomized to hypothermia (n=8), or normothermia (n=8). Hypothermia (33 degrees C) was induced after onset of reperfusion by using an endovascular temperature modulating catheter and was maintained until termination of the experiment.
The pigs in the hypothermia group were cooled to <34 degrees C in approximately 45 min. 5/8 pigs in the normothermia group died while all pigs in the hypothermia group survived (p<0.01). Stroke volume and blood pressure were significantly higher in the hypothermia group (p<0.05), whereas heart rate was significantly lower in the hypothermia group (p=0.01). Cardiac output did not differ among the groups (p=0.13). Blood gas analysis revealed higher mixed venous oxygen saturation, pH, and base excess in the hypothermia group indicating less development of metabolic acidosis (p<0.05).
In this pig model, mild therapeutic hypothermia reduces acute mortality in cardiogenic shock, improves hemodynamic parameters and reduces metabolic acidosis. These findings suggest a possible clinical benefit of therapeutic hypothermia for patients with acute cardiogenic shock.
Resuscitation 09/2010; 81(9):1190-6. · 3.60 Impact Factor
Ectonucleotidase dependent adenosine generation has been implicated in preconditioning related cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury, and treatment with a soluble ectonucleotidase has been shown to reduce myocardial infarct size (IS) when applied prior to induction of ischemia. However, ectonucleotidase treatment according to a clinically applicable protocol, with administration only after induction of ischemia, has not previously been evaluated. We therefore investigated if treatment with the ectonucleotidase apyrase, according to a clinically applicable protocol, would reduce IS and microvascular obstruction (MO) in a large animal model.
A percutaneous coronary intervention balloon was inflated in the left anterior descending artery for 40 min, in 16 anesthetized pigs (40-50 kg). The pigs were randomized to 40 min of 1 ml/min intracoronary infusion of apyrase (10 U/ml, n = 8) or saline (0.9 mg/ml, n = 8), twenty minutes after balloon inflation. Area at risk (AAR) was evaluated by ex vivo SPECT. IS and MO were evaluated by ex vivo MRI.
No differences were observed between the apyrase group and saline group with respect to IS/AAR (75.7 ± 4.2% vs 69.4 ± 5.0%, p = NS) or MO (10.7 ± 4.8% vs 11.4 ± 4.8%, p = NS), but apyrase prolonged the post-ischemic reactive hyperemia.
Apyrase treatment according to a clinically applicable protocol, with administration of apyrase after induction of ischemia, does not reduce myocardial infarct size or microvascular obstruction.
BMC Cardiovascular Disorders. 01/2010;