[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We recently reported that prenatal rat exposure to di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) induced Leydig cell (LC) hyperplasia after nine weeks (wks) of age, yet the number of LCs was similar to that of the vehicle group until seven weeks. Nuclear pleomorphism of hyperplastic LCs is common and is considered to be continuous progressive degeneration. Thus, computer-assisted image cell nuclear analysis of LCs was performed on 5- and 7-wk-old Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats whose dams had been administered DBP (i.g.) at 100 mg/kg/day or vehicle (corn oil) on gestation day 12 to 21. The results of the 5-wk-old DBP group were similar to those of the vehicle group; LC nuclei of the 7-wk-old DBP group showed normal ploidy and similar amounts of DNA. However, the size, elongation and peripheral chromatin aggregation parameters were significantly higher, and the reticular chromatin distribution and isolated chromatin aggregation parameters were significantly lower compared with the vehicle group. The present study quantitatively demonstrated nuclear morphological alterations in rat LCs at 7 wks old (puberty) due to the prenatal DBP administration before apparent LC hyperplasia developed.
Journal of Toxicologic Pathology 12/2013; 26(4):439-46. · 0.34 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Estrogens and androgens affect male and female reproductive systems. Recently, we reported that prenatal di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) exposure induced atypical Leydig cells (LCs) hyperplasia during adulthood. The present study investigated the expression of estrogen receptor α (ERα), estrogen receptor β (ERβ), and androgen receptor (AR) in LCs of 5-, 7-, 9-, 14-, and 17-week-old Sprague-Dawley (srl) rats whose dams had been administered DBP intragastrically at 100 mg/kg/day or the vehicle (corn oil) from days 12 to 21 postconception. Immunohistochemical, Western blotting, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that the expressions of ERα, ERβ, and AR proteins and mRNAs in the DBP group were similar to those of the vehicle group at 5 and 7 weeks, but significantly higher ERα and lower ERβ and AR levels were observed in the DBP group at 9 to 17 weeks. The rats prenatally exposed to DBP had seminiferous tubule degeneration and atypical hyperplasia of LCs during adulthood, which was associated with an increase in expression of ERα and a decrease of ERβ and AR in the testis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: When 100 mg/kg/day of di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) was intragastrically administered to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats throughout gestation days 12 to 21, the male pups had similar body weights with no apparent physical differences (e.g., litter size, sex ratio) compared to that of the vehicle group. However, prominent age-related morphological alterations in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (sER) of testicular Leydig cells (LCs) were observed once these animals reached puberty. At weeks 5 to 7, the abundant sER with non-dilated cisternae was distributed in LCs. Subsequently, although the number of LCs significantly increased, the amount of sER was significantly decreased at 9 to 14 weeks of age and had disappeared at 17 weeks. In contrast, the number of LCs and the amount of sER in LCs of the lower dose groups (10, 30, and 50 mg/kg/day) were similar to those of the vehicle group. Further, serum testosterone levels in the 100 mg/kg dose group were significantly lower during 5 to 17 weeks of age. While their luteinizing hormone (LH) level was significantly lower at 5 to 7 weeks of age, it became significantly higher during 9 to 17 weeks. The amount of sER in LCs decreased with age with the increase in LCs proliferation and serum LH levels in rat exposed in utero to DBP in a dose-dependent manner.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyperproliferative cell growth due to cyclin D1/cdk4, marker of cellular proliferation, is considered to be regulated by the expression of estrogen receptors (ERs). We investigated the immunohistochemical expression of cyclin D1/cdk4 and ERs in N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)-induced rat gastric carcinogenesis. The gastric cancer incidence and expression of cyclin D1/ckd4 in gastric carcinogenesis were significantly higher in males than females. Although the ERα expression index was similar in both sexes, the ERβ expression in preneoplastic hyperplastic lesions as well as gastric cancers was significantly higher in females than in males. The present study revealed a gender difference in MNNG-induced rat gastric carcinogenesis that seemed to involve the sex difference in cyclin D1/cdk4 expression, and ERβ expression became evident at the preneoplastic promotion stage in gastric carcinogenesis.
The Journal of Toxicological Sciences 01/2011; 36(3):373-8. · 1.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidemiologic studies indicate that the incidence of gastric cancer is higher in males than in females. Although the mechanisms mediating this difference are unclear, a role for estrogens has been proposed. We used Western blotting to evaluate the role of estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes ERα and ERβ and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)-induced gastric carcinogenesis in Wistar rats; ERα and ERβ mRNA levels also were analyzed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis. The incidence of gastric cancer was significantly higher in male than female rats. In both sexes, ERα expression was similar in MNNG-treated cancerous and noncancerous tissues and normal gastric tissue. However, ERβ expression in MNNG-treated cancerous and noncancerous tissues was significantly lower in male rats and higher in female rats than that in normal gastric tissue; MNNG-induced cancerous tissue showed the highest ERβ expression. PCNA expression in MNNG-treated cancerous tissues was higher than that in noncancerous tissues, and was higher in male rats than female rats. Western blotting results were consistent with the mRNA changes determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. The present study provides evidence of a sex-associated difference in ERβ and PCNA expression in MNNG-induced gastric cancers in Wistar rats.
Comparative medicine 01/2011; 61(5):412-8. · 1.12 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Testicular spermatogenesis was studied in 7-, 10-, 13- and 17-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats whose dams had been administered intragastrically with 2.5, 25, or 250 ng of 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) or vehicle on days 13-19 of gestation. The 250 ng groups among the 7-, 10- and 13-week-old offspring showed significant inhibition of mature spermatid release (spermiation), but 17-week-old offspring did not show this. These alterations were not observed in other PCB126 and vehicle groups, and no germ cell or Sertoli cell degeneration were observed in any group. Spermiation failure at puberty appeared in those rats born to dams exposed 250 ng/kg PCB126 on days 13-19 of gestation was reversible change that recovered at adulthood. Because the serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations were similar in the PCB126 and vehicle groups, a direct endocrine cause for the observed effects was unlikely.
The Journal of Toxicological Sciences 01/2010; 35(5):757-65. · 1.38 Impact Factor