[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The family Cudoniaceae (Rhytismatales, Ascomycota) was erected to accommodate the "earth tongue fungi" in the genera Cudonia and Spathularia. There have been no recent taxonomic studies of these genera, and the evolutionary relationships within and among these fungi are largely unknown. Here we explore the molecular phylogenetic relationships within Cudonia and Spathularia using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses based on 111 collections from across the Northern Hemisphere. Phylogenies based on the combined data from ITS, nrLSU, rpb2 and tef-1α sequences support the monophyly of three main clades, the /flavida, /velutipes, and /cudonia clades. The genus Cudonia and the family Cudoniaceae are supported as monophyletic groups, while the genus Spathularia is not monophyletic. Although Cudoniaceae is monophyletic, our analyses agree with previous studies that this family is nested within the Rhytismataceae. Our phylogenetic analyses circumscribes 32 species-level clades, including the putative recognition of 23 undescribed phylogenetic species. Our molecular phylogeny also revealed an unexpectedly high species diversity of Cudonia and Spathularia in eastern Asia, with 16 (out of 21) species-level clades of Cudonia and 8 (out of 11) species-level clades of Spathularia. We estimate that the divergence time of the Cudoniaceae was in the Paleogene approximately 28 Million years ago (Mya) and that the ancestral area for this group of fungi was in Eastern Asia based on the current data. We hypothesize that the large-scale geological and climatic events in Oligocene (e.g. the global cooling and the uplift of the Tibetan plateau) may have triggered evolutionary radiations in this group of fungi in East Asia. This work provides a foundation for future studies on the phylogeny, diversity, and evolution of Cudonia and Spathularia and highlights the need for more molecular studies on collections from Europe and North America.
PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e103457. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Identifying the ecological processes that structure communities and the consequences for ecosystem function is a central goal of ecology. The recognition that fungi, bacteria, and viruses control key ecosystem functions has made microbial communities a major focus of this field. Because many ecological processes are apparent only at particular spatial or temporal scales, a complete understanding of the linkages between microbial community, environment, and function requires analysis across a wide range of scales. Here, we map the biological and functional geography of soil fungi from local to continental scales and show that the principal ecological processes controlling community structure and function operate at different scales. Similar to plants or animals, most soil fungi are endemic to particular bioregions, suggesting that factors operating at large spatial scales, like dispersal limitation or climate, are the first-order determinants of fungal community structure in nature. By contrast, soil extracellular enzyme activity is highly convergent across bioregions and widely differing fungal communities. Instead, soil enzyme activity is correlated with local soil environment and distribution of fungal traits within the community. The lack of structure-function relationships for soil fungal communities at continental scales indicates a high degree of functional redundancy among fungal communities in global biogeochemical cycles.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2014; · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most studies of tissue differentiation and development have focused on animals and plants but many fungi form multi-cellular aggregations of spore-bearing tissue known as fruiting bodies or sporocarps. The ability to form sporocarps has arisen independently in several different evolutionary lineages of fungi. Evolutionary relationships of most sporocarp-forming fungi are well known, but the enigmatic zygomycete genus Modicella contains two species of sporocarp-forming fungi for which the phylogenetic affinities have not been explored based on molecular data. Species of Modicella have an uncertain trophic mode and have alternatively been considered members of the order Endogonales (which contains documented species of sporocarp-forming fungi) or the order Mortierellales (which contains no previously documented species of sporocarp-forming fungi). In this study we perform phylogenetic analyses based on ribosomal DNA of Modicella malleola from the Northern Hemisphere and M. reniformis from the Southern Hemisphere to determine the evolutionary affinities of the genus Modicella. Our analyses indicate that Modicella is a monophyletic genus of sporocarp-forming fungi nested within the Mortierellales, a group of microfungi with no previously documented sporocarp-forming species. Because Modicella is distantly related to all other known sporocarp-forming fungi, we infer that this lineage has independently evolved the ability form sporocarps. We conclude that the genus Modicella should be a high priority for comparative genomics studies to further elucidate the process of sporocarp formation in fungi.
Fungal Genetics and Biology 10/2013; · 3.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Molecular phylogenies using 1–4 gene regions and information on ecology, morphology and pigment chemistry were used in a partial revision of the agaric family Hygro-phoraceae. The phylogenetically supported genera we recognize here in the Hygrophoraceae based on these and previous anal-yses are: Acantholichen,
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 75.9-kg, 3.5-year-old male Irish Wolfhound dog with a 2-3-week history of gagging and eating difficulties was referred to the University of Florida Veterinary Medical Hospital (Gainesville, Florida) for evaluation of a large cranial mediastinal mass suspected to be a thymoma or lymphosarcoma. The patient had 4 months of nearly 10 kg progressive weight loss with severe flank sensitivity and radiographically apparent lumbar vertebral changes interpreted as discospondylitis. Lab work revealed hyperglobulinemia, mild proteinuria, normal T4, negative Brucella canis titer, and negative blood and urine bacterial cultures. A thoracotomy revealed a nonresectable, destructive, space-occupying mediastinal mass resulting in euthanasia without surgical recovery. Biopsies from the mass were collected during surgery for histology. Microscopic examination revealed extensive granulomatous cellulitis and lymphadenitis characterized by central cavitated necrotic areas containing debris and degenerate neutrophils, intermediate zones of fibrovascular proliferation with marked mixed inflammation, peripheral fibrosis, frequent multinucleated macrophages, and scattered mineralization. The necrotic material contained dense mats of 2 µm wide by 8-15 µm long fungal hyphae with parallel walls, acute angle branching, frequent septae, and occasional bulb-like dilations. DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region confirmed the presence of a fungus in the Inonotus tropicalis group. Inonotus tropicalis is primarily a wood decay fungus that is found on dead wood from angiosperms in tropical and subtropical habitats. Isolates of the I. tropicalis group have been detected a few times from immunosuppressed human beings with X-linked granulomatous disease.
Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation: official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc 08/2013; · 1.18 Impact Factor