[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The complex interactions that occur between human tumors, tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and the systemic immune system are likely to define critical factors in the host response to cancer. While conventional animal models have identified an array of potential anti-tumor therapies, mouse models often fail to translate into effective human treatments. Our goal is to establish a humanized tumor model as a more effective pre-clinical platform for understanding and manipulating TIL.
The immune system in NOD/SCID/IL-2Rγnull (NSG) mice was reconstituted by the co-administration of human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) or subsets (CD4+ or CD8+) and autologous human dendritic cells (DC), and animals simultaneously challenged by implanting human prostate cancer cells (PC3 line). Tumor growth was evaluated over time and the phenotype of recovered splenocytes and TIL characterized by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Serum levels of circulating cytokines and chemokines were also assessed.
A tumor-bearing huPBL-NSG model was established in which human leukocytes reconstituted secondary lymphoid organs and promoted the accumulation of TIL. These TIL exhibited a unique phenotype when compared to splenocytes with a predominance of CD8+ T cells that exhibited increased expression of CD69, CD56, and an effector memory phenotype. TIL from huPBL-NSG animals closely matched the features of TIL recovered from primary human prostate cancers. Human cytokines were readily detectible in the serum and exhibited a different profile in animals implanted with PBL alone, tumor alone, and those reconstituted with both. Immune reconstitution slowed but could not eliminate tumor growth and this effect required the presence of CD4+ T cell help.
Simultaneous implantation of human PBL, DC and tumor results in a huPBL-NSG model that recapitulates the development of human TIL and allows an assessment of tumor and immune system interaction that cannot be carried out in humans. Furthermore, the capacity to manipulate individual features and cell populations provides an opportunity for hypothesis testing and outcome monitoring in a humanized system that may be more relevant than conventional mouse models.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The capacity for human monocytes to differentiate into antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DC) can be influenced by a number of immune modulating signals. Monocytes express intracellular cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) and 2 (CB2) receptors and we demonstrate that exposure to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) inhibits the forskolin-induced generation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate in a CB2-specific manner. In order to examine the potential impact of cannabinoids on the generation of monocyte-derived DC, monocytes were cultured in vitro with differentiation medium alone [containing granulocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and Interleukin-4 (IL-4)] or in combination with THC. The presence of THC (0.25-1.0 μg/ml) altered key features of DC differentiation, producing a concentration-dependent decrease in surface expression of CD11c, HLA-DR and costimulatory molecules (CD40 and CD86), less effective antigen uptake, and signs of functional skewing with decreased production of IL-12 but normal levels of IL-10. When examined in a mixed leukocyte reaction, DC that had been generated in the presence of THC were poor T cell activators as evidenced by their inability to generate effector/memory T cells or to stimulate robust IFN-γ responses. Some of these effects were partially restored by exposure to exogenous IL-7 and bacterial superantigen (S. aureus Cowans strain). These studies demonstrate that human monocytes express functional cannabinoid receptors and suggest that exposure to THC can alter their differentiation into functional antigen presenting cells; an effect that may be counter-balanced by the presence of other immunoregulatory factors. The impact of cannabinoids on adaptive immune responses in individuals with frequent drug exposure remains to be determined.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives Extent of systemic sclerosis (SSc)-related interstitial lung disease (ILD) assessed from thoracic high-resolution CT (HRCT) predicts disease course, mortality and treatment response. While quantitative HRCT analyses of extent of lung fibrosis (QLFib) or total interstitial lung disease (QILD) are more sensitive and reproducible than visual HRCT assessments of SSc-ILD, these analyses are not widely available. This study evaluates the relationship between clinical disease parameters and QLFib and QILD scores to identify potential surrogate measures of radiographic extent of ILD.
Methods Using baseline data from the Scleroderma Lung Study I (SLS I; N=158), multivariate regression analyses were performed using the best subset selection method to identify one to five variable models that best correlated with QLFib and QILD scores in both whole lung (WL) and the zone of maximal involvement (ZM). These models were subsequently validated using baseline data from SLS II (N=142). Bivariate analyses of the radiographic and clinical variables were also performed using pooled data. SLS I and II did not include patients with clinically significant pulmonary hypertension (PH).
Results Diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) was the single best predictor of both QLF and QILD in the WL and ZM in all of the best subset models. Adding other disease parameters to the models did not substantially improve model performance. Forced vital capacity (FVC) did not predict QLF or QILD scores in any of the models.
Conclusions In the absence of PH, DLCO provides the best overall estimate of HRCT-measured lung disease in patients from two large SSc cohorts. FVC, although commonly used, may not be the best surrogate measure of extent of SSc-ILD at any point in time.
Trial registration numbers SLS I: www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT 00000-4563; SLS II: www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT 00883129.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 12/2014; DOI:10.1136/annrheumdis-2014-206076 · 10.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Though matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are critical in the pathogenesis of COPD, their utility as a disease biomarker remains uncertain. This study aimed to determine whether bronchoalveolar lavage (BALF) or plasma MMP measurements correlated with disease severity or functional decline in emphysema.
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and luminex assays measured MMP-1, -9, -12 and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 in the BALF and plasma of non-smokers, smokers with normal lung function and moderate-to-severe emphysema subjects. In the cohort of 101 emphysema subjects correlative analyses were done to determine if MMP or TIMP-1 levels were associated with key disease parameters or change in lung function over an 18-month time period.
Compared to non-smoking controls, MMP and TIMP-1 BALF levels were significantly elevated in the emphysema cohort. Though MMP-1 was elevated in both the normal smoker and emphysema groups, collagenase activity was only increased in the emphysema subjects. In contrast to BALF, plasma MMP-9 and TIMP-1 levels were actually decreased in the emphysema cohort compared to the control groups. Both in the BALF and plasma, MMP and TIMP-1 measurements in the emphysema subjects did not correlate with important disease parameters and were not predictive of subsequent functional decline.
MMPs are altered in the BALF and plasma of emphysema; however, the changes in MMPs correlate poorly with parameters of disease intensity or progression. Though MMPs are pivotal in the pathogenesis of COPD, these findings suggest that measuring MMPs will have limited utility as a prognostic marker in this disease.
PLoS ONE 02/2013; 8(2):e56352. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0056352 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: mRNA encoding for the CB(2) cannabinoid receptor is expressed by many subsets of human peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL), but little is known about the resulting protein expression and function. Employing clones from the A549 and 293T cell lines that were constructed to express both full-length human CB(2) and GFP, we developed a flow cytometry assay for characterizing CB(2) protein expression. A monoclonal antibody directed against human CB(2) selectively stained the surface of transduced but not parental cell lines. When cells were fixed and permeabilized, imaging flow cytometry identified large stores of intracellular protein. Total cellular staining for CB(2) corresponded closely with the level of GFP expression. When exposed to Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, CB(2)-expressing cells internalized cell surface CB(2) receptors in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Applying these approaches to human PBL, CB(2) protein was identified on the surface of human B cells but not on T cells or monocytes. In contrast, when PBL were fixed and permeabilized, intracellular CB(2) expression was readily detected in all three subsets by both conventional and imaging flow cytometry. Similar to the protein expression pattern observed in fixed and permeabilized PBL, purified B cells, T cells, and monocytes expressed relatively equal levels of CB(2) mRNA by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Our findings confirm that human PBL express CB(2) protein but that its distribution is predominantly intracellular with only B cells expressing CB(2) protein at the extracellular membrane. The differential role of intracellular and extracellular CB(2) receptors in mediating ligand signaling and immune function remains to be determined.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with systemic sclerosis-associated interstitial lung disease (SSc-ILD) are thought to have the greatest decline in lung function (forced vital capacity [FVC]% predicted) in the early years after disease onset. The aim of this study was to assess the natural history of the decline in FVC% predicted in patients receiving placebo in the Scleroderma Lung Study and to evaluate possible factors for cohort enrichment in future therapeutic trials.
Patients randomized to receive placebo (n=79) were divided into 3 groups based on the duration of SSc (0-2 years, 2-4 years, and >4 years). Descriptive statistics and a mixed-effects model were used to analyze the rate of decline in the FVC% predicted over a 1-year period. Additional analyses stratified according to the severity of fibrosis on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) were performed, and interactions between disease severity and disease duration were explored.
The mean±SD decline in the unadjusted FVC% predicted during the 1-year period was 4.2±12.8%. At baseline, 28.5%, 43.0%, and 28.5% of patients were in the groups with disease durations of 0-2 years, 2-4 years, and >4 years, respectively. The rate of decline in the FVC% predicted was not significantly different across the 3 disease groups (P=0.85). When stratified by baseline fibrosis on HRCT, the rate of decline in the FVC% predicted was statistically significantly greater in the group with severe fibrosis (mean annualized decline in the FVC% predicted 7.2% versus 2.7% in the groups with no or moderate fibrosis; P=0.008). The decline observed in the group with severe fibrosis was most pronounced in those with a relatively short disease duration (0-2 years; annualized decline 7.0%).
Among patients with SSc-ILD in the Scleroderma Lung Study, the rates of progression of lung disease were similar irrespective of disease duration. The baseline HRCT fibrosis score is a predictor of a future decline in the FVC% predicted in the absence of effective treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ample studies suggest that the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)/prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) pathway plays a pivotal role in carcinogenesis and that COX-2 inhibition may help prevent lung cancer. Therefore, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the COX-2-selective inhibitor celecoxib (400 mg bid for 6 months) in former-smokers (age ≥ 45, ≥ 30 pack-years of smoking, ≥ 1 year of sustained abstinence from smoking). We assessed the impact of celecoxib on cellular and molecular events associated with lung cancer pathogenesis; the primary endpoint was bronchial Ki-67 labeling index (Ki-67 LI) after 6 months of treatment. Of 137 randomized subjects, 101 completed both baseline and 6-month bronchoscopies and were evaluable for the primary endpoint analysis. The beneficial effect on Ki-67 LI was greater in the celecoxib arm (versus placebo) in a mixed-effects analysis (P = 0.0006), and celecoxib significantly decreased Ki-67 LI by an average of 34%, whereas placebo increased Ki-67 LI by an average of 3.8% (P = 0.04; t test). In participants who crossed over to the other study arm at 6 months (all of whom had received 6 months of celecoxib at the end of a 12 months treatment period), the decreases in Ki-67 LI correlated with a reduction and/or resolution of lung nodules on computed tomography. Celecoxib significantly reduced plasma c-reactive protein and interleukin-6 mRNA and protein and increased 15(S)-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples. The baseline ratio of COX-2 to 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase mRNA in BAL cells was a significant predictive marker of Ki-67 response to celecoxib (P = 0.002). Our collective findings support the continued investigation of celecoxib for lung cancer chemoprevention in former smokers at a low risk of cardiovascular disease.
Cancer Prevention Research 07/2011; 4(7):984-93. DOI:10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-11-0078 · 4.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify baseline characteristics of patients with scleroderma-related interstitial lung disease (SSc-ILD) that could serve as predictors of the most favorable response to 12-month treatment with oral cyclophosphamide (CYC).
Regression analyses were retrospectively applied to the Scleroderma Lung Study data in order to identify baseline characteristics that correlated with the absolute change in forced vital capacity (FVC) (% predicted values) and the placebo-adjusted change in % predicted FVC over time (the CYC treatment effect).
Completion of the CYC arm of the Scleroderma Lung Study was associated with a placebo-adjusted improvement in the % predicted FVC of 2.11% at 12 months, which increased to 4.16% when patients were followed up for another 6 months (P=0.014). Multivariate regression analyses identified the maximal severity of reticular infiltrates (assessed as maximum fibrosis scores) on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) at baseline, the modified Rodnan skin thickness score (MRSS) at baseline, and the Mahler baseline dyspnea index as independent correlates of treatment response. When patients were stratified on the basis of whether 50% or more of any lung zone was involved by reticular infiltrates on HRCT and/or whether patients exhibited an MRSS of at least 23, a subgroup of patients emerged in whom there was an average CYC treatment effect of 9.81% at 18 months (P<0.001). Conversely, there was no treatment effect (a -0.58% difference) in patients with less severe HRCT findings and a lower MRSS at baseline.
A retrospective analysis of the Scleroderma Lung Study data identified the severity of reticular infiltrates on baseline HRCT and the baseline MRSS as patient features that might be predictive of responsiveness to CYC therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Scleroderma Lung Study (SLS) was a 1-year, randomized, controlled trial of oral cyclophosphamide for scleroderma-related pulmonary alveolitis. It concluded that oral cyclophosphamide slowed the decline in the forced vital capacity (% predicted) and had a beneficial effect on dyspnea, skin changes, and several quality of life measures of systemic sclerosis. We now report an in-depth assessment of the toxicity of cyclophosphamide during the year of therapy and the year after therapy was completed, during which time the investigators were still masked to the treatment assignment.
One-year, double-blind, randomized controlled trial of oral cyclophosphamide versus placebo with 1-year masked follow-up. Adverse events (AEs) were tabulated, described, and compared using descriptive statistics (eg, mean and median) and t, Wilcoxon rank sum, chi-squared, or Fisher's exact tests as appropriate.
During year 1, treatment-related overall AEs occurred more frequently in cyclophosphamide (CYC)-treated patients (overall AEs for CYC=154 events vs placebo=60 events; P=0.002), and especially for mild to moderate leukopenia (CYC=19 subjects vs placebo=0 subjects; P < .0001). For cancer, we followed patients beyond 2 years. There were no differences in the occurrence of cancer (CYC=4 subjects vs placebo=2 subjects), serious related AEs (CYC=8 events vs placebo=13 events), or deaths (CYC=6 subjects vs placebo=6 subjects).
Over 2 years, cyclophosphamide was associated with more AEs than placebo, including overall AEs and relative leukopenia. There were no differences in other AEs, including serious AEs, cancers, or deaths.
The American journal of medicine 05/2011; 124(5):459-67. DOI:10.1016/j.amjmed.2010.12.009 · 5.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Humanized mouse models provide a unique opportunity to study human immune cells in vivo, but traditional models have been limited to the evaluation of non-specific T-cell interactions due to the absence of antigen-presenting cells. In this study, immunodeficient NOD/SCID/IL2r-γ(null) (NSG) mice were engrafted with human peripheral blood lymphocytes alone or in combination with donor-matched monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) to determine whether antigen-specific T-cell activation could be reconstituted. Over a period of 3 weeks, transferred peripheral blood lymphocytes reconstituted the spleen and peripheral blood of recipient mice with predominantly human CD45-positive lymphocytes. Animals exhibited a relatively normal CD4/CD8 ratio (average 1.63:1) as well as reconstitution of CD3/CD56 (averaging 17.8%) and CD20 subsets (averaging 4.0%). Animals reconstituted with donor-matched CD11c+ DC also demonstrated a CD11c+ population within their spleen, representing 0.27% to 0.43% of the recovered human cells with concurrent expression of HLA-DR, CD40, and CD86. When immunized with adenovirus, either as free replication-incompetent vector (AdV) or as vector-transduced DC (DC/AdV), there was activation and expansion of AdV-specific T-cells, an increase in Th1 cytokines in serum, and skewing of T-cells toward an effector/memory phenotype. T-cells recovered from animals challenged with AdV in vivo proliferated and secreted a Th1-profile of cytokines in response to DC/AdV challenge in vitro. Our results suggest that engrafting NSG mice with a combination of lymphocytes and donor-matched DC can reconstitute antigen responsiveness and allow the in vivo assessment of human immune response to viruses, vaccines, and other immune challenges.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate changes in vascular and musculoskeletal involvement in subjects in the Scleroderma Lung Study, a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial comparing placebo treatment with oral cyclophosphamide (CYC) for 1 year in systemic sclerosis patients with interstitial lung disease. Subjects were then followed off the study agent for an additional 12 months.
The following parameters were noted at baseline and every 6 months for each patient: digital tip ulcers, other dermal ulcers, joint swelling, joint tenderness, large joint contractures, muscle tenderness, muscle weakness, oral aperture, hand extension, and fist closure.
A total of 158 patients were enrolled from 13 centers in the US; 79 were randomized to the CYC group and 79 to the placebo group. There were no differences in dermal ulcer and musculoskeletal measures between the CYC and placebo groups at baseline and 12 and 24 months. Improvement in percent predicted forced vital capacity was associated with improvement in the Rodnan skin thickness score (P<0.05) at 12 and 24 months, and with increased mean oral aperture at 24 months (P=0.005).
These data document the frequency and course of these vascular and musculoskeletal features over time, therefore providing essential information for sample size calculations and magnitude of effect in future clinical trials. There was no treatment effect of CYC on the vascular and musculoskeletal features described.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Redirecting the tropism of viral vectors enables specific transduction of selected cells by direct administration of vectors. We previously developed targeting lentiviral vectors by pseudotyping with modified Sindbis virus envelope proteins. These modified Sindbis virus envelope proteins have mutations in their original receptor-binding regions to eliminate their natural tropisms, and they are conjugated with targeting proteins, including antibodies and peptides, to confer their tropisms on target cells. We investigated whether our targeting vectors interact with DC-SIGN, which traps many types of viruses and gene therapy vectors by binding to the N-glycans of their envelope proteins. We found that these vectors do not interact with DC-SIGN. When these vectors were produced in the presence of deoxymannojirimycin, which alters the structures of N-glycans from complex to high mannose, these vectors used DC-SIGN as their receptor. Genetic analysis demonstrated that the N-glycans at E2 amino acid (aa) 196 and E1 aa 139 mediate binding to DC-SIGN, which supports the results of a previous report of cryoelectron microscopy analysis. In addition, we investigated whether modification of the N-glycan structures could activate serum complement activity, possibly by the lectin pathway of complement activation. DC-SIGN-targeted transduction occurs in the presence of human serum complement, demonstrating that high-mannose structure N-glycans of the envelope proteins do not activate human serum complement. These results indicate that the strategy of redirecting viral vectors according to alterations of their N-glycan structures would enable the vectors to target specific cells types expressing particular types of lectins.
Journal of Virology 07/2010; 84(14):6923-34. DOI:10.1128/JVI.00435-10 · 4.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Scleroderma Lung Study (SLS) demonstrated significant treatment-associated improvements in pulmonary function and symptoms when patients with scleroderma-related interstitial lung disease (SSc-ILD) were treated with a 1-year course of cyclophosphamide (CYC) in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial. This study examined thoracic high-resolution CT (HRCT) scans obtained during the SLS for treatment-associated changes over time.
Ninety-eight of the 158 subjects (CYC group, 49 subjects; placebo group, 49 subjects) participating in the SLS underwent thoracic HRCT scans both at baseline and after 12 months of treatment, which were available for analysis. Two independent radiologists visually scored the baseline HRCT scans for the presence of ground-glass opacities (GGOs), fibrosis (FIB), and honeycomb cysts (HCs) on a scale of 0 to 4. The treatment effect at 12 months was assessed by a blinded comparison of baseline and follow-up scans for evidence of stability and improvement (not worse) or deterioration (worse).
At the end of treatment, FIB was significantly worse in the placebo treatment group than in the CYC treatment group (p = 0.014). Furthermore, differences in the 12-month change in FIB between the CYC and placebo groups correlated significantly with other outcome measures, including the 12-month changes in FVC (p < 0.05), total lung capacity (p < 0.05), and dyspnea (p < 0.001) scores. However, no differences were noted between the two groups with respect to changes in either GGOs or HCs.
A 1-year course of treatment of SSc-ILD with CYC was associated with treatment-related changes in FIB scores on HRCT scans, which correlated with other measures of treatment response.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00004563.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The major marker utilized to monitor COPD patients is forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). However, a single measurement of FEV1 cannot reliably predict subsequent decline. Recent studies indicate that T lymphocytes and eosinophils are important determinants of disease stability in COPD. We therefore measured cytokine levels in the lung lavage fluid and plasma of COPD patients in order to determine if the levels of T cell or eosinophil related cytokines were predictive of the future course of the disease.
Baseline lung lavage and plasma samples were collected from COPD subjects with moderately severe airway obstruction and emphysematous changes on chest CT. The study participants were former smokers who had not had a disease exacerbation within the past six months or used steroids within the past two months. Those subjects who demonstrated stable disease over the following six months (DeltaFEV1 % predicted = 4.7 +/- 7.2; N = 34) were retrospectively compared with study participants who experienced a rapid decline in lung function (DeltaFEV1 % predicted = -16.0 +/- 6.0; N = 16) during the same time period and with normal controls (N = 11). Plasma and lung lavage cytokines were measured from clinical samples using the Luminex multiplex kit which enabled the simultaneous measurement of several T cell and eosinophil related cytokines.
Stable COPD participants had significantly higher plasma IL-2 levels compared to participants with rapidly progressive COPD (p = 0.04). In contrast, plasma eotaxin-1 levels were significantly lower in stable COPD subjects compared to normal controls (p < 0.03). In addition, lung lavage eotaxin-1 levels were significantly higher in rapidly progressive COPD participants compared to both normal controls (p < 0.02) and stable COPD participants (p < 0.05).
These findings indicate that IL-2 and eotaxin-1 levels may be important markers of disease stability in advanced emphysema patients. Prospective studies will need to confirm whether measuring IL-2 or eotaxin-1 can identify patients at risk for rapid disease progression.
Respiratory research 11/2009; 10(1):113. DOI:10.1186/1465-9921-10-113 · 3.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ability to recruit qualified subjects who are willing to adhere to the study protocol in clinical trials is an essential component of translational research. Such tasks can be particularly challenging for chemoprevention studies when the targeted study population is healthy, at risk individuals who do not have signs or symptoms of the disease, and the study participation involves complex scheduling and invasive procedures such as bronchoscopy. In this report, we describe the recruitment process and evaluated the effectiveness of various recruitment strategies utilized in our National Cancer Institute sponsored lung cancer chemoprevention study with celecoxib. Heavy ex-smokers were recruited into the study through various methods such as radio advertisements, print media, mass mailings, flyers, internet postings and others. The number of inquiries, on-site screenees and randomization generated by each method determined the efficacy of that recruitment strategy. We prescreened 4470 individuals, invited 323 people for on-site screening and randomized 137 subjects. Radio advertisements (ads) generated the most inquiries (71.1%), followed by internet posting (11.8%), print media (6.0%), posted and racked flyers (4.4%), mass mailings (2.7%) and other strategies such as referrals from friends or family members or health care providers (2.3%). Radio ads, although costly, yielded the most subjects for on-site screening and randomization. Moreover, among the various types of radio stations, news radio stations were by far the most successful. Our results suggest that advertising on news radio is a highly effective recruitment method for successful accrual of ex-smokers into lung cancer chemoprevention trials.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Experimental data suggested that exposure to recreational drugs might adversely affect antitumor immunity, which led us to examine the hypothesis that use of marijuana, cocaine, poppers, and amphetamines might increase the risk of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) in HIV- and HHV-8-coinfected homosexual men. We analyzed data prospectively collected from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) between 1984 and 2002. Among the 1335 HIV- and HHV-8-coinfected white men, 401 KS cases were identified. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to estimate the effects of time-varying recreational drug use on KS risk adjusting for potential confounders. The effects of both recent use (6 months prior) of recreational drugs and lagged exposure (i.e., use from 3 and 5 years prior) were examined. We did not observe any clear association with KS for recent use of any of the four drugs. In the analyses using lagged exposures, KS risk was associated with use of poppers 3-5 years prior [hazard ratio (HR)(3 years prior) = 1.27, 95% CI (0.97-1.67), HR(5 years prior) = 1.46 (1.01-2.13)]. However, no clear dose-response relationship was observed. These findings do not support a biological association between use of these substances and KS development in HIV- and HHV-8-coinfected homosexual men.
AIDS research and human retroviruses 02/2009; 25(2):149-56. DOI:10.1089/aid.2008.0196 · 2.33 Impact Factor