Mark S Wallace

University of California, San Diego, San Diego, California, United States

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Publications (151)552.71 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The heated lidocaine/tetracaine patch (Synera; ZARS Pharma, Inc, Salt Lake City, UT) is among the local topical anesthetic formulations used to prevent procedural pain. This study was conducted to determine the depth and duration of anesthesia provided by the patch and to evaluate safety and tolerability. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2-period crossover study was conducted in healthy subjects. Subjects were randomized to receive either the heated lidocaine/tetracaine patch (active patch) in period 1 and placebo patch in period 2 or vice versa. Patches were applied for 30 mins to the volar aspect of the forearm. Pain and sensory depths were measured at baseline and at 30, 60, 90, and 150 mins after patch application. Duration of anesthesia was measured at 40, 70, 110, and 130 mins after patch application by evaluating thermal and mechanical sensation. A total of 25 subjects were enrolled in the study. Twenty-four subjects completed the study. Pain and sensory depths with the active patch were greater than with placebo (P < 0.001) at all postdose time points. Maximum mean pain depth achieved with the active patch was 8.22 mm; anesthesia lasted at least 100 mins after patch removal. Cool and warm sensations and hot pain thresholds were increased compared with placebo (P < 0.001). Light touch and pinprick were detectable by most subjects. The heated lidocaine/tetracaine patch is well tolerated, and it provides favorable depth and duration of anesthesia without significant sensory loss for superficial venous access and minor dermatological procedures after a 30-min application.
    Regional anesthesia and pain medicine 11/2010; 35(6):507-13. DOI:10.1097/AAP.0b013e3181fa69b8 · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with malignancy sometimes develop painful mucositis and require patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) to treat their pain. Pain disrupts sleep and there is some evidence that analgesic medications also disrupt sleep. This study examined whether treatment with the sedative hypnotic eszopiclone could improve self-reports of sleep, fatigue, and pain as well as decrease opioid self-administered via PCA. Inpatients who developed mucositis severe enough to require PCA treatment were randomized double-blind to a 2-day trial on eszopiclone or placebo-administered at bedtime. Patients completed questionnaires which assessed sleep, pain, and fatigue. PCA medication was calculated in terms of morphine equivalents. Data were analyzed with unpaired t tests and repeated measures analysis of variance. Twenty-two patients were randomized to placebo and 23 to eszopiclone. Groups were comparable in age and treatment characteristics. Mean pain scores were lower in the eszopiclone group at all time points (morning p = 0.01, afternoon p = 0.04, evening p = 0.04). The eszopiclone group reported increased sleep time (p < 0.05), fewer nighttime awakenings (p < 0.001), better self-reported sleep quality (p = 0.01), and depth (p = 0.04). There were no significant differences between eszopiclone and placebo in terms of self-reports of fatigue or opioid usage. Sedative hypnotic agents improve sleep and analgesia even in the setting of considerable pain and discomfort.
    Supportive Care in Cancer 11/2010; 19(12):2015-20. DOI:10.1007/s00520-010-1052-1 · 2.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Quality improvement (QI) is a compilation of methods adapted from psychology, statistics, and operations research to identify factors that contribute to poor treatment outcomes and to design solutions for improvement. Valid and reliable measurement is essential to QI using rigorously developed and tested instruments. The purpose of this article is to describe the evolution of the American Pain Society Patient Outcome Questionnaire (APS-POQ) for QI purposes and present a revised version (R) including instrument psychometrics. An interdisciplinary task force of the APS used a step-wise, empiric approach to revise, test, and examine psychometric properties of the society's original POQ. The APS-POQ-R is designed for use in adult hospital pain management QI activities and measures 6 aspects of quality, including (1) pain severity and relief; (2) impact of pain on activity, sleep, and negative emotions; (3) side effects of treatment; (4) helpfulness of information about pain treatment; (5) ability to participate in pain treatment decisions; and (6) use of nonpharmacological strategies. Adult medical-surgical inpatients (n = 299) from 2 hospitals in different parts of the United States participated in this study. Results provide support for the internal consistency of the instrument subscales, construct validity and clinical feasibility. PERSPECTIVE: This article presents the initial psychometric properties of the APS-POQ-R for quality improvement purposes of hospitalized adult patients. Validation in additional groups of patients will be needed to demonstrate its generalizability.
    The journal of pain: official journal of the American Pain Society 11/2010; 11(11):1172-86. DOI:10.1016/j.jpain.2010.02.012 · 4.22 Impact Factor
  • Mark Wallace · John Thipphawong
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the efficacy, safety, and impact on quality of life of long-term administration of OROS hydromorphone ER (8-128mg) in patients with chronic low back pain. A total of 113 adults with chronic low back pain who completed a 6-week open-label study were enrolled in this 6-month extension study. The primary end point was the daily pain relief rating obtained during monthly study visits. Secondary end points included Investigator and Patient Global Evaluations, Brief Pain Inventory scores obtained at monthly study visits, and quality-of-life measures (Medical Outcomes Study Questionnaire and 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey score) obtained at monthly intervals. Mean±SD change from baseline in pain relief with OROS hydromorphone ER for the Month 6 visit was 0.9±2.55 (P=0.0007) and for the last assessment of the extension study was 0.9±2.53 (P=0.0002). At the Month 6 visit, 81.3% of investigators and 71.0% of patients rated their satisfaction of pain relief with OROS hydromorphone ER treatment as good, very good, or excellent. Changes on the 36-item Short Form Health Survey, a quality-of-life measure, were statistically significant for the physical composite scores for all extension phase time points, including Month 6 (2.1±5.34; P<0.0001) and the last assessment (2.4±5.56; P<0.0001) and mental composite scores for all extension phase time points, including Month 6 (3.3±9.52; P=0.0006) and the last assessment (3.1±9.5; P=0.0008). Treatment with OROS hydromorphone ER also resulted in significant improvement in sleep disturbances. Adverse events included gastrointestinal and central nervous system symptoms. The results support the long-term use of OROS hydromorphone ER in managing chronic moderate to severe low back pain.
    Pain Medicine 10/2010; 11(10):1477-88. DOI:10.1111/j.1526-4637.2010.00956.x · 2.24 Impact Factor
  • Vicky Y Lam · Mark Wallace · Gery Schulteis
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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the effects of topical lidocaine on skin sensation and on intradermal capsaicin-induced pain and hyperalgesia. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled methodology was used. After baseline sensory testing, a placebo patch and a lidocaine patch were randomized to the volar aspect of the left or right forearm for 4 hours. The right forearm patch was removed, the sensory testing was repeated, and capsaicin was injected intradermally at the site. Pain scores were measured at the time of injection and every 2.5 minutes for 10 minutes followed by measurement of the hyperalgesic area to von Frey hair and stroking, flare response, and repeat sensory testing. At the completion of the testing on the right forearm, the left forearm patch was removed and the procedures described for the right forearm were repeated for the left forearm. There was a significant reduction in cool sensation, warm sensation, and touch thresholds in the lidocaine but not placebo patch arm. The lidocaine patch had no significant effect on hot pain or mechanical pain thresholds. Intradermal capsaicin resulted in a significant decrease in hot pain and mechanical pain thresholds; however, lidocaine was unable to significantly reverse the thermal or mechanical hyperalgesia induced by capsaicin. The lidocaine patch did not reduce flare area, nor areas of hyperalgesia or allodynia. This study suggests that the sodium channels and the capsaicin receptors function independently to control peripheral terminal depolarization. PERSPECTIVE: The sodium channel and the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptor coexist on peripheral terminals of unmyelinated fibers. This study showed that activation of the TRPV1 receptor can depolarize the fibers in the presence of sodium channel blockade. This suggests that the sodium channel and TRPV1 receptor function independently in depolarizing the fibers.
    The journal of pain: official journal of the American Pain Society 10/2010; 12(3):323-30. DOI:10.1016/j.jpain.2010.07.013 · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This pooled analysis was designed to determine whether the analgesic response to treatment with OROS hydromorphone, as measured by the "pain on average" scale of the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), was different in patients with neuropathic pain compared to those with nociceptive pain, after adjusting for differences in baseline characteristics. Three open-label studies on patients with neuropathic and nociceptive malignant and nonmalignant chronic pain were analyzed. A mixed model for repeated measures linear regression analysis was used to compare the effect of OROS hydromorphone on patients with neuropathic and nociceptive pain, adjusting for potentially confounding factors. Data from patients with pure neuropathic pain and mixed pain were also compared. Safety and tolerability was assessed by recording the number of adverse events. The primary outcome was "pain on average" (BPI item 5) over time. Secondary outcomes were the effect of OROS hydromorphone on other BPI items including "pain relief" and "interference with sleep." Patients with neuropathic pain showed a similar response to treatment with OROS hydromorphone to those patients with nociceptive pain. There was no statistically significant difference between the pain groups (difference between groups -0.552 at visit 7; P = .060 for overall difference between groups). For some outcome variables, treatment was more effective for patients with neuropathic pain. The treatment was generally well tolerated. This pooled analysis shows that treatment with OROS hydromorphone had similar efficacy for neuropathic and nociceptive pain.
    Journal of Pain & Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy 09/2010; 24(3):200-12. DOI:10.3109/15360288.2010.502213
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    ABSTRACT: to assess the long-term safety, tolerability, and consistency of effect of fentanyl pectin nasal spray (FPNS) in patients with breakthrough cancer pain (BTCP). a multicenter, open-label study. patients with chronic cancer pain treated with > or = 60 mg/d oral morphine or equivalent experiencing 1-4 episodes per day of BTCP. all patients entered into a 16-week treatment phase after undergoing a dose-titration phase with FPNS. safety and tolerability were assessed by adverse events (AEs) and by nasal tolerability assessments. Consistency of effect was monitored through additional rescue medication use and FPNS dose change. four hundred three patients were included in the safety analyses. Of these, 356 patients entered the treatment phase and 110 patients completed the study. FPNS was self-administered for 42,227 episodes. During the treatment phase, 99 patients (24.6 percent) reported treatment-related AEs; most were mild or moderate and typical of opioids. Serious AEs were reported by 61 patients (15.1 percent), but only five were considered related to study drug. Of the 80 deaths that occurred during this study, one was assessed as possibly related to study drug. Nasal assessments revealed no significant local effects. No additional rescue medication was required after 94 percent of FPNS-treated episodes. More than 90 percent of patients required no increase in their initial dose of FPNS. FPNS use for BTCP was associated with AEs, typical of opioids, with no evidence of nasal toxicity. A large proportion of BTCP episodes were treated with a single dose, and doses remained stable over the 4-month period.
    Journal of opioid management 09/2010; 6(5):319-28. DOI:10.5055/jom.2010.0029
  • Mark S Wallace · Richard L Rauck · Timothy Deer
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    ABSTRACT: Ziconotide is a nonopioid intrathecal analgesic used to manage moderate to severe chronic pain. Although ziconotide is approved in the United States for intrathecal monotherapy only, it is often used in combination with other intrathecal drugs in clinical practice. The need exists for a critical assessment of the currently available published literature on ziconotide combination therapy. This review summarizes and evaluates the publications from preclinical and clinical peer-reviewed experiments that have investigated the safety and effectiveness of ziconotide in combination with a variety of other drugs. Eleven relevant publications were identified through a systematic search of multiple databases. In preclinical studies, additive or synergistic antinociceptive effects were discovered when ziconotide was used in combination with morphine, clonidine, or baclofen; however, no additional antinociceptive effects were observed when bupivacaine was added to ziconotide therapy. Safety data from animal studies revealed that ziconotide did not exacerbate morphine-induced respiratory depression, or clonidine-induced hypotension or bradycardia; however, ziconotide did potentiate morphine-induced hypotension and inhibition of gastrointestinal tract motility. Results from 2 open-label trials indicated that combination ziconotide and morphine therapy produced greater analgesia than was produced by the use of either drug alone. Preliminary support for the use of ziconotide in combination with morphine, baclofen, or hydromorphone was provided by case studies. Although clinical and preclinical studies provide some support for the use of ziconotide in combination with morphine, hydromorphone, clonidine, or baclofen, strong evidence-based data are limited. Controlled, long-term clinical trials are warranted.
    The Clinical journal of pain 09/2010; 26(7):635-44. DOI:10.1097/AJP.0b013e3181e017df · 2.70 Impact Factor
  • PM&R 09/2010; 2(9):S31. DOI:10.1016/j.pmrj.2010.07.085 · 1.66 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Pain 04/2010; 11(4). DOI:10.1016/j.jpain.2010.01.155 · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    Erin F Lawson · Mark S Wallace
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    ABSTRACT: Since the late 1980s, intrathecal (IT) analgesic therapy has improved, and implantable IT drug delivery devices have become increasingly sophisticated. Physicians and patients now have myriad more options for agents and their combination, as well as for refining their delivery. As recently as 2007, The Polyanalgesic Consensus Conference of expert panelists updated its algorithm for drug selection in IT polyanalgesia. We review this algorithm and the emerging therapy included. This article provides an update on newly approved as well as emerging IT agents and the advances in technology for their delivery.
    Current Pain and Headache Reports 02/2010; 14(1):8-16. DOI:10.1007/s11916-009-0092-z · 2.26 Impact Factor
  • James G Modir · Mark S Wallace
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    ABSTRACT: The UV-B pain model utilizes ultraviolet light to induce a small area of inflammation allowing assessment of mechanical and thermal thresholds. Pharmacologic testing has mainly focused on reduction of primary hyperalgesia, although the effect of analgesics on secondary hyperalgesia has also been investigated. The model requires an instrument to precisely generate controlled UV-B tissue hyperalgesia. Initially, a minimum dose to induce tissue hyperalgesia is determined; subsequently, dosages are delivered in set quantities. Tissue is then assessed for inflammation using color Doppler imaging or flare measurements. Heat pain thresholds and pain tolerance are often evaluated using a commercially available thermal sensory testing device. Analgesics can be administered to determine the influence on these clinical endpoints.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2010; 617:159-64. DOI:10.1007/978-1-60327-323-7_12 · 1.29 Impact Factor
  • James G Modir · Mark S Wallace
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    ABSTRACT: The cold pressor test is a reliable pain model in which subjects submerge their hands and forearms into ice water while onset to pain, pain intensity, and tolerance are assessed. Although originally developed as a model for hypertension, the paradigm leads to development of reproducible pain responses allowing assessment to analgesic medications. However, analgesic variability to various medications has been observed. A recent study suggests that methodological discrepancies may contribute to such inconsistencies. The model may be more reproducible by utilizing consistent protocols.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2010; 617:165-8. DOI:10.1007/978-1-60327-323-7_13 · 1.29 Impact Factor
  • James G Modir · Mark S Wallace
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    ABSTRACT: The heat/capsaicin sensitization and intradermal capsaicin injection models are safe and noninvasive paradigms to generate stable, long-lasting, and reproducible injury capable of producing an area of both primary and secondary hyperalgesia. Risk of skin injury is substantially reduced since lower levels of thermal and chemical irritation produce long-lasting cutaneous hyperalgesia. Rekindling sustains central sensitization by providing peripheral nociceptive input. The intradermal capsaicin model has been widely used to test analgesic efficacy for a wide range of analgesics. Unlike the heat/capsaicin sensitization model, intradermal capsaicin results in a brief painful stimulus followed by a long lasting area of secondary hyperalgesia. The intradermal injection of capsaicin results in a transient, intense stinging sensation at the site of injection (e.g. heat allodynia) followed by a persistent area of secondary tactile allodynia.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2010; 617:169-74. DOI:10.1007/978-1-60327-323-7_14 · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Before long-term intrathecal analgesic therapy is initiated, patients often undergo a spinal analgesia trial. Ziconotide is a nonopioid intrathecal analgesic used to manage severe chronic pain, and a variety of methods have been used to trial ziconotide. The purpose of this review is to compare and discuss the different methods of ziconotide trialing. Various databases (i.e., PubMed, Excerpta Medica, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Biological Abstracts, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, EMBASE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, and Google Scholar) and association meeting abstracts were searched with the use of the terms ziconotide, Prialt, trial, and trialing. In addition, a search was conducted for abstracts/posters presented at a variety of association meetings. Nine sources, including one expert opinion piece, were identified. Three methods of ziconotide trialing were discovered: continuous infusion, limited-duration infusion, and bolus injection. Results indicate that patients often achieve analgesia during trialing, regardless of the trialing method. Adverse events reported during ziconotide trialing studies were similar to those reported during ziconotide clinical trials. Preliminary evidence suggests that both effectiveness and safety may be dose-related. In 3 studies the value of ziconotide trialing in predicting long-term patient response to ziconotide therapy was investigated; however, the results were preliminary. The expert opinion piece from 2008 recommended trialing ziconotide via continuous infusion, using a starting dose of 1.2 mcg/d and dose increases of 1.2 mcg/d every 12 to 24 hours, for up to 3 days; the trial may be extended in some cases. Given the small samples size and lack of controlled ziconotide trialing studies, it is currently not possible to determine the relative safety and effectiveness of different methods of ziconotide trialing, nor is it possible to determine if trialing is predictive of patient response to long-term ziconotide therapy. All 3 methods of ziconotide trialing appear to be viable options, and no method can be considered superior on the basis of the evidence presented in this review. Controlled studies comparing ziconotide trialing methods may be warranted.
    Pain physician 11/2009; 13(1):23-33. · 4.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite a growing interest in neuropathic pain, neurologists and pain specialists do not have a standard, validated, office examination for the evaluation of neuropathic pain signs to complement the neurologic, musculoskeletal, and general physical examinations. An office neuropathic pain examination focused on quantifying sensory features of neuropathic pain, ranging from deficits to allodynia and hyperalgesia, and evoked by a physiologically representative array of stimuli, will be an essential tool to monitor treatment effectiveness and for clinical investigation into the mechanisms and management of neuropathic pain. Such an examination should include mapping of areas of stimulus-evoked neuropathic pain and standardized, reproducible quantitative sensory testing (QST) of tactile, punctuate, pressure, and thermal modalities. We review quantitative sensory testing methodology in general and specific tests for the evaluation of neuropathic pain phenomena. Numerous quantitative sensory testing techniques for dynamic mechanical, pressure, vibration, and thermal sensory testing and mapping have been described. We propose a comprehensive neuropathic pain evaluation protocol that is based upon these available techniques. A comprehensive neuropathic pain evaluation protocol is essential for further advancement of clinical research in neuropathic pain. A protocol that uses tools readily available in clinical practice, when established and validated, can be used widely and thus accelerate data collection for clinical research and increase clinical awareness of the features of neuropathic pain.
    The Clinical journal of pain 10/2009; 25(7):632-40. DOI:10.1097/AJP.0b013e3181a68c64 · 2.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Morphine is often administered by the subcutaneous (SC) route when venous access is difficult to achieve. Hyaluronidase temporarily increases the permeability of SC connective tissues by degrading hyaluronan and has been shown to increase the dispersion and absorption of coadministered molecules. Therefore, hyaluronidase could enhance the pharmacokinetics of subcutaneous morphine. This Phase IIIB, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study compared the pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of morphine administered SC with and without 150U of recombinant human hyaluronidase (rHuPH20) with those of intravenous (IV) morphine administration in 13 patients in a hospice or palliative care setting. Each patient received morphine 5mg parenterally daily for three days by a different method each day: IV, SC plus rHuPH20, and SC plus placebo (normal saline). The primary endpoint was the time to maximum plasma concentration (T(max)) for morphine. Concomitant SC administration of rHuPH20 enhanced the absorption rate of morphine compared with SC morphine with placebo, significantly reducing the mean T(max) from 13.8 to 9.2 minutes, a 33% decrease (P=0.026). The respective values for geometric mean maximum plasma concentration were 94.9 and 107.5nmol/L, a 13% increase (P=0.024), and the area under the plasma concentration vs. time curve values were 7.7 and 7.2micromol x min/L (P=0.23). Morphine plus rHuPH20 appeared to be safe and well tolerated. In patients requiring opioid analgesia, SC morphine plus rHuPH20 provides pharmacokinetic characteristics that are superior to those of SC morphine alone. These positive results warrant further studies on analgesic efficacy of morphine delivered with rHuPH20.
    Journal of pain and symptom management 10/2009; 38(5):663-72. DOI:10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2009.03.009 · 2.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neuropathic pain disorders are usually characterized by spontaneous ongoing or intermittent symptoms, stimulus-evoked positive sensory phenomena, and negative sensory phenomena. Spontaneous individual subject specific phenomena are identified in the neurologic history and are quantifiable by means of self-reported neuropathic pain symptoms tools such as scales, inventories, and questionnaires. Negative and positive sensory phenomena are assessed by the neurologic bedside examination and quantitative sensory testing (QST), which refers to psychophysical tests of sensory perception during the administration of stimuli with predetermined physical properties and following specific protocols. QST is able to capture and quantify stimulus-evoked negative and positive sensory phenomena, and as such should become standard if not a critical tool in neuropathic pain research and practice. Although the advent of anatomic and functional imaging modalities is revolutionizing our understanding of the mechanisms of neuropathic pain, only by anchoring such test results to individual subjects' own perceptions via QST can they provide meaningful information about neuropathic pain, which is based on perceptual experience. To yield useful results, QST requires a cooperative subject and carefully standardized methods, including standardization of the stimulus parameters as well as the testing environment, instructions, and evaluation methods. This manuscript provides a concise review of fundamental concepts necessary for understanding the role of QST in the process of eliciting information about sensory abnormalities associated with neuropathic pain and the place of that information in analysis of pain mechanisms. Together with the companion manuscript, this review provides definitions that should help further the use of QST as a diagnostic tool as well.
    The Clinical journal of pain 10/2009; 25(7):641-7. DOI:10.1097/AJP.0b013e3181a68c7e · 2.70 Impact Factor
  • Mark S. Wallace · John Thipphawong
    PM&R 09/2009; 1(9):S220-S221. DOI:10.1016/j.pmrj.2009.08.291 · 1.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neuropathic pain is a considerable burden that affects activities of daily living. The management of neuropathic pain can be challenging because of multiple etiologies and complex manifestations. Ziconotide is a nonopioid intrathecal (IT) analgesic option for patients with neuropathic pain refractory to conventional treatments. The objective of this article is to review the published literature on ziconotide for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Relevant publications were identified through searches of all years of 6 databases, which included PubMed, EMBASE, and CINAHL. Search terms used were ziconotide, SNX-111, MVIIA, Prialt, and neuropathic pain. Publications were included if ziconotide was intrathecally administered (either alone or in combination with other IT agents) to treat neuropathic pain of any etiology and if pain assessment was an outcome measure. Data extracted included study design, IT drug doses, pain outcome measures, and adverse events (AEs). Twenty-eight articles met the inclusion criteria: 5 were preclinical studies and 23 were clinical studies. In the preclinical studies, ziconotide demonstrated antiallodynic effects on neuropathic pain. Data from double-blind, placebo-controlled (DBPC) trials indicated that patients with neuropathic pain reported a mean percent improvement in pain score with ziconotide monotherapy that ranged from 15.7% to 31.6%. A low starting dose and slow titration of ziconotide resulted in an improved safety profile in the aforementioned trials. Common AEs associated with ziconotide include nausea and/or vomiting, dizziness, confusion, urinary retention, and somnolence. Evidence from DBPC trials, open-label studies, case series, and case studies suggests that ziconotide, as either monotherapy or in combination with other IT drugs, is a potential therapeutic option for patients with refractory neuropathic pain. Additional studies are needed to establish the long-term efficacy and safety of ziconotide for neuropathic pain.
    Pain Practice 09/2009; 9(5):327-37. DOI:10.1111/j.1533-2500.2009.00303.x · 2.18 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

5k Citations
552.71 Total Impact Points


  • 1992–2015
    • University of California, San Diego
      • Department of Anesthesiology
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 2014
    • Rush University Medical Center
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2010
    • Beth Israel Medical Center
      • Department of Pain Medicine and Palliative Care
      New York City, New York, United States
    • Cephalon Inc.
      Malvern, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2008
    • La Jolla Pharmaceutical
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 2007
    • West Virginia University
      MGW, West Virginia, United States
  • 2004
    • University of Florida
      Gainesville, Florida, United States
    • Hopkins School
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 2001
    • University of California, San Francisco
      San Francisco, California, United States