Masafumi Nishizawa

The University of Tokyo, Edo, Tōkyō, Japan

Are you Masafumi Nishizawa?

Claim your profile

Publications (21)63.6 Total impact

  • Nippon Ishinkin Gakkai Zasshi 01/2011; 52(1):19-23.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae alters its gene expression profile in response to changing environmental conditions. The Pho85 kinase, one of the yeast cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK), is known to play an important role in the cellular response to alterations in parameters such as nutrient levels and salinity. Several genes whose expression is regulated, either directly or indirectly, by the Rim101 transcription factor become constitutively activated when Pho85 function is absent. Because Rim101 is responsible for adaptation to alkaline conditions, this observation suggests an interaction between Pho85 and Rim101 in the response to alkaline stress. We have found that Pho85 affects neither RIM101 transcription, the proteolytic processing that is required for Rim101 activation, nor Rim101 stability. Rather, Pho85 regulates the nuclear accumulation of active Rim101, possibly via phosphorylation. Additionally, we report that Pho85 and the transcription factor Pho4 are necessary for adaptation to alkaline conditions and that PTK2 activation by Pho4 is involved in this process. These findings illustrate novel roles for the regulators of the PHO system when yeast cells cope with various environmental stresses potentially threatening their survival.
    Eukaryotic Cell 04/2010; 9(6):943-51. · 3.59 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A fundamental issue in biotechnology is how to breed useful strains of microorganisms for efficient production of valuable biomaterials. On-going and more recent developments in gene manipulation technologies and chromosomal and genomic modifications in particular have facilitated important contributions in this area. "Chromosome manipulation technology" as an outgrowth of "gene manipulation technology" may provide opportunities for creating novel strains of organisms with a variety of genomic constitutions. A simple and rapid chromosome splitting technology called "PCR-mediated chromosome splitting" (PCS) that we recently developed has made it possible to manipulate chromosomes and genomes on a large scale in an industrially important microorganism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This paper focuses on recent advances in molecular methods for altering chromosomes and genome in S. cerevisiae featuring chromosome splitting technology. These advances in introducing large-scale genomic modifications are expected to accelerate the breeding of novel strains for biotechnological purposes, and to reveal functions of presently uncharacterized chromosomal regions in S. cerevisiae and other organisms.
    Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 09/2009; 84(6):1045-52. · 3.81 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae alters its gene expression profile in response to a change in nutrient availability. The PHO system is a well-studied case in the transcriptional regulation responding to nutritional changes in which a set of genes (PHO genes) is expressed to activate inorganic phosphate (Pi) metabolism for adaptation to Pi starvation. Pi starvation triggers an inhibition of Pho85 kinase, leading to migration of unphosphorylated Pho4 transcriptional activator into the nucleus and enabling expression of PHO genes. When Pi is sufficient, the Pho85 kinase phosphorylates Pho4, thereby excluding it from the nucleus and resulting in repression (i.e., lack of transcription) of PHO genes. The Pho85 kinase has a role in various cellular functions other than regulation of the PHO system in that Pho85 monitors whether environmental conditions are adequate for cell growth and represses inadequate (untimely) responses in these cellular processes. In contrast, Pho4 appears to activate some genes involved in stress response and is required for G1 arrest caused by DNA damage. These facts suggest the antagonistic function of these two players on a more general scale when yeast cells must cope with stress conditions. To explore general involvement of Pho4 in stress response, we tried to identify Pho4-dependent genes by a genome-wide mapping of Pho4 and Rpo21 binding (Rpo21 being the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II) using a yeast tiling array. In the course of this study, we found Pi- and Pho4-regulated intragenic and antisense RNAs that could modulate the Pi signal transduction pathway. Low-Pi signal is transmitted via certain inositol polyphosphate (IP) species (IP7) that are synthesized by Vip1 IP6 kinase. We have shown that Pho4 activates the transcription of antisense and intragenic RNAs in the KCS1 locus to down-regulate the Kcs1 activity, another IP6 kinase, by producing truncated Kcs1 protein via hybrid formation with the KCS1 mRNA and translation of the intragenic RNA, thereby enabling Vip1 to utilize more IP6 to synthesize IP7 functioning in low-Pi signaling. Because Kcs1 also can phosphorylate these IP7 species to synthesize IP8, reduction in Kcs1 activity can ensure accumulation of the IP7 species, leading to further stimulation of low-Pi signaling (i.e., forming a positive feedback loop). We also report that genes apparently not involved in the PHO system are regulated by Pho4 either dependent upon or independent of the Pi conditions, and many of the latter genes are involved in stress response. In S. cerevisiae, a large-scale cDNA analysis and mapping of RNA polymerase II binding using a high-resolution tiling array have identified a large number of antisense RNA species whose functions are yet to be clarified. Here we have shown that nutrient-regulated antisense and intragenic RNAs as well as direct regulation of structural gene transcription function in the response to nutrient availability. Our findings also imply that Pho4 is present in the nucleus even under high-Pi conditions to activate or repress transcription, which challenges our current understanding of Pho4 regulation.
    PLoS Biology 01/2009; 6(12):2817-30. · 12.69 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Based on a previously developed PCR-mediated chromosome splitting method, a genome engineering technique was developed in haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae for incorporating any desired chromosomal region into a chromosome that carries a single gene. Based on the viability of cells carrying an essential gene in such a construct, close physical proximity of two telomeres and a centromere does not appear to compromise gene function. Spontaneous loss of constructed single-gene chromosomes during vegetative growth was high (0.2-0.4 per cell division), suggesting the possibility of creating novel cells carrying single-gene chromosomes derived from various chromosomal regions in a variety of combinations by exploiting combinatorial loss.
    Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 01/2009; 106(6):563-7. · 1.74 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chromosome rearrangements, especially chromosomal deletions, have been exploited as important resources for functional analysis of genomes. To facilitate this analysis, we applied a previously developed method for chromosome splitting for the direct deletion of a designed internal or terminal chromosomal region carrying many nonessential genes in haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The method, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-mediated chromosomal deletion (PCD), consists of a two-step PCR and one transformation per deletion event. In this paper, we show that the PCD method efficiently deletes internal regions in a single transformation. Of the six chromosomal regions targeted for deletion by this method, five regions (16 to 38 kb in length) containing 10 to 19 nonessential genes were successfully eliminated at high efficiency. The one targeted region on chromosome XIII that was not deleted was subsequently found to contain sequences essential for yeast growth. While 14 individual genes in this region have been reported to be nonessential, synthetic lethal interactions may occur among these nonessential genes. Phenotypic analysis showed that four deletion strains still exhibited normal growth while possible synthetic growth defects were observed in another strain harboring a 19-gene deletion on chromosome XV. These results demonstrate that the PCD method is a useful tool for deleting genes and for analyzing their functions in defined chromosomal regions.
    Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 10/2008; 80(3):545-53. · 3.81 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Nutrient-sensing kinases play important roles for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to adapt to new nutrient conditions when the nutrient status changes. Our previous global gene expression analysis revealed that the Pho85 kinase, one of the yeast nutrient-sensing kinases, is involved in the changes in gene expression profiles when yeast cells undergo a diauxic shift. We also found that the stationary phase-specific genes SNZ1 and SNO1, which share a common promoter, are not properly induced when Pho85 is absent. To examine the role of the kinase in SNZ1/SNO1 regulation, we analyzed their expression during the growth of various yeast mutants, including those affecting Pho85 function or lacking the Pho4 transcription factor, an in vivo substrate of Pho85, and tested Pho4 binding by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Pho4 exhibits temporal binding to the SNZ1/SNO1 promoter to down-regulate the promoter activity, and a Deltapho4 mutation advances the timing of SNZ1/SNO1 expression. SNZ2, another member of the SNZ/SNO family, is expressed at an earlier growth stage than SNZ1, and Pho4 does not affect this timing, although Pho85 is required for SNZ2 expression. Thus, Pho4 appears to regulate the different timing of the expression of the SNZ/SNO family members. Pho4 binding to the SNZ1/SNO1 promoter is accompanied by alterations in chromatin structure, and Rpd3 histone deacetylase is required for the proper timing of SNZ1/SNO1 expression, while Asf1 histone chaperone is indispensable for their expression. These results imply that Pho4 plays positive and negative roles in transcriptional regulation, with both cases involving structural changes in its target chromatin.
    Eukaryotic Cell 07/2008; 7(6):949-57. · 3.59 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, for centuries the yeast that has been the workhorse for the fermentative production of ethanol, is now also a model system for biological research. The recent development of chromosome-splitting techniques has enabled the manipulation of the yeast genome on a large scale, and this has allowed us to explore questions with both biological and industrial relevance, the number of genes required for growth and the genome organization responsible for the ethanol production. To approach these questions, we successively deleted portions of the yeast genome and constructed a mutant that had lost about 5% of the genome and that gave an increased yield of ethanol and glycerol while showing levels of resistance to various stresses nearly equivalent to those of the parental strain. Further systematic deletion could lead to the formation of a eukaryotic cell with a minimum set of genes exhibiting appropriately altered regulation for enhanced metabolite production.
    Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 07/2007; 75(3):589-97. · 3.81 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Among the mammalian Cdk family members, Cdk5, activated by the binding of p35, plays an important role in the control of neurogenesis, and its deregulation is thought to be one of the causes of neurodegenerative diseases. Overproduction of Cdk5 and p35 in yeast cells causes growth arrest, probably because of hyperphosphorylation of yeast proteins. We screened mouse brain cDNA that could recover the growth of yeast cells overproducing Cdk5 and p35, hoping that such cDNA encodes a substrate or inhibitor of Cdk5. Mouse brain cDNA library was introduced into a yeast strain in which Cdk5, p35 and mouse cDNA were over-expressed under the control of the GAL promoter, and cDNA plasmids were isolated from the transformants that recovered growth on galactose medium. The analysis of those plasmids revealed that they harbored cDNA that encodes neuronal proteins including SCLIP and CRMP-1, and those with unknown function. We found that Cdk5 could phosphorylate SCLIP and CRMP-1 in vitro and the two proteins in cultured cells showed a mobility shift depending on Cdk5 activity and the presence of specific Ser or Thr residues, indicating that SCLIP and CRMP-1 are likely substrates for Cdk5 in vitro and in cultured cells. Further screening with these systems will enable us to identify more novel substrates and regulators of Cdk5/p35, which will lead to the exploration of Cdk5 function in diverse cellular systems.
    Genes to Cells 01/2007; 11(12):1393-404. · 2.73 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We describe a novel chromosome engineering technique for shuffling selected regions of chromosomes from two strains in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: The technique starts with the construction of MATa and MATalpha strains in which a particular chromosome is split at exactly the same site in both strains such that the split chromosomes generated are marked with different markers. The two strains are then crossed, and the resultant diploid is cultivated in nutrient medium to induce loss of the split chromosome originating from either of the strains. We predicted that some of these clones that are hemizygous for the split chromosome would spontaneously restore a homozygous configuration of the split chromosome during cultivation. We verified this prediction by tetrad analysis and quantitative Southern hybridization analysis, indicating that it is possible to create diploid hybrids in which a selected region of a chromosome from one strain is replaced by the corresponding chromosomal region from another strain. We also found that some chromosomal segments maintain a hemizygous state. This novel technique, which we call 'chromosome shuffling', could provide a new tool to analyze phenotypic alterations caused by the replacement or hemizygosity of a selected chromosomal region in not only laboratory but also industrial strains of S. cerevisiae.
    Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 11/2006; 72(5):947-52. · 3.81 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Masafumi Nishizawa, Yuki Katou, Katsuhiko Shirahige, Akio Toh-e
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae changes its gene expression profile when environmental nutritional conditions are changed. Protein kinases including cyclic AMP-dependent kinase, Snf1 and Tor kinases play important roles in this process. Pho85 kinase, a member of the yeast cyclin-dependent kinase family, is involved in the regulation of phosphate metabolism and reserve carbohydrates, and thus is implicated to function as a nutrient-sensing kinase. Upon depletion of glucose in the medium, yeast cells undergo a diauxic shift, accompanied by a carbon metabolic pathway shift, stimulation of mitochondrial function and downregulation of ribosome biogenesis and protein synthesis. We analysed the effect of a pho85Delta mutation on the expression profiles of the genes in this process to investigate whether Pho85 kinase participates in the yeast diauxy. We found that, in the absence of PHO85, a majority of mitochondrial genes were not properly induced, that proteasome-related and chaperonin genes were more repressed, and that, when glucose was still present in the medium, a certain class of genes involved in ribosome biogenesis (ribosomal protein and rRNA processing genes) was repressed, whereas those involved in gluconeogenesis and the glyoxylate cycle were induced. We also found that PHO85 is required for proper expression of several metal sensor genes and their regulatory genes. These results suggest that Pho85 is required for proper onset of changes in expression profiles of genes responsible for the diauxic shift.
    Yeast 09/2004; 21(11):903-18. · 1.96 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We have previously developed a chromosome-splitting technique based on homologous recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To facilitate chromosome splitting at multiple sites, we focused on the delta sequences that are distributed in more than 200 copies throughout the yeast genome. We constructed a new chromosome-splitting vector harboring the YFLWdelta4 sequence and the hisG-URA3-hisG cassette, and transformed yeast cells with this vector. The karyotype analysis of transformants showed that chromosomes XIV, III, and IV, or other chromosomes are split. After the excision of the URA3 gene, the transformant with split chromosome IV was subsequently transformed with the same vector. Karyotype analysis revealed that further splitting occurred at chromosome X, the split chromosome IV, or other chromosomes. These results indicate that delta sequences are efficient target sites for repeated chromosome splitting at multiple sites with a single vector.
    Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 02/2003; 96(4):397-400. · 1.74 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chromosome engineering techniques that can manipulate a large segment of chromosomal DNA are useful not only for studying the organization of eukaryotic genomes but also for the improvement of industrially important strains. Toward the development of techniques that can efficiently manipulate a large segment of chromosome, we have previously reported a one-step chromosome splitting technique in a haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell, with which we could successfully split yeast chromosome 11, XIII, or XI into two halves to create a haploid strain having 17 chromosomes. We have now constructed chromosome splitting vectors bearing ADE2, HIS3, LEU2, or TRP1 marker, and by using these vectors, we could successively split yeast chromosomes to create a novel yeast haploid strain having up to 21 chromosomes. The specific growth rates of yeast strains carrying more than 16 chromosomes up to 21 did not differ significantly, suggesting that yeast cells can harbor more chromosomes than they do in their natural state, that is, 16 chromosomes, without serious effects on their growth.
    Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 02/2003; 95(1):89-94. · 1.74 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - J BIOSCI BIOENG. 01/2003; 95(1):89-94.
  • Source
    M Nishizawa
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Gal11 and Sin4 proteins are yeast global transcription factors that regulate transcription of a variety of genes, both positively and negatively. Gal11, in a major part, functions in the activation of transcription, whereas Sin4 has an opposite role, yet they are reported to be present as a complex in the so-called RNA polymerase II holoenzyme. To reveal howthese auxiliary factors participate in switching transcription on and off, a complex formation between Gal11 and Sin4 and its effect on the negative regulation of transcription were studied. Using an artificial promoter that is negatively regulated by Gal11, it was shown that the presence of Sin4 or Pgd1/Hrs1/Med3 was required for Gal11 to repress both basal and activated transcription. Genetic and biochemical studies using a temperature-sensitive Gal11 mutant showed that the amino acid region 866-910 essential for Gal11 function was also important for repression of transcription and a complex formation with Sin4. Analysis with dam methylase accessibility to the promoter region suggested that nucleosome structure may be involved in negative regulation. Based on these results, possible mechanisms by which a mediator subcomplex regulates transcription is discussed.
    Yeast 10/2001; 18(12):1099-110. · 1.96 Impact Factor
  • Akio Toh-E, Masafumi Nishizawa
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has five cyclin-dependent protein kinases (Cdks), Cdc28, Srb10, Kin28, Ctk1, and Pho85. Any of these Cdks requires a cyclin partner for its kinase activity and a Cdk/cyclin complex, thus produced, phosphorylates a set of specific substrate proteins to exert its function. The cyclin partners of Srb10, Kin28, and Ctk1 are Srb11, Ccl1, and Ctk2, respectively. In contrast to the fact that each of Srb10, Kin28, and Ctk1 has a single cyclin partner, Cdc28 and Pho85 are polygamous; Cdc28 has 9 cyclins and Pho85 has 10 cyclins. Among these Cdks, Kin28 and Cdc28 are essential Cdks and it is well known that Cdc28 kinase plays a major role in regulating cell cycle progression. Pho85 is a non-essential Cdk but its absence causes a broad spectrum of phenotypes such as constitutive expression of PHO5, inability to utilize non-fermentable carbon sources, defects in cell cycle progression, and so on. Pho85 homologues are expanding to higher eukaryotes. Pho85 is most closely related with Cdk5 in terms of the amino acid sequence. The functional analysis of the domains of Pho85 also supports the close relationship between Pho85 and Cdk5, in which it was shown that the method of regulation of these two kinases is similar. Furthermore, forced expression of the mammalian CDK5 gene in a pho85Delta strain canceled a part of the pho85 defects. In this review, we summarize the functions of both Pho85/cyclin kinase and emphasize yeast Pho85 as valuable model systems to elucidate the functions of their homologues in other organisms.
    The Journal of General and Applied Microbiology 07/2001; 47(3):107-117. · 0.74 Impact Factor
  • Source
    M Nishizawa, M Tanabe, N Yabuki, K Kitada, A Toh-E
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The PHO85 gene is a negative regulator of the PHO system in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and encodes a protein kinase (Pho85) highly homologous to the Cdc28 kinase (Cdc28). Ten cyclin-like proteins are known to interact with Pho85, and combination with different cyclins is believed to be responsible for distinct Pho85 functions, including phosphate metabolism, carbon source utilization and cell cycle regulation. However, only a limited number of substrates of Pho85 kinase, including Pho4, Gsy2 and Sicl, have so far been identified. To search for more targets of Pho85 and to clarify the genetic control mechanisms by Pho85 kinase in these cellular functions, we carried out a genome-wide analysis of the effect of a pho85Delta mutation on gene expression. We found that expression of various genes involved in carbon metabolism are affected by the mutation and that among them, UGP1 promoter activity was increased in the absence of Pho85 kinase. This increase in the promoter activity was not observed in a pho4Delta mutant or with a mutant UGP1 promoter that is devoid of putative Pho4 and Bas2 binding sites, suggesting that UGP1 expression is modulated by Pho85 through Pho4. We also found that expression of several Pho85-cyclin genes were altered by the carbon source, the growth phase and Pho85 kinase itself.
    Yeast 03/2001; 18(3):239-49. · 1.96 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The PHO85 gene is a negative regulator of the PHO system in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and encodes a protein kinase (Pho85) highly homologous to the Cdc28 kinase (Cdc28). Ten cyclin-like proteins are known to interact with Pho85, and combination with different cyclins is believed to be responsible for distinct Pho85 functions, including phosphate metabolism, carbon source utilization and cell cycle regulation. However, only a limited number of substrates of Pho85 kinase, including Pho4, Gsy2 and Sicl, have so far been identified. To search for more targets of Pho85 and to clarify the genetic control mechanisms by Pho85 kinase in these cellular functions, we carried out a genome-wide analysis of the effect of a pho85Δ mutation on gene expression. We found that expression of various genes involved in carbon metabolism are affected by the mutation and that among them, UGP1 promoter activity was increased in the absence of Pho85 kinase. This increase in the promoter activity was not observed in a pho4Δ mutant or with a mutant UGP1 promoter that is devoid of putative Pho4 and Bas2 binding sites, suggesting that UGP1 expression is modulated by Pho85 through Pho4. We also found that expression of several Pho85–cyclin genes were altered by the carbon source, the growth phase and Pho85 kinase itself. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Yeast 01/2001; 18(3):239 - 249. · 1.96 Impact Factor
  • M Nishizawa, Y Kanaya, A Toh-E
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mouse cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) 5 and yeast Pho85 kinase share similarities in structure as well as in the regulation of their activity. We found that mouse Cdk5 kinase produced in pho85Delta mutant cells could suppress some of pho85Delta mutant phenotypes including failure to grow on nonfermentable carbon sources, morphological defects, and growth defect caused by Pho4 or Clb2 overproduction. We also demonstrated that Cdk5 coimmunoprecipitated with Pho85-cyclins including Pcl1, Pcl2, Pcl6, Pcl9, and Pho80, and that the immunocomplex could phosphorylate Pho4, a native substrate of Pho85 kinase. Thus mouse Cdk5 is a functional homologue of yeast Pho85 kinase.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/1999; 274(48):33859-62. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Source
    M Nishizawa, K Suzuki, M Fujino, T Oguchi, A Toh-e
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The PHO85 gene is a negative regulator of the PHO system in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and encodes a protein kinase (Pho85p) which is highly homologous to the Cdc28 kinase (Cdc28p). Although the two kinases share a 51% identity and their functional domains are well conserved, PHO85 fails to replace CDC28. Pho85p forms complexes with G1-cyclin homologues, including Pcl1p, Pcl2p and Pcl9p, and is thought to be involved in the cell-cycle regulation at G1 and the end of M. By analysing the genetic and biochemical properties of Pho85p, we studied whether the regulation of Pho85p activity is similar to other cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) directly involved in cell cycle regulation. A functional analysis of various Pho85 mutants revealed that E53 in the PSTAIRE sequence was important for Pho85p function. On the other hand, residues in the T-loop including S166, S167 and E168, appeared dispensable for Pho85p function, suggesting that the phosphorylation of S166, corresponding to T161 of Cdc2p and T169 of Cdc28p, was not required for the kinase activity of Pho85p. Instead, we found that phosphorylation of Y18, corresponding to Y15 of Cdc2p and Y19 of Cdc28p, may be important for the binding of Pho80p but not of Pcl1p, suggesting that tyrosine phosphorylation may function as a signal which discriminates various Pho85-cyclins. In Cdks functioning throughout the cell cycle, tyrosine phosphorylation is inhibitory to the activation of kinase, whereas the phosphorylation of threonine in the T-loop is essential for activation. Our finding indicates that the regulation mechanism of Pho85p activation appears to be distinct from these Cdks.
    Genes to Cells 12/1999; 4(11):627-42. · 2.73 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

258 Citations
63.60 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2001–2010
    • The University of Tokyo
      • • Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences
      • • Faculty of Science and Graduate School of Science
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1998–2010
    • Keio University
      • Department of Microbiology and Immunology
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan
  • 2003–2009
    • Osaka University
      • Department of Biotechnology
      Suita, Osaka-fu, Japan
  • 2008
    • Japan Women's University
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan