Matthew W Himmelstein

Dupont, Delaware, Ohio, United States

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Publications (24)88.64 Total impact

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract The framework analysis previously presented for using DNA adduct information in the risk assessment of chemical carcinogens was applied in a series of case studies which place the adduct information into context with the key events in carcinogenesis to determine whether they could be used to support a mutagenic mode of action (MOA) for the examined chemicals. Three data-rich chemicals, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), tamoxifen (Tam) and vinyl chloride (VCl) were selected for this exercise. These chemicals were selected because they are known human carcinogens and have different characteristics: AFB1 forms a unique adduct and human exposure is through contaminated foods; Tam is a pharmaceutical given to women so that the dose and duration of exposure are known, forms unique adducts in rodents, and has both estrogenic and genotoxic properties; and VCl, to which there is industrial exposure, forms a number of adducts that are identical to endogenous adducts found in unexposed people. All three chemicals produce liver tumors in rats. AFB1 and VCl also produce liver tumors in humans, but Tam induces human uterine tumors, only. To support a mutagenic MOA, the chemical-induced adducts must be characterized, shown to be pro-mutagenic, be present in the tumor target tissue, and produce mutations of the class found in the tumor. The adducts formed by AFB1 and VCl support a mutagenic MOA for their carcinogenicity. However, the data available for Tam shows a mutagenic MOA for liver tumors in rats, but its carcinogenicity in humans is most likely via a different MOA.
    Critical Reviews in Toxicology 02/2014; · 6.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: β-chloroprene (2-chloro-1,3-butadiene), a monomer used in the production of neoprene elastomers, is of regulatory interest due to the production of multi-organ tumors in mouse and rat cancer bioassays. A significant increase in female mouse lung tumors was observed at the lowest exposure concentration of 12.8 ppm while a small, but not statistically significant, increase was observed in female rats only at the highest exposure concentration of 80 ppm. The metabolism of chloroprene results in the generation of reactive epoxides and the rate of overall chloroprene metabolism is highly species dependent. To identify potential key events in the mode-of-action of chloroprene lung tumorigenesis, dose response and time course gene expression microarray measurements were made in the lungs of female mice and female rats. The gene expression changes were analyzed using both a traditional analysis of variance approach followed by pathway enrichment analysis and a pathway-based benchmark dose (BMD) analysis approach. Pathways related to glutathione biosynthesis and metabolism were the primary pathways consistent with cross-species differences in tumor incidence. Transcriptional BMD values for the pathway were more similar to differences in tumor response than were estimated target tissue dose surrogates based on the total amount of chloroprene metabolized per unit mass of lung tissue per day. The closer correspondence of the transcriptional changes with the tumor response are likely due to their reflection of the overall balance between metabolic activation and detoxication reactions whereas the current tissue dose surrogate reflects only oxidative metabolism.
    Toxicological Sciences 11/2012; 131(2):629-640. · 4.33 Impact Factor
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    Yuching Yang, Matthew W Himmelstein, Harvey J Clewell
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    ABSTRACT: β-Chloroprene (chloroprene) is carcinogenic in inhalation bioassays with B6C3F1 mice and Fischer rats, but the potential effects in humans have not been adequately characterized. In order to provide a better basis for evaluating chloroprene exposures and potential effects in humans, we have explored species and tissue differences in chloroprene metabolism. This study implemented an in vitro-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) approach to parameterize a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for chloroprene and evaluate the influence of species and gender differences in metabolism on target tissue dosimetry. Chloroprene metabolism was determined in vitro using liver, lung and kidney microsomes from male or female mice, rats, and humans. A two compartment PK model was used to estimate metabolism parameters for chloroprene in an in vitro closed vial system, which were then extrapolated to the whole body PBPK model. Two different strategies were used to estimate parameters for the oxidative metabolism of chloroprene: a deterministic point-estimation using the Nelder-Mead nonlinear optimization algorithm and probabilistic Bayesian analysis using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique. Target tissue dosimetry (average amount of chloroprene metabolized in lung per day) was simulated with the PBPK model using the in vitro-based metabolism parameters. The model-predicted target tissue dosimetry, as a surrogate for a risk estimate, was similar between the two approaches; however, the latter approach provided a measure of uncertainty in the metabolism parameters and the opportunity to evaluate the impact of that uncertainty on predicted risk estimates.
    Toxicology in Vitro 04/2012; 26(6):1047-55. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (8:2 FTOH) inhalation exposure was investigated to (1) compare plasma metabolites to oral data, (2) conduct a route-to-route extrapolation (oral to inhalation), (3) develop a human equivalent air concentration (HEC) from a 90-day oral sub-chronic study in rats using BMD analysis, and (4) calculate a margin of exposure (MOE) between the HEC and measured air concentrations. Male and female rats were exposed nose-only for 6h at 3 or 30mg/m(3). Blood was collected at 1, 3 and 6h during exposure and 6 and 18h post exposure. Alcohol, perfluorocarboxylic acid and polyfluorinated acid metabolites were determined in plasma by LC-MS/MS. 8:2 FTOH was <LOQ (32nM) at the low exposure and quantifiable (37-69nM) at the high exposure. The quantifiable metabolites in plasma were dose proportional and comprised mainly of 8:2 FTCA, 7:3 Acid, and PFOA. By kinetic modeling, the yields of the terminal products 7:3 Acid (1.6-2.1 and 0.9mol%) and PFOA (1.0-1.2 and 0.3mol%) of the inhaled dose were low for male and female rats, respectively. The kinetic yield of PFOA after oral dosing was similar (1.1-1.7-fold) for male rats and greater (8-9-fold) for female rats relative to inhalation exposure, an observation confirmed by non-compartmental analysis. A BMDL10% (3.7mg/kg/day) was derived for mild hepatic necrosis observed in male rats following a 90-day oral dose study with 8:2 FTOH. The corresponding HECs were 1.8 and 3.7mg/m(3), which gave MOE values ranging from 1.8×10(4) to 6.1×10(6) based on reported ambient air concentrations of 0.3-209ng/m(3). These findings demonstrate rapid 8:2 FTOH uptake and clearance by the inhalation route and a consistent metabolite profile between inhalation and oral exposures in rats. No toxicity is expected in humans from typical ambient 8:2 FTOH air exposures.
    Toxicology 11/2011; 291(1-3):122-32. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In vitro metabolism of 1,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropene (PFP) was investigated in the present study. PFP was metabolized via cytochrome P450-catalyzed oxidative dehalogenation in liver microsomes and glutathione transferase (GST)-catalyzed conjugation in liver microsomes and cytosol. Two oxidation products, 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropionaldehyde (TPA) and 3,3,3-trifluoropyruvaldehyde (TFPA), and two GSH conjugates, S-(2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropenyl)-GSH (TFPG) and S-(1,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropyl)-GSH (PFPG) were identified. Enzyme kinetic parameters for the formation of TFPA, TFPG, and PFPG were obtained in male and female rat, mouse, dog, and human liver microsomes and cytosol and were confirmed using freshly isolated male rat hepatocytes. For the TFPA pathway, dog microsomes exhibited much larger K(m) values than rat, mouse, and human microsomes. Sex differences in the rates of metabolism within a given species were minor and generally were less than 2-fold. Across the species, liver microsomes were the primary subcellular fraction for GSH S-conjugation and the apparent reaction rates for the formation of TFPG were much greater than those for PFPG in liver microsomes. PFPG was unstable and had a half-life of approximately 3.9 h in a phosphate buffer (pH 7.4 and 37°C). The intrinsic clearance values for the formation of TFPA were much greater than those for the formation of GSH S-conjugates, suggesting that cytochrome P450-mediated oxidation is the primary pathway for the metabolism of PFP at relatively low PFP concentrations. Because saturation of the GST-mediated reactions was not reached at the highest possible PFP concentration, GSH S-conjugation may become a much more important pathway at higher PFP concentrations (relative to the K(m) for TFPA).
    Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals 07/2011; 39(7):1288-93. · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of inhaled methyl iodide (MeI) on clinical pathology parameters, glutathione (GSH) tissue levels, serum thyroid hormone and inorganic iodide concentrations, S-methylcysteine hemoglobin concentrations, and liver UDP-glucuronyltransferase activity were studied in the rat. Male rats were exposed by whole-body inhalation to 0, 25, or 100 ppm MeI, 6 h/day for up to 2 days. Serum cholesterol concentrations (both high-density lipoprotein [HDL] and low-density lipoprotein [LDL] fractions) were increased and triglycerides were decreased at both exposure levels. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations were increased at 25 and 100 ppm, and serum triiodothyronine (T(3)) and thyroxine (T(4)) concentrations were decreased at 100 ppm. There was no change in either reverse triiodothyronine (rT(3)) or UDP-glucuronyltransferase activity at either exposure level. A dose- and time-dependent reduction in GSH levels in blood, kidney, liver, and nasal tissue was observed, with the greatest reduction in nasal tissue (olfactory and respiratory epithelium). MeI exposure also resulted in a substantial dose- and time-dependent increase in both serum inorganic iodide and red blood cell S-methylcysteine hemoglobin adducts. These results indicate that following inhalation exposure, MeI is rapidly metabolized in blood and tissue of rats, resulting in methylation products and release of inorganic iodide.
    Inhalation Toxicology 06/2009; 21(6):480-7. · 1.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The formation of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) adducts can have important and adverse consequences for cellular and whole organism function. Available methods for identification of DNA damage and quantification of adducts are reviewed. Analyses can be performed on various samples including tissues, isolated cells, and intact or hydrolyzed (digested) DNA from a variety of biological samples of interest for monitoring in humans. Sensitivity and specificity are considered key factors for selecting the type of method for assessing DNA perturbation. The amount of DNA needed for analysis is dependent upon the method and ranges widely, from <1 microg to 3 mg. The methods discussed include the Comet assay, the ligation-mediated polymerase reaction, histochemical and immunologic methods, radiolabeled ((14)C- and (3)H-) binding, (32)P-postlabeling, and methods dependent on gas chromatography (GC) or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with detection by electron capture, electrochemical detection, single or tandem mass spectrometry, or accelerator mass spectrometry. Sensitivity is ranked, and ranges from approximately 1 adduct in 10(4) to 10(12) nucleotides. A brief overview of oxidatively generated DNA damage is also presented. Assay limitations are discussed along with issues that may have impact on the reliability of results, such as sample collection, processing, and storage. Although certain methodologies are mature, improving technology will continue to enhance the specificity and sensitivity of adduct analysis. Because limited guidance and recommendations exist for adduct analysis, this effort supports the HESI Committee goal of developing a framework for use of DNA adduct data in risk assessment.
    Critical Reviews in Toxicology 01/2009; 39(8):679-694. · 6.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chloroethane was observed in a chronic cancer bioassay to be a mouse-specific uterine carcinogen at a single high inhaled concentration (15,000 ppm). Although high incidence occurred in the female mouse (86%), no uterine tumor increases were observed in female rats. Chloroethane is a weak alkylating agent and has low acute toxicity. No genotoxicity potential has been observed below 40,000 ppm. Chloroethane is eliminated from the body by pulmonary exhalation and metabolically by oxidation via cytochrome P-450 (likely producing acetaldehyde) and conjugation with glutathione (GSH). The mode of action for the mouse-specific uterine tumors is not definitively known and could involve parent chemical and/or metabolite(s). A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for chloroethane disposition in the rat was developed previously, but no such models have been described for mice or humans. For the work reported here, the existing PBPK model for chloroethane in rats was expanded and refined, and PBPK models for chloroethane disposition in mice and humans were developed to allow species comparisons of internal dosimetry and for possible insights into the carcinogenic mode of action. The amounts metabolized via glutathione-S-transferase (GST) versus cytochrome P-450, and the total amount of chloroethane absorbed, were most consistent with the observations made concerning uterine tumors, with amounts metabolized via GST providing the larger quantitative difference between the two rodent species. Choice of the most relevant dose metric for risk assessments involving uterine tumors in mice will require pharmacodynamic considerations in the mode of action in addition to the pharmacokinetic differences reported here.
    Toxicological Sciences 08/2008; 104(1):54-66. · 4.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The detection of perfluorinated organic compounds in the environment has generated interest in their biological fate. 8-2 Fluorotelomer alcohol (8-2 FTOH, C(7)F(15)CF(2)CH(2)CH(2)OH), a raw material used in the manufacture of fluorotelomer-based products, has been identified in the environment and has been implicated as a potential source for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in the environment. In this study, the in vitro metabolism of [3-(14)C] 8-2 FTOH and selected acid metabolites by rat, mouse, trout, and human hepatocytes and by rat, mouse, and human liver microsomes and cytosol were investigated. Clearance rates of 8-2 FTOH in hepatocytes indicated rat > mouse > human >/= trout. A number of metabolites not previously reported were identified, adding further understanding to the pathway for 8-2 FTOH metabolism. Neither perfluorooctanoate nor perfluorononanoate was detected from incubations with human microsomes. To further elucidate the steps in the metabolic pathway, hepatocytes were incubated with 8-2 fluorotelomer acid, 8-2 fluorotelomer unsaturated acid, 7-3 acid, 7-3 unsaturated acid, and 7-2 secondary fluorotelomer alcohol. Shorter chain perfluorinated acids were only observed in hepatocyte and microsome incubations of the 8-2 acids but not from the 7-3 acids. Overall, the results indicate that 8-2 FTOH is extensively metabolized in rats and mice and to a lesser extent in humans and trout. Metabolism of 8-2 FTOH to perfluorinated acids was extremely small and likely mediated by enzymes in the microsomal fraction. These results suggest that human exposure to 8-2 FTOH is not expected to be a significant source of PFOA or any other perfluorocarboxylic acids.
    Toxicological Sciences 12/2007; 100(2):333-44. · 4.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: These proceedings represent nearly all the platform and poster presentations given during the International Symposium on Evaluation of Butadiene and Chloroprene Health Risks, held in Charleston, South Carolina, USA, on September 20-22, 2005. The Symposium was attended by 78 participants representing private industry (37), academia (21), government (11), not-for-profit organizations (5), and consulting (4). The program followed the format of previous symposia on butadiene, chloroprene, and isoprene in London UK (2000) and butadiene and isoprene in Blaine, Washington USA (1995). This format enabled the exchange of significant new scientific results and discussion of future research needs. Isoprene was not evaluated during the 2005 Symposium because of lack of new data. For background information, the reader is referred to the proceedings of the London 2000 meeting for a thorough historical perspective and overview of scientific and regulatory issues concerning butadiene, chloroprene, and isoprene [Chem.-Biol. Interact. (2001) 135-136:1-7]. The Symposium consisted of seven sessions: (1) Introduction and Opening Remarks, (2) Butadiene/styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)--Process Overview, Exposure and Health Effects/Human Studies; (3) Chloroprene--Process Overview, Exposure and Health Effects/Human Studies; (4) Mode of Action/Key Events; (5) Risk Assessment; (6) Poster Presentations; and (7) Panel Discussion and Future Directions. The Symposium concluded with a discussion by all participants of issues that arose throughout the course of the Symposium. The Proceedings of the Symposium published in this Special Issue are organized according to the Sessions outlined above. The purpose of this foreword is to summarize the presentations and their key findings and recommend future research directions for each chemical.
    Chemico-Biological Interactions 04/2007; 166(1-3):1-9. · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The estimation and characterization of a cancer risk is grounded in the observation of tumors in humans and/or experimental animals. Increasingly, however, other kinds of data (non-tumor data) are finding application in cancer risk assessment. Metabolism and kinetics, adduct formation, genetic damage, mode of action, and biomarkers of exposure, susceptibility, and effects are examples. While these and other parameters have been studied for many important chemicals over the past 30-40 years, their use in risk assessments is more recent, and new insights and opportunities are continuing to unfold. To provide some perspective on this field, the ILSI Risk Science Institute asked a select working group to characterize the pertinent non-tumor data available for 1,3-butadiene, benzene, and vinyl chloride and to comment on the utility of these data in characterizing cancer risks. This paper presents the findings of that working group and concludes with 15 simple principles for the use of non-tumor data in cancer risk assessment.
    Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 03/2003; 37(1):105-32. · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The estimation and characterization of a cancer risk is grounded in the observation of tumors in humans and/or experimental animals. Increasingly, however, other kinds of data (non-tumor data) are finding application in cancer risk assessment. Metabolism and kinetics, adduct formation, genetic damage, mode of action, and biomarkers of exposure, susceptibility, and effects are examples. While these and other parameters have been studied for many important chemicals over the past 30–40 years, their use in risk assessments is more recent, and new insights and opportunities are continuing to unfold. To provide some perspective on this field, the ILSI Risk Science Institute asked a select working group to characterize the pertinent non-tumor data available for 1,3-butadiene, benzene, and vinyl chloride and to comment on the utility of these data in characterizing cancer risks. This paper presents the findings of that working group and concludes with 15 simple principles for the use of non-tumor data in cancer risk assessment.
    Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 01/2003; 37(1):105-132. · 2.13 Impact Factor
  • Lisa M Sweeney, Matthew W Himmelstein, Michael L Gargas
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    ABSTRACT: Potential health effects of human exposure to 1,3-butadiene (BD) are of concern due to the use of BD in industry and its low-level presence throughout the environment. Physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK) models of BD in rodents have been developed by multiple research groups in an effort to explain species differences in toxicity (especially carcinogenic potency) through toxicokinetics. PBTK modeling of dose metrics related to a non-cancer endpoint, ovotoxicity in experimental animals, was conducted. The cumulative area under the blood concentration vs. time curve (AUC) for the metabolite diepoxybutane (butadiene diepoxide, DEB) was found to be consistent with ovotoxicity in mice and rats exposed to BD by inhalation or epoxybutene (butadiene monoepoxide, EB) or DEB by intraperitoneal injection. This suggests that cumulative DEB AUC may also be an appropriate metric for possible human risk. A preliminary human PBTK model was assembled for the eventual assessment of reproductive risk to humans and for prioritizing the determination of model parameters. The preliminary model accurately predicted published data on exhaled breath BD concentrations in a human volunteer exposed to BD by inhalation. The fit was relatively insensitive to the rate constant for BD epoxidation. Sensitivity analyses were conducted on this human PBTK model. Using a range of published rate constants, human blood DEB was found to be sensitive to rates of epoxidation of EB to DEB and hydrolysis of EB and DEB, but not BD epoxidation. Because of the large ranges of rates measured in vitro for these reactions, different combinations of in-vitro rates produce varying predictions of blood DEB concentration. Thus, validation of a human PBTK model with human biomonitoring data will be essential to produce a PBTK model that can be applied to risk assessment.
    Chemico-Biological Interactions 07/2001; · 2.97 Impact Factor
  • R Valentine, M W Himmelstein
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    ABSTRACT: beta-Chloroprene (CD), the 2-chloro derivative of 1,3-butadiene, is used for the manufacture of the synthetic rubber, polychloroprene. Acute inhalation studies show that CD is lethal to Crl:CD rats at >2300 p.p.m. (4 h); the primary target organ effects were pulmonary hemorrhage and edema, and hepatic necrosis. In 2- and 4-week inhalation studies in Fischer 344 (F344) and Wistar rats, early deaths occurred at 500 and > or =161 p.p.m., respectively. Organ system injury was found in the nose (degeneration/metaplasia of olfactory epithelium), liver (centrilobular necrosis), and blood (decreased red blood cell count in F344 rats only). In a 90-day inhalation study with F344 rats, degeneration/metaplasia of the olfactory epithelium and reduced nonprotein sulfhydryl content of lungs and liver were found in animals exposed to 80 p.p.m., and anemia, hepatocellular necrosis, and forestomach inflammation were observed at 200 p.p.m. In a 90-day study with B6C3F1 mice, CD caused deaths at 200 p.p.m., the highest concentration tested, and epithelial hyperplasia of the forestomach at 80 p.p.m. Other than a slight (<10%) reduction in sperm motility in male rats at 200 p.p.m., all other reproductive parameters (sperm count or morphology in males, and estrous cyclicity or cycle length in females) were unaffected in these 90-day rat/mouse studies. There were no significant indications of neurological toxicity. The study No-Observable Adverse Effect Level was 32 p.p.m. based on nasal injury in rats. Despite some early reports of reproductive system abnormalities at levels <1 p.p.m., recent studies show no embryotoxic or developmental toxicity in female Wistar or Crl:CD rats, or in New Zealand White rabbits at CD exposure concentrations up to 25 or 175 p.p.m., respectively. In a one-generation reproduction study with Wistar rats, CD produced growth retardation in the F(0) generation exposed to 100 p.p.m., and in the F(1) offspring at 33 and 100 p.p.m.; no effects on reproductive parameters or histopathology were found. CD is nonmutagenic in standard plate incorporation bacterial reverse mutation assays (Ames assays) but positive using direct gas-phase incubation methods. Bacterial mutagenicity (primarily base pair substitution) was either negative or weakly positive when freshly prepared CD was tested. Mutagenicity increased markedly with time, presumably from CD dimer formation, and also by addition of liver S9 metabolic activation system. In vivo micronucleus, chromosome aberration and sister chromatid exchange studies in mice showed no structural chromosomal damage. Overall, the pathological effects in the liver and nose dominate the subchronic toxicity of CD. The genotoxicity of CD is inconsistent and requires further study.
    Chemico-Biological Interactions 06/2001; 135-136:81-100. · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: (1-Chloroethenyl)oxirane (CEO) is a metabolite of beta-chloroprene (2-chloro-1,3-butadiene, CD). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro mutagenic and clastogenic (chromosome breaking) potential of CEO. For comparative purposes, the study also included an evaluation of the racemic compounds, 3,4-epoxy-1-butene (EB) and 1,2:3,4-diepoxybutane (DEB). Mutagenicity was evaluated in a bacterial reverse mutation test (Ames), using the pre-incubation method in the presence and absence of an exogenous metabolism system (Aroclor)-induced rat liver S9). Four Salmonella typhimurium tester strains, TA97a, TA98, TA100 and TA1535 were used. The exposure concentrations in the sealed incubation vials ranged from 0 to 69 mM for CEO, 0 to 102 mM for EB, and 0 to 83 mM for DEB. All three compounds showed signs of toxicity, with DEB being substantially more toxic than either CEO or EB. Mutagenic activity was observed with all three chemicals in primarily the base pair substitution strains (S. typhimurium TA100 and TA1535), but some activity was also seen in the frameshift elimination strains (S. typhimurium TA97a and TA98). The observed mutagenic responses after exposure with CEO or EB were greater than the observed response for DEB, most likely because of the higher toxicity of DEB. Generally, the mutagenic responses were unchanged in the frameshift strains and base pair substitution strains in the presence of S9 metabolism. In vitro clastogenicity was evaluated using the cytochalasin-B blocked micronucleus test in cultured Chinese hamster V79 cells. The test was conducted without S9 metabolism because of the absence of substantial changes in the Ames test. Exposure concentrations ranged from 0 to 0.943 mM for CEO, 0 to 3.0 mM for EB, and 0 to 0.035 mM for DEB, with the upper exposure concentrations dictated by cytotoxicity. Cytotoxicity, measured as a reduction in the proportion of binucleated cells and altered cell morphology, was observed for CEO at concentrations > or =0.175 mM. Exposure to EB led to a reduced proportion of binucleated cells at concentrations > or =2.0 mM, and cell death was observed after DEB exposure at concentrations > or =0.025 mM. No clastogenicity was observed in the V79 cells when tested up to cytotoxic concentrations of CEO, whereas an elevated frequency of micronuclei was observed after exposure to either EB (> or =1.0 mM) or DEB (> or =0.0125 mM). These results suggest that CEO-induced mutagenicity, but not clastogenicity, may contribute to the observed beta-chloroprene-induced carcinogenicity in the rodent bioassay studies.
    Chemico-Biological Interactions 06/2001; 135-136:703-13. · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Based on analogy with butadiene and isoprene, the metabolism of beta-chloroprene (2-chloro-1,3-butadiene, CD) to reactive intermediates is likely to be a key determinant of tumor development in laboratory rodents exposed to CD by inhalation. The purpose of this study is to identify species differences in toxic metabolite (epoxide) formation and detoxification in rodents and humans. The in-vitro metabolism of CD was studied in liver microsomes of B6C3F1 mice, Fischer/344 and Wistar rats, Syrian hamsters, and humans. Microsomal oxidation of CD in the presence of NADP(+), extraction with diethyl ether, and analysis by GC-mass selective detection (MSD) indicated that (1-chloroethenyl)oxirane (CEO) was an important metabolite of CD in the liver microsomal suspensions of all species studied. Other potential water-soluble oxidative metabolites may have been present. The oxidation of CD was inhibited by 4-methyl pyrazole, an inhibitor of CYP 2E1. CEO was sufficiently volatile at 37 degrees C for vial headspace analysis using GC-MSD single ion monitoring (m/z=39). CEO was synthesized and used to conduct partition measurements along with CD and further explore CEO metabolism in liver microsomes and cytosol. The liquid-to-air partition coefficients for CD and CEO in the microsomal suspensions were 0.7 and 58, respectively. Apparent species differences in the uptake of CEO by microsomal hydrolysis were hamster approximately human>rats>mice. Hydrolysis was inhibited by 1,1,1-trichloropropene oxide, a competitive inhibitor of epoxide hydrolase. A preliminary experiment indicated that the uptake of CEO in liver cytosol by GSH conjugation was hamster>rats approximately mice (human cytosol not yet tested). In general, the results suggest that metabolism may help explain species differences showing a greater sensitivity for CD-induced tumorigenicity in mice, for example, compared with hamsters. Additional experiments are in progress to quantify the kinetic parameters of CD oxidation and CEO metabolism by enzymatic hydrolysis and conjugation by glutathione S-transferase for in cytosol. A future goal is to use the kinetic rates to parameterize a physiologically based toxicokinetic model and relate the burden of toxic metabolite to the cancer dose-response observed in experimental animals.
    Chemico-Biological Interactions 06/2001; 135-136:267-84. · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Benzene (BZ) requires oxidative metabolism catalyzed by cytochrome P-450 2E1 (CYP 2E1) to exert its hematotoxic and genotoxic effects. We previously reported that male mice have a two-fold higher maximum rate of BZ oxidation compared with female mice; this correlates with the greater sensitivity of males to the genotoxic effects of BZ as measured by micronuclei induction and sister chromatid exchanges. The aim of this study was to quantitate levels of BZ metabolites in urine and tissues, and to determine whether the higher maximum rate of BZ oxidation in male mice would be reflected in higher levels of hydroxylated BZ metabolites in tissues and water-soluble metabolites in urine. Male and female B6C3F, mice were exposed to 100 or 600 ppm 14C-BZ by nose-only inhalation for 6 h. An additional group of male mice was pretreated with 1% acetone in drinking water for 8 d prior to exposure to 600 ppm BZ; this group was used to evaluate the effect of induction of CYP 2E1 on urine and tissue levels of BZ and its hydroxylated metabolites. BZ, phenol (PHE), and hydroquinone (HQ) were quantified in blood, liver, and bone marrow during exposure and postexposure, and water-soluble metabolites were analyzed in urine in the 48 h after exposure. Male mice exhibited a higher flux of BZ metabolism through the HQ pathway compared with females after exposure to either 100 ppm BZ (32.0 2.03 vs. 19.8 2.7%) or 600 ppm BZ (14.7 1.42 vs. 7.94 + 0.76%). Acetone pretreatment to induce CYP 2E1 resulted in a significant increase in both the percent and mass of urinary HQ glucuronide and muconic acid in male mice exposed to 600 ppm BZ. This increase was paralleled by three- to fourfold higher steady-state concentrations of PHE and HQ in blood and bone marrow of acetone-pretreated mice compared with untreated mice. These results indicate that the higher maximum rate of BZ metabolism in male mice is paralleled by a greater proportion of the total flux of BZ through the pathway for HQ formation, suggesting that the metabolites formed along this pathway may be responsible for the genotoxicity observed following BZ exposure.
    Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A 12/1998; 55(6):421-43. · 1.73 Impact Factor
  • Critical Reviews in Toxicology 02/1997; 27(1):1-108. · 6.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In vitro and in vivo butadiene (BD) metabolism data from laboratory animals were integrated into a rodent physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model with flow- and diffusion-limited compartments. The resulting model describes experimental data from multiple sources under scenarios such as closed chamber inhalation and nose-only flow-through inhalation exposures. Incorporation of diurnal glutathione (GSH) variation allows accurate simulation of GSH changes observed in air control nose-only exposures and BD exposures. An isolated tissue model based on rate parameters determined in vitro predicts the decrease in epoxide concentrations in intact animals during the time lag between exsanguination and tissue removal for tissues capable of epoxide biotransformation, providing a better indication of in vivo dosimetry. Further refinements of the model are required relative to model predictions of an important BD metabolite, diepoxybutane.
    Toxicology 11/1996; · 4.02 Impact Factor
  • M W Himmelstein, M J Turner, B Asgharian, J A Bond
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    ABSTRACT: Significant species differences exist in the susceptibility to butadiene (BD)-induced cancer in rats and mice, and metabolism is likely a critical determinant for species sensitivity. This study measured the in vivo concentrations of, (1) BD in blood; (2) epoxybutene (EB) and diepoxybutane (DEB) in blood, lung and liver; and (3) glutathione (GSH) in lung and liver of male B6C3F1 mice and Sprague-Dawley rats during and after 6-h exposure to 62.5, 625, 1250, and 8000 (rat only) ppm BD. Mice had higher concentrations of EB and DEB in blood and tissues than did rats, DEB could not be detected in blood or tissues of rats, and the greatest depletion of GSH occurred in the lungs of mice. During exposure, the peak concentrations of EB in mice compared with rats were 4- to 8-fold higher in blood, 13- to 15-fold higher in lung, and 5- to 8-fold higher in liver. These data suggest that higher levels of BD epoxides in blood and tissues of mice compared with rats may explain, in part, the greater sensitivity of mice than rats to BD-induced carcinogenicity.
    Toxicology 11/1996; 113(1-3):306-9. · 4.02 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

372 Citations
140 Downloads
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88.64 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2001–2009
    • Dupont
      Delaware, Ohio, United States
  • 1998
    • United States Environmental Protection Agency
      Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
  • 1994–1997
    • Research Triangle Park Laboratories, Inc.
      Raleigh, North Carolina, United States