[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interleukin 1 (IL-1) has been reported to stimulate the polyubiquitination and disappearance of IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK1) within minutes. It has been thought that the polyubiquitin chains attached to IRAK1 are linked via Lys48 of ubiquitin, leading to its destruction by the proteasome and explaining the rapid IL-1-induced disappearance of IRAK1. In this paper, we demonstrate that IL-1 stimulates the formation of K63-pUb-IRAK1 and not K48-pUb-IRAK1 and that the IL-1-induced disappearance of IRAK1 is not blocked by inhibition of the proteasome. We also show that IL-1 triggers the interaction of K63-pUb-IRAK1 with NEMO, a regulatory subunit of the IkappaBalpha kinase (IKK) complex, but not with the NEMO[D311N] mutant that cannot bind K63-pUb chains. Moreover, unlike wild-type NEMO, the NEMO[D311N] mutant was unable to restore IL-1-stimulated NF-kappaB-dependent gene transcription to NEMO-deficient cells. Our data suggest a model in which the recruitment of the NEMO-IKK complex to K63-pUb-IRAK1 and the recruitment of the TAK1 complex to TRAF6 facilitate the TAK1-catalyzed activation of IKK by the TRAF6-IRAK1 complex.
Molecular and cellular biology 04/2008; 28(5):1783-91. · 6.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: RING (really interesting new gene) and U-box E3 ligases bridge E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes and substrates to enable the transfer of ubiquitin to a lysine residue on the substrate or to one of the seven lysine residues of ubiquitin for polyubiquitin chain elongation. Different polyubiquitin chains have different functions. Lys(48)-linked chains target proteins for proteasomal degradation, and Lys(63)-linked chains function in signal transduction, endocytosis and DNA repair. For this reason, chain topology must be tightly controlled. Using the U-box E3 ligase CHIP [C-terminus of the Hsc (heat-shock cognate) 70-interacting protein] and the RING E3 ligase TRAF6 (tumour-necrosis-factor-receptor-associated factor 6) with the E2s Ubc13 (ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 13)-Uev1a (ubiquitin E2 variant 1a) and UbcH5a, in the present study we demonstrate that Ubc13-Uev1a supports the formation of free Lys(63)-linked polyubiquitin chains not attached to CHIP or TRAF6, whereas UbcH5a catalyses the formation of polyubiquitin chains linked to CHIP and TRAF6 that lack specificity for any lysine residue of ubiquitin. Therefore the abilities of these E2s to ubiquitinate a substrate and to elongate polyubiquitin chains of a specific topology appear to be mutually exclusive. Thus two different classes of E2 may be required to attach a polyubiquitin chain of a particular topology to a substrate: the properties of one E2 are designed to mono-ubiquitinate a substrate with no or little inherent specificity for an acceptor lysine residue, whereas the properties of the second E2 are tailored to the elongation of a polyubiquitin chain using a defined lysine residue of ubiquitin.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The protein kinases IRAK [IL-1 (interleukin 1) receptor-associated kinase] 1 and 4 play key roles in a signalling pathway by which bacterial infection or IL-1 trigger the production of inflammatory mediators. In the present study, we demonstrate that IRAK1 and IRAK4 phosphorylate Pellino isoforms in vitro and that phosphorylation greatly enhances Pellino's E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. We show that, in vitro, Pellino 1 can combine with the E2 conjugating complex Ubc13 (ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 13)-Uev1a (ubiquitin E2 variant 1a) to catalyse the formation of K63-pUb (Lys63-linked polyubiquitin) chains, with UbcH3 to catalyse the formation of K48-pUb chains and with UbcH4, UbcH5a or UbcH5b to catalyse the formation of pUb-chains linked mainly via Lys11 and Lys48 of ubiquitin. In IRAK1-/- cells, the co-transfection of DNA encoding wild-type IRAK1 and Pellino 2, but not inactive mutants of these proteins, induces the formation of K63-pUb-IRAK1 and its interaction with the NEMO [NF-kappaB (nuclear factor kappaB) essential modifier] regulatory subunit of the IKK (inhibitor of NF-kappaB kinase) complex, a K63-pUb-binding protein. These studies suggest that Pellino isoforms may be the E3 ubiquitin ligases that mediate the IL-1-stimulated formation of K63-pUb-IRAK1 in cells, which may contribute to the activation of IKKbeta and the transcription factor NF-kappaB, as well as other signalling pathways dependent on IRAK1/4.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MDP (muramyl dipeptide), a component of peptidoglycan, interacts with NOD2 (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2) stimulating the NOD2-RIP2 (receptor-interacting protein 2) complex to activate signalling pathways important for antibacterial defence. Here we demonstrate that the protein kinase activity of RIP2 has two functions, namely to limit the strength of downstream signalling and to stabilize the active enzyme. Thus pharmacological inhibition of RIP2 kinase with either SB 203580 [a p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) inhibitor] or the Src family kinase inhibitor PP2 induces a rapid and drastic decrease in the level of the RIP2 protein, which may explain why these RIP2 inhibitors block MDP-stimulated downstream signalling and the production of IL-1beta (interleukin-1beta) and TNFalpha (tumour necrosis factor-alpha). We also show that RIP2 induces the activation of the protein kinase TAK1 (transforming-growth-factor-beta-activated kinase-1), that a dominant-negative mutant of TAK1 inhibits RIP2-induced activation of JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase) and p38alpha MAPK, and that signalling downstream of NOD2 or RIP2 is reduced by the TAK1 inhibitor (5Z)-7-oxozeaenol or in TAK1-deficient cells. We also show that MDP activates ERK1 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1)/ERK2 and p38alpha MAPK in human peripheral-blood mononuclear cells and that the activity of both MAPKs and TAK1 are required for MDP-induced signalling and production of IL-1beta and TNFalpha in these cells. Taken together, our results indicate that the MDP-NOD2/RIP2 and LPS (lipopolysaccharide)-TLR4 (Toll-like receptor 4) signalling pathways converge at the level of TAK1 and that many subsequent events that lead to the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines are common to both pathways.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CHIP is a dimeric U box E3 ubiquitin ligase that binds Hsp90 and/or Hsp70 via its TPR-domain, facilitating ubiquitylation of chaperone bound client proteins. We have determined the crystal structure of CHIP bound to an Hsp90 C-terminal decapeptide. The structure explains how CHIP associates with either chaperone type and reveals an unusual asymmetric homodimer in which the protomers adopt radically different conformations. Additionally, we identified CHIP as a functional partner of Ubc13-Uev1a in formation of Lys63-linked polyubiquitin chains, extending CHIP's roles into ubiquitin regulation as well as targeted destruction. The structure of Ubc13-Uev1a bound to the CHIP U box domain defines the basis for selective cooperation of CHIP with specific ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes. Remarkably, the asymmetric arrangement of the TPR domains in the CHIP dimer occludes one Ubc binding site, so that CHIP operates with half-of-sites activity, providing an elegant means for coupling a dimeric chaperone to a single ubiquitylation system.