[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A primary cilium is a solitary, slender, non-motile protuberance of structured microtubules (9+0) enclosed by plasma membrane. Housing components of the cell division apparatus between cell divisions, primary cilia also serve as specialized compartments for calcium signalling and hedgehog signalling pathways. Specialized sensory cilia such as retinal photoreceptors and olfactory cilia use diverse ion channels. An ion current has been measured from primary cilia of kidney cells, but the responsible genes have not been identified. The polycystin proteins (PC and PKD), identified in linkage studies of polycystic kidney disease, are candidate channels divided into two structural classes: 11-transmembrane proteins (PKD1, PKD1L1 and PKD1L2) remarkable for a large extracellular amino terminus of putative cell adhesion domains and a G-protein-coupled receptor proteolytic site, and the 6-transmembrane channel proteins (PKD2, PKD2L1 and PKD2L2; TRPPs). Evidence indicates that the PKD1 proteins associate with the PKD2 proteins via coiled-coil domains. Here we use a transgenic mouse in which only cilia express a fluorophore and use it to record directly from primary cilia, and demonstrate that PKD1L1 and PKD2L1 form ion channels at high densities in several cell types. In conjunction with an accompanying manuscript, we show that the PKD1L1-PKD2L1 heteromeric channel establishes the cilia as a unique calcium compartment within cells that modulates established hedgehog pathways.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary cilia are solitary, non-motile extensions of the centriole found on nearly all nucleated eukaryotic cells between cell divisions. Only ∼200-300 nm in diameter and a few micrometres long, they are separated from the cytoplasm by the ciliary neck and basal body. Often called sensory cilia, they are thought to receive chemical and mechanical stimuli and initiate specific cellular signal transduction pathways. When activated by a ligand, hedgehog pathway proteins, such as GLI2 and smoothened (SMO), translocate from the cell into the cilium. Mutations in primary ciliary proteins are associated with severe developmental defects. The ionic conditions, permeability of the primary cilia membrane, and effectiveness of the diffusion barriers between the cilia and cell body are unknown. Here we show that cilia are a unique calcium compartment regulated by a heteromeric TRP channel, PKD1L1-PKD2L1, in mice and humans. In contrast to the hypothesis that polycystin (PKD) channels initiate changes in ciliary calcium that are conducted into the cytoplasm, we show that changes in ciliary calcium concentration occur without substantially altering global cytoplasmic calcium. PKD1L1-PKD2L1 acts as a ciliary calcium channel controlling ciliary calcium concentration and thereby modifying SMO-activated GLI2 translocation and GLI1 expression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The crystal structure of the open conformation of a bacterial voltage-gated sodium channel pore from Magnetococcus sp. (NaVMs) has provided the basis for a molecular dynamics study defining the channel's full ion translocation pathway and conductance process, selectivity, electrophysiological characteristics, and ion-binding sites. Microsecond molecular dynamics simulations permitted a complete time-course characterization of the protein in a membrane system, capturing the plethora of conductance events and revealing a complex mixture of single and multi-ion phenomena with decoupled rapid bidirectional water transport. The simulations suggest specific localization sites for the sodium ions, which correspond with experimentally determined electron density found in the selectivity filter of the crystal structure. These studies have also allowed us to identify the ion conductance mechanism and its relation to water movement for the NavMs channel pore and to make realistic predictions of its conductance properties. The calculated single-channel conductance and selectivity ratio correspond closely with the electrophysiology measurements of the NavMs channel expressed in HEK 293 cells. The ion translocation process seen in this voltage-gated sodium channel is clearly different from that exhibited by members of the closely related family of voltage-gated potassium channels and also differs considerably from existing proposals for the conductance process in sodium channels. These studies simulate sodium channel conductance based on an experimentally determined structure of a sodium channel pore that has a completely open transmembrane pathway and activation gate.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/2013; · 9.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transient receptor potential melastatin-like 7 (TRPM7) is a channel protein that also contains a regulatory serine-threonine kinase domain. Here, we find that Trpm7-/- T cells are deficient in Fas-receptor-induced apoptosis and that TRPM7 channel activity participates in the apoptotic process and is regulated by caspase-dependent cleavage. This function of TRPM7 is dependent on its function as a channel, but not as a kinase. TRPM7 is cleaved by caspases at D1510, disassociating the carboxy-terminal kinase domain from the pore without disrupting the phosphotransferase activity of the released kinase but substantially increasing TRPM7 ion channel activity. Furthermore, we show that TRPM7 regulates endocytic compartmentalization of the Fas receptor after receptor stimulation, an important process for apoptotic signaling through Fas receptors. These findings raise the possibility that other members of the TRP channel superfamily are also regulated by caspase-mediated cleavage, with wide-ranging implications for cell death and differentiation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Detection and adaptation to cold temperature is crucial to survival. Cold sensing in the innocuous range of cold (>10-15 °C) in the mammalian peripheral nervous system is thought to rely primarily on transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels, most notably the menthol receptor, TRPM8. Here we report that TRP cation channel, subfamily C member 5 (TRPC5), but not TRPC1/TRPC5 heteromeric channels, are highly cold sensitive in the temperature range 37-25 °C. We found that TRPC5 is present in mouse and human sensory neurons of dorsal root ganglia, a substantial number of peripheral nerves including intraepithelial endings, and in the dorsal lamina of the spinal cord that receives sensory input from the skin, consistent with a potential TRPC5 function as an innocuous cold transducer in nociceptive and thermosensory nerve endings. Although deletion of TRPC5 in 129S1/SvImJ mice resulted in no temperature-sensitive behavioral changes, TRPM8 and/or other menthol-sensitive channels appear to underpin a much larger component of noxious cold sensing after TRPC5 deletion and a shift in mechanosensitive C-fiber subtypes. These findings demonstrate that highly cold-sensitive TRPC5 channels are a molecular component for detection and regional adaptation to cold temperatures in the peripheral nervous system that is distinct from noxious cold sensing.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/2011; 108(44):18114-9. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Membrane fusion and fission events in intracellular trafficking are controlled by both intraluminal Ca(2+) release and phosphoinositide (PIP) signalling. However, the molecular identities of the Ca(2+) release channels and the target proteins of PIPs are elusive. In this paper, by direct patch-clamping of the endolysosomal membrane, we report that PI(3,5)P(2), an endolysosome-specific PIP, binds and activates endolysosome-localized mucolipin transient receptor potential (TRPML) channels with specificity and potency. Both PI(3,5)P(2)-deficient cells and cells that lack TRPML1 exhibited enlarged endolysosomes/vacuoles and trafficking defects in the late endocytic pathway. We find that the enlarged vacuole phenotype observed in PI(3,5)P(2)-deficient mouse fibroblasts is suppressed by overexpression of TRPML1. Notably, this PI(3,5)P(2)-dependent regulation of TRPML1 is evolutionarily conserved. In budding yeast, hyperosmotic stress induces Ca(2+) release from the vacuole. In this study, we show that this release requires both PI(3,5)P(2) production and a yeast functional TRPML homologue. We propose that TRPMLs regulate membrane trafficking by transducing information regarding PI(3,5)P(2) levels into changes in juxtaorganellar Ca(2+), thereby triggering membrane fusion/fission events.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mucolipin TRP (TRPML) proteins are a family of endolysosomal cation channels with genetically established importance in humans and rodent. Mutations of human TRPML1 cause type IV mucolipidosis, a devastating pediatric neurodegenerative disease. Our recent electrophysiological studies revealed that, although a TRPML1-mediated current can only be recorded in late endosome and lysosome (LEL) using the lysosome patch clamp technique, a proline substitution in TRPML1 (TRPML1(V432P)) results in a large whole cell current. Thus, it remains unknown whether the large TRPML1(V432P)-mediated current results from an increased surface expression (trafficking), elevated channel activity (gating), or both. Here we performed systemic Pro substitutions in a region previously implicated in the gating of various 6 transmembrane cation channels. We found that several Pro substitutions displayed gain-of-function (GOF) constitutive activities at both the plasma membrane (PM) and endolysosomal membranes. Although wild-type TRPML1 and non-GOF Pro substitutions localized exclusively in LEL and were barely detectable in the PM, the GOF mutations with high constitutive activities were not restricted to LEL compartments, and most significantly, exhibited significant surface expression. Because lysosomal exocytosis is Ca(2+)-dependent, constitutive Ca(2+) permeability due to Pro substitutions may have resulted in stimulus-independent intralysosomal Ca(2+) release, hence the surface expression and whole cell current of TRPML1. Indeed, surface staining of lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 (Lamp-1) was dramatically increased in cells expressing GOF TRPML1 channels. We conclude that TRPML1 is an inwardly rectifying, proton-impermeable, Ca(2+) and Fe(2+)/Mn(2+) dually permeable cation channel that may be gated by unidentified cellular mechanisms through a conformational change in the cytoplasmic face of the transmembrane 5 (TM5). Furthermore, activation of TRPML1 in LEL may lead to the appearance of TRPML1 proteins at the PM.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2009; 284(46):32040-52. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TRPML1 (mucolipin 1, also known as MCOLN1) is predicted to be an intracellular late endosomal and lysosomal ion channel protein that belongs to the mucolipin subfamily of transient receptor potential (TRP) proteins. Mutations in the human TRPML1 gene cause mucolipidosis type IV disease (ML4). ML4 patients have motor impairment, mental retardation, retinal degeneration and iron-deficiency anaemia. Because aberrant iron metabolism may cause neural and retinal degeneration, it may be a primary cause of ML4 phenotypes. In most mammalian cells, release of iron from endosomes and lysosomes after iron uptake by endocytosis of Fe(3+)-bound transferrin receptors, or after lysosomal degradation of ferritin-iron complexes and autophagic ingestion of iron-containing macromolecules, is the chief source of cellular iron. The divalent metal transporter protein DMT1 (also known as SLC11A2) is the only endosomal Fe(2+) transporter known at present and it is highly expressed in erythroid precursors. Genetic studies, however, suggest the existence of a DMT1-independent endosomal and lysosomal Fe(2+) transport protein. By measuring radiolabelled iron uptake, by monitoring the levels of cytosolic and intralysosomal iron and by directly patch-clamping the late endosomal and lysosomal membrane, here we show that TRPML1 functions as a Fe(2+) permeable channel in late endosomes and lysosomes. ML4 mutations are shown to impair the ability of TRPML1 to permeate Fe(2+) at varying degrees, which correlate well with the disease severity. A comparison of TRPML1(-/- )ML4 and control human skin fibroblasts showed a reduction in cytosolic Fe(2+) levels, an increase in intralysosomal Fe(2+) levels and an accumulation of lipofuscin-like molecules in TRPML1(-/-) cells. We propose that TRPML1 mediates a mechanism by which Fe(2+) is released from late endosomes and lysosomes. Our results indicate that impaired iron transport may contribute to both haematological and degenerative symptoms of ML4 patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transient receptor potential (TRP) genes of the mucolipin subfamily (TRPML1-3 and MCOLN1-3) are presumed to encode ion channel proteins of intracellular endosomes and lysosomes. Mutations in human TRPML1 (mucolipin 1/MCOLN1) result in mucolipidosis type IV, a severe inherited neurodegenerative disease associated with defective lysosomal biogenesis and trafficking. A mutation in mouse TRPML3 (A419P; TRPML3(Va)) results in the varitint-waddler (Va) phenotype. Va mice are deaf, exhibit circling behavior due to vestibular defects, and have variegated/dilute coat color as a result of pigmentation defects. Prior electrophysiological studies of presumed TRPML plasma membrane channels are contradictory and inconsistent with known TRP channel properties. Here, we report that the Va mutation produces a gain-of-function that allows TRPML1 and TRPML3 to be measured and identified as inwardly rectifying, proton-impermeant, Ca(2+)-permeant cation channels. TRPML3 is highly expressed in normal melanocytes. Melanocyte markers are lost in the Va mouse, suggesting that their variegated and hypopigmented fur is caused by severe alteration of melanocyte function or cell death. TRPML3(Va) expression in melanocyte cell lines results in high resting Ca(2+) levels, rounded, poorly adherent cells, and loss of membrane integrity. We conclude that the Va phenotype is caused by mutation-induced TRPML3 gain-of-function, resulting in cell death.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/2007; 104(46):18321-6. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carvacrol, eugenol and thymol are major components of plants such as oregano, savory, clove and thyme. When applied to the tongue, these flavors elicit a warm sensation. They are also known to be skin sensitizers and allergens. The transient receptor potential channel (TRPV3) is a warm-sensitive Ca2+-permeable cation channel highly expressed in the skin, tongue and nose. Here we show that TRPV3 is strongly activated and sensitized by carvacrol, thymol and eugenol. Tongue and skin epithelial cells respond to carvacrol and eugenol with an increase in intracellular Ca2+ levels. We also show that this TRPV3 activity is strongly potentiated by phospholipase C-linked, G protein-coupled receptor stimulation. In addition, carvacrol activates and rapidly desensitizes TRPA1, which may explain the pungency of oregano. Our results support a role for temperature-sensitive TRP channels in chemesthesis in oral and nasal epithelium and suggest that TRPV3 may be a molecular target of plant-derived skin sensitizers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this review is to provide a basic framework for understanding the function of mammalian transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, particularly as they have been elucidated in heterologous expression systems. Mammalian TRP channel proteins form six-transmembrane (6-TM) cation-permeable channels that may be grouped into six subfamilies on the basis of amino acid sequence homology (TRPC, TRPV, TRPM, TRPA, TRPP, and TRPML). Selected functional properties of TRP channels from each subfamily are summarized in this review. Although a single defining characteristic of TRP channel function has not yet emerged, TRP channels may be generally described as calcium-permeable cation channels with polymodal activation properties. By integrating multiple concomitant stimuli and coupling their activity to downstream cellular signal amplification via calcium permeation and membrane depolarization, TRP channels appear well adapted to function in cellular sensation. Our review of recent literature implicating TRP channels in neuronal growth cone steering suggests that TRPs may function more widely in cellular guidance and chemotaxis. The TRP channel gene family and its nomenclature, the encoded proteins and alternatively spliced variants, and the rapidly expanding pharmacology of TRP channels are summarized in online supplemental material.
Annual Review of Physiology 02/2006; 68:619-47. · 19.55 Impact Factor