Marilyn P Law

University of Münster, Münster, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

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Publications (29)126.72 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The expression and function of endothelin (ET) receptors are abnormal in cardiovascular diseases, tumor progression, and tumor metastasis. A previously reported promising radioligand for positron emission tomography (PET) based on the non-peptide ET(A) receptor antagonist PD 156707 showed specific binding to target receptors in the myocardium but high accumulation in bile and intestine, probably because of its high lipophilicity. In this study we describe the synthesis of a series of fluorinated derivatives with hydrophilic building blocks. All compounds were evaluated as high affinity ET(A) receptor ligands (16, 17, 23-26, K(i) = 1.4-7.9 nM) with high subtype selectivity over the ET(B) receptor. [(18)F]3-Benzo[1,3]dioxol-5-yl-4-{3-[1-(2-{2-[2-(2-fluoroethoxy)ethoxy]ethoxy}ethyl)-1H-[1,2,3]triazol-4-ylmethoxy]-4,5-dimethoxybenzyl}-5-hydroxy-5-(4-methoxyphenyl)-5H-furan-2-one ([(18)F]17) was synthesized as one of the radioligands of this series that possesses a higher hydrophilicity and an excellent stability in human serum. Improved clearance properties and specific uptake in target organs have been confirmed by biodistribution studies and small animal PET imaging.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 02/2011; 54(4):939-48. DOI:10.1021/jm101110w · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dysfunction of the sympathetic nervous system underlies many cardiac diseases and can be assessed by molecular imaging using PET in humans. Small-animal PET should enable noninvasive quantitation of the sympathetic nervous system in mouse models of human disease. For mice, however, the radioactivity needed to give acceptable image quality may be associated with a mass of unlabeled compound sufficient to block the binding of radioligand to its target. The present study assesses the feasibility of using [N-methyl-(11)C]meta-hydroxyephedrine ((11)C-mHED) to measure norepinephrine reuptake in humans, to determine cardiac innervation in mice. Anesthetized mice were placed in a small-animal PET scanner. (11)C-mHED (containing 18% precursor metaraminol) was injected via a tail vein into each animal simultaneously. Fifteen minutes later, animals were injected with saline or metaraminol which competes with mHED for norepinephrine reuptake. (18)F-FDG was injected at 60 min to identify heart regions. After reconstruction of the list-mode data, radioactivity in myocardial regions was computed using in-house software, and time-activity curves were plotted. Hearts were clearly visualized after injection of (11)C-mHED. Injection of metaraminol at doses less than 50 nmol x kg(-1) had no effect, whereas doses greater than 100 nmol x kg(-1) caused a dose-dependent loss of specifically bound radioactivity. (11)C-mHED was successfully used to visualize and assess myocardial innervation in mice. Uptake of (11)C-mHED is displaceable by the false transmitter metaraminol. The total molar dose of metaraminol and (11)C-mHED must be considered in the analysis of PET data.
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine 08/2010; 51(8):1269-76. DOI:10.2967/jnumed.110.074997 · 5.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Radioligand binding studies indicate a down-regulation of myocardial beta(1)-adrenoceptors (beta(1)-AR) in cardiac disease which may or may not be associated with a decrease in beta(2)-ARs. We have chosen ICI 89,406, a beta(1)-selective AR antagonist, as the lead structure to develop new beta(1)-AR radioligands for PET and have synthesised a fluoro-ethoxy derivative (F-ICI). (S)-N-[2-[3-(2-Cyano-phenoxy)-2-hydroxy-propylamino]-ethyl]-N'-[4-(2-[(18)F]fluoro-ethoxy)-phenyl]-urea ((S)-[(18)F]F-ICI) was synthesised. Myocardial uptake of radioactivity after intravenous injection of (S)-[(18)F]F-ICI into adult CD(1) mice or Wistar rats was assessed with positron emission tomography (PET) and postmortem dissection. Metabolism was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of plasma and urine. The heart was visualised with PET after injection of (S)-[(18)F]F-ICI but neither unlabelled F-ICI nor propranolol (non-selective beta-AR antagonist) injected 15 min after (S)-[(18)F]F-ICI affected myocardial radioactivity. Ex vivo dissection demonstrated that predosing with propranolol or CGP 20712 (beta(1)-selective AR-antagonist) did not affect myocardial radioactivity. Radiometabolites rapidly appeared in plasma and both (S)-[(18)F]F-ICI and radiometabolites accumulated in urine. Myocardial uptake of (S)-[(18)F]F-ICI after intravenous injection was mainly at sites unrelated to beta(1)-ARs. (S)-[(18)F]F-ICI is not a suitable beta(1)-selective-AR radioligand for PET.
    Nuclear Medicine and Biology 05/2010; 37(4):517-26. DOI:10.1016/j.nucmedbio.2010.01.004 · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A new strategy for the radiolabeling of porous nanocontainers has been developed, and the first experiments in vivo are reported. Our approach consists of the use of nanometer-sized zeolites whose channels have been filled with the positively charged gamma-emitter (111)In(3+) via simple ion exchange. To avoid leaching of the isotope under physiological conditions, the entrances of the channels have been closed using a specifically designed molecular stopcock. This stopcock has a positively charged group that enters the channels and entraps the loaded radionuclides via electrostatic and steric repulsion. The other side of the stopcock is a bulky triethoxysilane group that can covalently bind to the walls of the zeolite entrances, thereby irreversibly closing the channels. The surface of the zeolites has been functionalized with different chemical groups in order to investigate the different biodistributions depending of the nature of the functionalizations. Preliminary in vivo experiments with Wistar rats have been performed and showed the potential of the approach. This strategy leads to a nanoimaging probe with a very high density of radioisotopes in a confined space, which is highly stable in physiological solution and could allow a large variety of functionalities on its external surface.
    ACS Nano 03/2010; 4(4). DOI:10.1021/nn100074k · 12.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A new strategy for the radiolabeling of porous nanocontainers has been developed, and the first experiments in vivo are reported. Our approach consists of the use of nanometer-sized zeolites whose channels have been filled with the positively charged γ-emitter 111In3+ via simple ion exchange. To avoid leaching of the isotope under physiological conditions, the entrances of the channels have been closed using a specifically designed molecular stopcock. This stopcock has a positively charged group that enters the channels and entraps the loaded radionuclides via electrostatic and steric repulsion. The other side of the stopcock is a bulky triethoxysilane group that can covalently bind to the walls of the zeolite entrances, thereby irreversibly closing the channels. The surface of the zeolites has been functionalized with different chemical groups in order to investigate the different biodistributions depending of the nature of the functionalizations. Preliminary in vivo experiments with Wistar rats have been performed and showed the potential of the approach. This strategy leads to a nanoimaging probe with a very high density of radioisotopes in a confined space, which is highly stable in physiological solution and could allow a large variety of functionalities on its external surface.Keywords: nanoparticle; zeolite L; scintigraphic imaging; stopper system; 111In; in vivo imaging
    ACS Nano 12/2009; 4(4). DOI:10.1021/nn901166u · 12.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The expression and function of endothelin (ET) receptors is abnormal in cardiovascular diseases, tumor progression, and tumor metastasis. In this study, we prepared two [(18)F]-fluorinated derivatives of the non-peptide ET(A) receptor antagonist PD 156707 and evaluated their ET receptor binding potencies. Ex vivo as well as in vivo biodistribution studies in mice were performed, as well as the metabolism of the radiotracer, which was examined by metabolite analysis in mice and rats. All tested derivatives of PD 156707 exhibited potent in vitro pharmacological characteristics with K(i) values comparable to that of the lead compound. The biodistribution studies showed a high accumulation of the tracer in bile and intestine. In vivo we were able to show that the visualization of the heart as a major target organ with high ET(A)R expression is possible.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry 09/2009; 17(20):7197-208. DOI:10.1016/j.bmc.2009.08.058 · 2.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Today, non-invasive imaging techniques are significantly contributing to the understanding of molecular processes in vivo. Positron emission tomography (PET) is a scintigraphic medical imaging modality that uses radiolabelled molecules (tracers), provides quantitative tomographic images and allows non-invasive assessment of the biodistribution of radioactive substances in vivo. The assessment of pathological glucose metabolism is the clinically best-established application of PET today; however, a multitude of different tracers are available to assess diverse physiological processes. The growing interest in pre-clinical imaging studies, in biological and medical basic research, as well as in pharmaceutical research, has fostered the recent growth in small-animal PET. Small-animal PET can be applied to enable the transfer from molecular findings in vitro to in vivo applications in humans, from bench to bed side.
    European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics: official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V 06/2009; 74(1):50-4. DOI:10.1016/j.ejpb.2009.05.012 · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Radioligand binding studies show that beta(1)-adrenoceptor (beta(1)-AR) density may be reduced in heart disease without down regulation of beta(2)-ARs. Radioligands are available for measuring total beta-AR density non-invasively with clinical positron emission tomography (PET) but none are selective for beta(1)- or beta(2)-ARs. The aim was to evaluate ICI 89,406, a beta(1)-AR-selective antagonist amenable to labelling with positron emitters, for PET. The S-enantiomer of an [O-methyl-(11)C] derivative of ICI 89,406 ((S)-[(11)C]ICI-OMe) was synthesised. Tissue radioactivity after i.v. injection of (S)-[(11)C]ICI-OMe (< 2 nmol x kg(-1)) into adult Wistar rats was assessed by small animal PET and post mortem dissection. Metabolism was assessed by HPLC of extracts prepared from plasma and tissues and by measuring [(11)C]CO(2) in exhaled air. The heart was visualised by PET after injection of (S)-[(11)C]ICI-OMe but neither unlabelled (S)-ICI-OMe nor propranolol (non-selective beta-AR antagonist) injected 15 min after (S)-[(11)C]ICI-OMe affected myocardial radioactivity. Ex vivo dissection showed that injecting unlabelled (S)-ICI-OMe, propranolol or CGP 20712A (beta(1)-selective AR antagonist) at high dose (> 2 mumol x kg(-1)) before (S)-[(11)C]ICI-OMe had a small effect on myocardial radioactivity. HPLC demonstrated that radioactivity in myocardium was due to unmetabolised (S)-[(11)C]ICI-OMe although (11)C-labelled metabolites rapidly appeared in plasma and liver and [(11)C]CO(2) was detected in exhaled air. Myocardial uptake of (S)-[(11)C]ICI-OMe after i.v. injection was low, possibly due to rapid metabolism in other tissues. Injection of unlabelled ligand or beta-AR antagonists had little effect indicating that binding was mainly to non-specific myocardial sites, thus precluding the use of (S)-[(11)C]ICI-OMe to assess beta(1)-ARs with PET.
    European Journal of Nuclear Medicine 02/2008; 35(1):174-85. DOI:10.1007/s00259-007-0553-8 · 5.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An approach to the in vivo imaging of locally upregulated and activated matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) found in many pathological processes is offered by positron emission tomography (PET). Hence, appropriate PET radioligands for MMP imaging are required. Here, we describe the syntheses of novel fluorinated MMP inhibitors (MMPIs) based on lead structures of the broad-spectrum inhibitors N-hydroxy-2(R)-[[(4-methoxyphenyl)sulfonyl](benzyl)-amino]-3-methyl-butanamide (CGS 25966) and N-hydroxy-2(R)-[[(4-methoxyphenyl)sulfonyl](3-picolyl)-amino]-3-methyl-butanamide (CGS 27023A). Additionally, tailor-made precursor compounds for radiolabeling with the positron-emitter 18F were synthesized. All prepared hydroxamate target compounds showed high in vitro MMP inhibition potencies for MMP-2, MMP-8, MMP-9, and MMP-13. As a consequence, the promising fluorinated hydroxamic acid derivative 1f was resynthesized in its 18F-labeled version via two different procedures yielding the potential PET radioligand [18F]1f. As expected, the biodistribution behavior of this novel compound and that of the more hydrophilic variant [18F]1j, also developed by our group, indicates that there was no tissue specific accumulation in wild-type (WT) mice.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 12/2007; 50(23):5752-64. DOI:10.1021/jm0708533 · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Molecular cardiovascular imaging plays an increasingly important role both in basic research and in clinical diagnosis. Scintigraphic methods have long been used to study pathophysiological changes on a cellular and molecular level, and they are likely to remain important molecular imaging modalities in the foreseeable future. This article provides an overview over current developments in cardiovascular molecular imaging using scintigraphic methods. The focus lies on imaging of cardiac innervation, plaque instability, hypoxia and angiogenesis, gene expression and stem and progenitor cell migration and proliferation.
    European Radiology 07/2007; 17(6):1422-32. DOI:10.1007/s00330-006-0541-6 · 4.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is assumed that the regulation of cardiac endothelin (ET) receptor density is abnormal in heart diseases. From that perspective, an ET receptor radioligand is needed to assess ET receptor density in vivo. The nonpeptidyl ET(A) receptor antagonist PD 169390 was labelled with radioiodine to give a putative radioligand for SPECT. Labelling with [125I]iodide and [123I]iodide was accomplished with good to excellent radiochemical yields. The affinities of the nonradioactive reference and those of selected precursor compounds for ET(A) receptors were determined, using [125I]iodine labelled endothelin-1 with mouse ventricular membranes. All employed substances exhibited potent in vitro pharmacological characteristics with Ki values comparable to that of the lead compound PD 156707. Biodistribution studies and scintigraphic imaging experiments in mice, however, showed no significant uptake of the [123I] derivative in the heart.
    Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry 04/2006; 14(6):1910-7. DOI:10.1016/j.bmc.2005.10.039 · 2.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To date, some non-selective β-adrenoceptor (β-AR) positron emission tomography (PET) radioligands are in clinical use, but no PET radioligand for the selective imaging of cardiac β1-ARs is clinically available. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a potential high-affinity PET radioligand for the β1-subtype of ARs. Here, the synthesis and in vitro evaluation of (S)- and (R)-N-[2-[3-(2-cyano-phenoxy)-2-hydroxy-propylamino]-ethyl]-N′-[4-(2-fluoro-ethoxy)-phenyl]-urea (8a–b), derivatives of the well-characterized β1-AR selective antagonist, ICI 89,406, are described. The (S)-isomer 8a shows both higher β1-AR selectivity and β1-AR affinity than the (R)-enantiomer 8b (selectivity: 40 800 vs 1580; affinity: KI1=0.049 nM vsKI1=0.297 nM). Therefore, the 18F-labelled analogue 8e of compound 8a was synthesized. While the direct nucleophilic 18F-fluorination of the tosylate precursor 8d produced 8e in low radiochemical yields (⩽2.9% decay-corrected) and specific activities (⩽3.5 GBq/µmol at the end of synthesis (EOS), n=9) the alternative two-step synthesis of 8e from ethylene glycol di-p-tosylate 9, [18F]fluoride ion and phenol precursor 8f gave satisfying results (16.4±3.2% radiochemical yield (decay-corrected), 99.7±0.5% radiochemical purity, 40±8 GBq/µmol specific activity at the EOS within 174±3 min from the end of bombardment (EOB) (n=5)). Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Journal of Labelled Compounds 02/2006; 49(2):177 - 195. DOI:10.1002/jlcr.1037
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and accuracy of quantifying subendocardial and subepicardial myocardial blood flow (MBF) and the relative coronary flow reserves (CFR) using (15)O-labeled water (H(2)(15)O) and 3-dimensional-only PET. Eight pigs were scanned with H(2)(15)O and (15)O-labeled carbon monoxide (C(15)O) after partially occluding the circumflex (n = 3) or the left anterior descending (n = 5) coronary artery, both at rest and during hyperemia induced by intravenous dipyridamole. Radioactive microspheres were injected during each of the H(2)(15)O scans. In a total of 256 paired measurements of MBF, ranging from 0.30 to 4.46 mL.g(-1).min(-1), microsphere and PET MBF were fairly well correlated. The mean difference between the 2 methods was -0.01 +/- 0.52 mL.g(-1).min(-1) with 95% of the differences lying between the limits of agreement of -1.02 and 1.01 mL.g(-1).min(-1). CFR was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) in the ischemic subendocardium (PET = 1.12 +/- 0.45; microspheres = 1.09 +/- 0.50; P = 0.86) and subepicardium (PET = 1.2 +/- 0.35; microspheres = 1.32 +/- 0.5; P = 0.39) in comparison with remote subendocardium (PET = 1.7 +/- 0.62; microspheres = 1.64 +/- 0.61; P = 0.68) and subepicardium (PET = 1.79 +/- 0.73; microspheres = 2.19 +/- 0.86; P = 0.06). Dynamic measurements using H(2)(15)O and a 3-dimensional-only PET tomograph allow regional estimates of the transmural distribution of MBF over a wide flow range, although transmural flow differences were underestimated because of the partial-volume effect. PET subendocardial and subepicardial CFR were in good agreement with the microsphere values.
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine 01/2006; 47(1):163-72. · 5.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Molecular imaging and quantification of myocardial β1-adrenoceptor (AR) rather than total β-AR density is of great clinical interest since cardiac biopsy studies suggest that myocardial β1-AR density is reduced in patients with chronic heart failure whereas cardiac β2-AR density may vary. Positron emission tomography (PET), with appropriate radioligands, offers the possibility to assess β-AR density non-invasively in humans. However, no PET radioligand for the selective imaging of cardiac β1-ARs is clinically available. Here some derivatives of the well characterized β1-AR selective antagonist, ICI 89,406, namely the enantiomers of N-[2-[3-(2-cyano-phenoxy)-2-hydroxy-propylamino]-ethyl]-N′-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-urea (5a and 5b) were synthesized and evaluated in vitro. The (R)-isomer 5a was more β1-selective but has lower affinity than its (S)-enantiomer 5b (β1-AR selectivity: 6100 vs 1240; β1-affinity: K1 = 0.288 nM vs K1 = 0.067 nM). Etherification of the analogous desmethyl precursors, 5e and 5f, respectively, with [11C]iodomethane gave 11C-labelled versions of 5a and 5b, namely 5g and 5h, in 44 ± 5% radiochemical yield (decay-corrected) and 97.4 ± 1.3% radiochemical purity with specific radioactivities of 26.4 ± 9.4 GBq/µmol within 41.2 ± 3.4 min from the end of bombardment (n = 14). 5g and 5h are now being evaluated as candidate radioligands for myocardial β1-ARs. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Journal of Labelled Compounds 08/2005; 48(10):721 - 733. DOI:10.1002/jlcr.965
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    ABSTRACT: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) plays a critical role in peripheral glucose homeostasis and energy metabolism, and inhibits cardiac hypertrophy in non-diabetic animal models. The functional role of PPARgamma in the diabetic heart, however, is not fully understood. Therefore, we analyzed cardiac gene expression, metabolic control, and cardiac glucose uptake in male Zucker diabetic fatty rats (ZDF fa/fa) and lean ZDF rats (+/+) treated with the high affinity PPARgamma agonist pioglitazone or placebo from 12 to 24 weeks of age. Hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia as well as lower cardiac PPARgamma, glucose transporter-4 and alpha-myosin heavy chain expression levels were detected in diabetic ZDF rats compared to lean animals. Pioglitazone increased body weight and improved metabolic control, cardiac PPARgamma, glut-4, and alpha-MHC expression levels in diabetic ZDF rats. Cardiac [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose uptake was not detectable by micro-PET studies in untreated and pioglitazone treated ZDF fa/fa rats but was observed after administration of insulin to pioglitazone treated ZDF fa/fa rats. PPARgamma agonists favorably affect cardiac gene expression in type-2 diabetic rats via activation and up-regulation of cardiac PPARgamma expression whereas improvement of impaired cardiac glucose uptake in advanced type-2 diabetes requires co-administration of insulin.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 05/2005; 329(2):726-32. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2005.02.029 · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The results of cardiac biopsies suggest that myocardial beta1-adrenoceptor (AR) density is reduced in patients with chronic heart failure, while changes in cardiac beta2-ARs vary. A technique for visualization and quantification of beta1-AR populations rather than total beta-AR densities in the human heart would be of great clinical interest. Molecular imaging techniques, either single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or positron emission tomography (PET), with appropriate radiopharmaceuticals offer the possibility to assess beta-AR density noninvasively in humans, but to date, neither a SPECT nor a PET-radioligand is clinically established for the selective imaging of cardiac beta1-ARs. The aim of this study was to design a high affinity selective beta1-AR radioligand for the noninvasive in vivo imaging of cardiac beta1-AR density in man using SPECT. Based on the well-known selective beta1-AR antagonist, ICI 89,406, both the racemic iodinated target compound 11a and the (S)-enantiomer 15a were synthesized. Competition studies using the nonselective AR ligand, [(125)I]iodocyanopindolol ([(125)I]ICYP), and ventricular membrane preparations from mice showed that 11a and 15a possess higher beta1-AR affinities (up to 265-fold) and beta1-AR selectivities (up to 245-fold) than ICI 89,406. Encouraged by these results, the radioiodinated counterparts of racemic 11a (11b: (125)I, 11c: (123)I) and (S)-configurated 15a (15b: (125)I, 15c: (123)I) were synthesized. The target compounds were evaluated in rats. Biodistribution and metabolism studies in rats indicated that there is a specific heart uptake of 11b-c and especially 15b-c accompanied by rapid metabolism of the radioligands. Therefore, radioiodinated 11c and 15c appeared to be unpromising SPECT-radioligands for assessing beta1-ARs in vivo in the rat. However, the rat may metabolize beta-AR ligands more rapidly than other species as demonstrated for (S)-[(11)C]CGP 12177, a radioligand structurally related to 11a-c and 15a-c. Therefore further studies in a different animal model will be carried out.
    Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry 09/2004; 12(15):4117-32. DOI:10.1016/j.bmc.2004.05.027 · 2.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are enzymes involved in the proteolytic degradation of extracellular matrix. They play an important role in several disease processes, such as inflammation, cancer, and atherosclerosis. In this study, we have used the broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor CGS 27023A to develop the radioligand [123I]I-HO-CGS 27023A for in vivo imaging of MMP activity. Using this radioligand, we were able to specifically image MMP activity by scintigraphy in vivo in the MMP-rich vascular lesions that develop after carotid artery ligation and cholesterol-rich diet in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. These results were confirmed by gamma counting of lesional tissue (counts per minute per milligram). Imaging of MMP activity in vivo is feasible using radiolabeled MMP inhibitors. Additional studies are needed to test the potential of this approach as a novel noninvasive clinical diagnostic tool for the management of human MMP-related diseases.
    Circulation 07/2004; 109(21):2554-9. DOI:10.1161/01.CIR.0000129088.49276.83 · 14.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Non-invasive measurement of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity in vivo is a clinical challenge in many disease processes such as inflammation, tumor metastasis and atherosclerosis. Therefore, radioiodinated analogues of the non-peptidyl broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor (MMPI) CGS 27023A 1a were synthesized for non-invasive detection of MMP activity in vivo using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The compounds Br-CGS 27023A 1b and HO-CGS 27023A 1d were synthesized from the amino acid D-valine and used as precursors for radioiodinated derivatives of CGS 27023A and their non-radioactive references I-CGS 27023A 1c and HO-I-CGS 27023A 1e. Radioiodination of the precursors with [(123)I]NaI or [(125)I]NaI produced the no-carrier-added MMP inhibitors [(123)I]I-CGS 27023A 1f, [(125)I]I-CGS 27023A 1g, HO-[(123)I]I-CGS27023A 1h, and HO-[(125)I]I-CGS 27023A 1i. In vitro studies showed that the non-radioactive analogues of the MMP inhibitors exhibited affinities against gelatinase A (MMP-2) and gelatinase B (MMP-9) in the nanomolar range, comparable to the parent compound CGS 27023A. In vivo biodistribution using HO-[(125)I]I-CGS 27023A 1i in CL57 Bl6 mice showed rapid blood and plasma clearance and low retention in normal tissues. The preliminary biological evaluation warrant further studies of these radioiodinated MMP inhibitors as potential new radiotracers for imaging MMP activity in vivo.
    Nuclear Medicine and Biology 03/2004; 31(2):257-67. DOI:10.1016/j.nucmedbio.2003.08.003 · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In general, the failing human heart is characterized by a selective reduction in beta(1)-adrenoceptors (beta(1)-ARs) without change in beta(2)-AR density. Medical imaging techniques, either single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or positron emission tomography (PET) with appropriate radioligands, offer the possibility of assessing beta-adrenoceptor density non-invasively in humans. To date, neither a SPECT nor a PET radioligand is available for the selective imaging of cardiac beta(1)-ARs. The aim of this study was to develop potential high affinity beta(1)-selective AR radioligands for the non-invasive in vivo imaging of the beta(1)-AR density in the human heart using SPECT or PET. A variety of racemic N-aryl-N'-[2-[3-aryloxy-2-hydroxy-propylamino]-ethyl]-urea derivatives and chain-elongated analogues, related to the established beta(1)-AR antagonist, ICI 89,406 8i, were synthesized. Competition studies using the non-selective AR ligand, [(125)I]iodocyanopindolol ([(125)I]ICYP), and ventricular membrane preparations of wild-type mice revealed nine ligands with higher beta(1)-AR affinities (up to 76-fold) and beta(1)-AR selectivities (up to 139-fold) than 8i. Mostly, these ligands possess a 2-substituted phenoxy group and a 4-substituted phenyl residue in contrast to the lead compound 8i. The non-radioactive counterparts of the desired SPECT- and PET-radiotracers were synthesized as reference compounds [e.g., 8f, 8g, 8h and 8l as the non-radioactive analogues of the radioiodinated SPECT radioligands, 8e and 8h as the non-radioactive compounds of C-11 labelled PET-tracers (C-11 in the methoxy group)]. The established library of high affinity beta(1)-selective AR antagonists was screened for chemical precursors for the radiosynthesis of the mentioned radioligands. Furthermore, the library consists of some comparison compounds that are unsubstituted, allyl- and alkyl-substituted or chain-elongated (e.g., 8a, 8j, 8o and 8r-t). Future steps will include radiolabelling and pharmacokinetic evaluation of the beta(1)-selective target compounds, which could be applied as sympathetic innervation agents for in vivo investigations and diagnostics in patients suffering from cardiac diseases like heart failure and ventricular arrhythmias.
    Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry 09/2003; 11(16):3513-27. · 2.95 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

521 Citations
126.72 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2004–2011
    • University of Münster
      • • European Institute of Molecular Imaging
      • • Department of Nuclear Medicine
      Münster, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2004–2010
    • Universitätsklinikum Münster
      • Klinik für Nuklearmedizin
      Muenster, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2006
    • Imperial Valley College
      IPL, California, United States
  • 2002
    • National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
  • 1996–2001
    • MRC Clinical Sciences Centre
      London Borough of Harrow, England, United Kingdom
  • 1997
    • Ealing, Hammersmith & West London College
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom