ABSTRACT: Pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) alfa-2b plus ribavirin (RBV) is the standard of care for adults with chronic hepatitis C but was not approved for the treatment of children at the time of this study. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of PEG-IFN alfa-2b plus RBV in children.
Children and adolescents ages 3-17 years were treated with PEG-IFN alfa-2b (60microg/m(2)/week) plus RBV (15mg/kg/day). The duration of therapy was 24 weeks for genotype (G) 2 and G3 patients with low viral load (<600,000IU/ml) and 48 weeks for G1, G4, and G3 with high viral load (>or=600,000IU/ml). The primary end point was sustained virologic response (SVR), defined as undetectable hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA 24 weeks after completion of therapy.
SVR was attained by 70 (65%) children. Genotype was the main predictor of response: G1, 53%; G2/3, 93%; G4, 80%. SVRs were similar in younger and older children. Baseline viral load was the main predictor of response in the G1 cohort. No new safety signals were identified, and adverse events (AEs) were generally mild or moderate in severity. Dose was modified because of AEs in 25% of children; 1 child discontinued because of an AE (thrombocytopenia). No serious AEs related to study drugs were reported.
Therapy with PEG-IFN alfa-2b plus RBV in children and adolescents with chronic hepatitis C offers favorable efficacy, reduced injection frequency, and an acceptable safety profile.
Journal of Hepatology 02/2010; 52(4):501-7. · 9.26 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is usually asymptomatic in children, but significant liver disease may occur. We evaluated the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of interferon alfa-2b and ribavirin in children with chronic HCV. We determined the optimal ribavirin dose in an initial cohort of a phase 1 study and then subsequently used it, in combination with interferon alfa-2b, in a second cohort of this study and a phase 3 trial. The primary efficacy endpoint in all studies was sustained virological response, defined by undetectable serum HCV RNA 24 weeks after completion of therapy. All efficacy and safety analyses were performed on the intent-to-treat population. Children receiving interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin 15 mg/kg/d in the phase 1 study had the maximum reduction in serum HCV RNA at treatment weeks 4 and 12 with an acceptable safety profile. This ribavirin dose was selected as optimal and used in all subsequent studies. In all, 46% (54/118) of optimally treated children achieved sustained virological response. Sustained virological response was significantly higher in children with HCV genotype 2/3 (84%) than in those with HCV genotype 1 (36%). Adverse events led to dose modification in 37 (31%) and discontinuation in 8 (7%). Multiple-dose interferon alfa-2b and ribavirin peak and trough concentrations and area-under-the-curve were similar between children and adults. In conclusion, interferon alfa-2b in combination with ribavirin is effective and safe in children with chronic hepatitis C virus.
Hepatology 12/2005; 42(5):1010-8. · 11.66 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Delavirdine is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in combination regimens for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. Our objective was to characterise the population pharmacokinetics of delavirdine in HIV-infected patients who participated in the adult AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) 260 and 261 studies.
ACTG 261 was a randomised, double-blind study of delavirdine 400mg three times daily, in various combination regimens; ACTG 260 was a concentration-targeted monotherapy study. Two hundred and thirty-four patients, and 1254 and 1251 plasma concentrations for delavirdine and N-delavirdine, respectively, were available for population pharmacokinetic analysis. The pharmacokinetic model (and initial parameters), based on previous studies, included two compartments for delavirdine (peripheral and central) and parallel clearance pathways (nonlinear conversion to N-delavirdine and first order clearance from the body). The model was one compartment for N-delavirdine with first order clearance. Diurnal variation of delavirdine and N-delavirdine oral clearance was modelled as a cosine function, with amplitude variation a fitted parameter. Pharmacokinetic parameter estimates were derived from iterative two-stage analysis; observed delavirdine and N-delavirdine concentrations fit with weighting by the inverse observation variance. Covariates were analysed by multiple general linear modelling.
The mean (percent coefficient of variation [%CV]) CD4 count was 315 (109) cells/mm(3), weight 76.9 (14.7) kg, age 37 (8.5) years, and 15% of the population were women. Mean (%CV) population pharmacokinetic parameter estimates for delavirdine were: volume of distribution at steady state 67.6 (100) L, intrinsic oral clearance 19.8 (64) L/h, concentration at half the maximum velocity of metabolism (V(max)) 6.3 (69) micromol/L and first order oral clearance 0.57 (86) L/h. For N-delavirdine, the mean (%CV) apparent volume of distribution was 24.7 (75) L and apparent clearance 29.7 (42) L/h. The mean V(max) was 1376 (68) mg/day. The final model for average intrinsic clearance of delavirdine included race, sex, weight and age as significant covariates (p < 0.05); however, these covariates do not explain a significant proportion of the overall variability in the population.
Delavirdine disposition exhibits nonlinear pharmacokinetics and large interpatient variability, and is significantly altered by time of day (impacting potential therapeutic drug monitoring and future pharmacokinetic study designs). Although race and sex appear to influence delavirdine pharmacokinetics, men and women and patients of different races should receive similar mg/kg dosage regimens. The presence of large interpatient variability supports the further investigation of the utility of therapeutic drug monitoring for delavirdine, if target drug concentrations can be better defined.
Clinical Pharmacokinetics 01/2005; 44(1):99-109. · 5.40 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To determine if milk thistle (silymarin) alters the pharmacokinetics of indinavir.
Sequential crossover trial.
General clinical research center.
Ten healthy subjects.
Indinavir 800 mg 3 times/day was given for four doses on days 1 and 2. Silymarin 160 mg 3 times/day was given on days 3-15. On day 16 and for one dose on day 17, both drugs were given at the same dosages.
Indinavir's pharmacokinetic parameters were evaluated at steady state both before and after administration of 14 days of silymarin. Blood samples were collected -0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 hours after indinavir dosing and assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The final pharmacokinetic model had first-order absorption after a lag time, and two compartments with first-order elimination from the central compartment. When given alone and combined with silymarin, respectively, the geometric mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) steady-state indinavir area under the plasma concentration-time curve was 20.7 hr x mg/L (15.3-28.2 hr x mg/L) and 19.4 hr x mg/L (15.8-23.6 hr x mg/L) and the trough plasma concentration was 0.340 mg/L (0.232-0.497 mg/L) and 0.232 mg/L (0.129-0.419 mg/L).
Silymarin has no apparent effect on indinavir plasma concentrations.
Pharmacotherapy 08/2003; 23(7):866-70. · 2.90 Impact Factor