Mark T Gregory

National Institutes of Health, Maryland, United States

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Publications (6)106.62 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Platinum drugs are a mainstay of anticancer chemotherapy. Nevertheless, tumors often display inherent or acquired resistance to platinum-based treatments, prompting the search for new compounds that do not exhibit cross-resistance with current therapies. Phenanthriplatin, cis-diamminephenanthridinechloroplatinum(II), is a potent monofunctional platinum complex that displays a spectrum of activity distinct from those of the clinically approved platinum drugs. Inhibition of RNA polymerases by phenanthriplatin lesions has been implicated in its mechanism of action. The present study evaluates the ability of phenanthriplatin lesions to inhibit DNA replication, a function disrupted by traditional platinum drugs. Phenanthriplatin lesions effectively inhibit DNA polymerases ν, ζ, and κ and the Klenow fragment. In contrast to results obtained with DNA damaged by cisplatin, all of these polymerases were capable of inserting a base opposite a phenanthriplatin lesion, but only Pol η, an enzyme efficient in translesion synthesis, was able to fully bypass the adduct, albeit with low efficiency. X-ray structural characterization of Pol η complexed with site-specifically platinated DNA at both the insertion and +1 extension steps reveals that phenanthriplatin on DNA interacts with and inhibits Pol η in a manner distinct from that of cisplatin-DNA adducts. Unlike cisplatin and oxaliplatin, the efficacies of which are influenced by Pol η expression, phenanthriplatin is highly toxic to both Pol η+ and Pol η- cells. Given that increased expression of Pol η is a known mechanism by which cells resist cisplatin treatment, phenanthriplatin may be valuable in the treatment of cancers that are, or can easily become, resistant to cisplatin.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 06/2014;
  • Young-Sam Lee, Mark T Gregory, Wei Yang
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    ABSTRACT: DNA polymerase ζ (Pol ζ) is a eukaryotic B-family DNA polymerase that specializes in translesion synthesis and is essential for normal embryogenesis. At a minimum, Pol ζ consists of a catalytic subunit Rev3 and an accessory subunit Rev7. Mammalian Rev3 contains >3,000 residues and is twice as large as the yeast homolog. To date, no vertebrate Pol ζ has been purified for biochemical characterization. Here we report purification of a series of human Rev3 deletion constructs expressed in HEK293 cells and identification of a minimally catalytically active human Pol ζ variant. With a tagged form of an active Pol ζ variant, we isolated two additional accessory subunits of human Pol ζ, PolD2 and PolD3. The purified four-subunit Pol ζ4 (Rev3-Rev7-PolD2-PolD3) is much more efficient and more processive at bypassing a 1,2-intrastrand d(GpG)-cisplatin cross-link than the two-subunit Pol ζ2 (Rev3-Rev7). We show that complete bypass of cisplatin lesions requires Pol η to insert dCTP opposite the 3' guanine and Pol ζ4 to extend the primers.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/2014; · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Somatic hypermutation is programmed base substitutions in the variable regions of Ig genes for high-affinity antibody generation. Two motifs, RGYW and WA (R, purine; Y, pyrimidine; W, A or T), have been found to be somatic hypermutation hotspots. Overwhelming evidence suggests that DNA polymerase η (Pol η) is responsible for converting the WA motif to WG by misincorporating dGTP opposite the templating T. To elucidate the molecular mechanism, crystal structures and kinetics of human Pol η substituting dGTP for dATP in four sequence contexts, TA, AA, GA, and CA, have been determined and compared. The T:dGTP wobble base pair is stabilized by Gln-38 and Arg-61, two uniquely conserved residues among Pol η. Weak base paring of the W (T:A or A:T) at the primer end and their distinct interactions with Pol η lead to misincorporation of G in the WA motif. Between two WA motifs, our kinetic and structural data indicate that A-to-G mutation occurs more readily in the TA context than AA. Finally, Pol η can extend the T:G mispair efficiently to complete the mutagenesis.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2013; · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum) and related compounds cause DNA damage and are widely used as anticancer agents. Chemoresistance to cisplatin treatment is due in part to translesion synthesis by human DNA polymerase η (hPol η). Here, we report crystal structures of hPol η complexed with intrastrand cisplatin-1,2-cross-linked DNA, representing four consecutive steps in translesion synthesis. In contrast to the generally enlarged and nondiscriminating active site of Y-family polymerases like Dpo4, Pol η is specialized for efficient bypass of UV-cross-linked pyrimidine dimers. Human Pol η differs from the yeast homolog in its binding of DNA template. To incorporate deoxycytidine opposite cisplatin-cross-linked guanines, hPol η undergoes a specific backbone rearrangement to accommodate the larger base dimer and minimizes the DNA distortion around the lesion. Our structural analyses show why Pol η is inefficient at extending primers after cisplatin lesions, which necessitates a second translesion DNA polymerase to complete bypass in vivo. A hydrophobic pocket near the primer-binding site in human Pol η is identified as a potential drug target for inhibiting translesion synthesis and, thereby, reducing chemoresistance.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2012; 109(19):7269-74. · 9.81 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The variant form of the human syndrome xeroderma pigmentosum (XPV) is caused by a deficiency in DNA polymerase ɛ (Polɛ), a DNA polymerase that enables replication through ultraviolet-induced pyrimidine dimers. Here we report high-resolution crystal structures of human Polɛ at four consecutive steps during DNA synthesis through cis-syn cyclobutane thymine dimers. Polɛ acts like a `molecular splint' to stabilize damaged DNA in a normal B-form conformation. An enlarged active site accommodates the thymine dimer with excellent stereochemistry for two-metal ion catalysis. Two residues conserved among Polɛ orthologues form specific hydrogen bonds with the lesion and the incoming nucleotide to assist translesion synthesis. On the basis of the structures, eight Polɛ missense mutations causing XPV can be rationalized as undermining the molecular splint or perturbing the active-site alignment. The structures also provide an insight into the role of Polɛ in replicating through D loop and DNA fragile sites.
    Nature 01/2011; 476(7360):360-360. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The variant form of the human syndrome xeroderma pigmentosum (XPV) is caused by a deficiency in DNA polymerase eta (Poleta), a DNA polymerase that enables replication through ultraviolet-induced pyrimidine dimers. Here we report high-resolution crystal structures of human Poleta at four consecutive steps during DNA synthesis through cis-syn cyclobutane thymine dimers. Poleta acts like a 'molecular splint' to stabilize damaged DNA in a normal B-form conformation. An enlarged active site accommodates the thymine dimer with excellent stereochemistry for two-metal ion catalysis. Two residues conserved among Poleta orthologues form specific hydrogen bonds with the lesion and the incoming nucleotide to assist translesion synthesis. On the basis of the structures, eight Poleta missense mutations causing XPV can be rationalized as undermining the molecular splint or perturbing the active-site alignment. The structures also provide an insight into the role of Poleta in replicating through D loop and DNA fragile sites.
    Nature 06/2010; 465(7301):1044-8. · 38.60 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

119 Citations
106.62 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012–2014
    • National Institutes of Health
      • Laboratory of Molecular Biology
      Maryland, United States
  • 2012–2013
    • Zhejiang University
      • Institute of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences
      Hangzhou, Zhejiang Sheng, China