[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malaria remains one of the greatest human health burdens in Indonesia. Although Indonesia has a long and renowned history in the early research and discoveries of malaria and subsequently in the successful use of environmental control methods to combat the vector, much remains unknown about many of these mosquito species. There are also significant gaps in the existing knowledge on the transmission epidemiology of malaria, most notably in the highly malarious eastern half of the archipelago. These compound the difficulty of developing targeted and effective control measures. The sheer complexity and number of malaria vectors in the country are daunting. The difficult task of summarizing the available information for each species and/or species complex is compounded by the patchiness of the data: while relatively plentiful in one area or region, it can also be completely lacking in others. Compared to many other countries in the Oriental and Australasian biogeographical regions, only scant information on vector bionomics and response to chemical measures is available in Indonesia. That information is often either decades old, geographically patchy or completely lacking. Additionally, a large number of information sources are published in Dutch or Indonesian language and therefore less accessible. This review aims to present an updated overview of the known distribution and bionomics of the 20 confirmed malaria vector species or species complexes regarded as either primary or secondary (incidental) malaria vectors within Indonesia. This chapter is not an exhaustive review of each of these species. No attempt is made to specifically discuss or resolve the taxonomic record of listed species in this document, while recognizing the ever evolving revisions in the systematics of species groups and complexes. A review of past and current status of insecticide susceptibility of eight vector species of malaria is also provided.
Advances in Parasitology 01/2013; 83:173-266. · 3.78 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Global maps, in particular those based on vector distributions, have long been used to help visualise the global extent of malaria. Few, however, have been created with the support of a comprehensive and extensive evidence-based approach.
Here we describe the generation of a global map of the dominant vector species (DVS) of malaria that makes use of predicted distribution maps for individual species or species complexes.
Our global map highlights the spatial variability in the complexity of the vector situation. In Africa, An. gambiae, An. arabiensis and An. funestus are co-dominant across much of the continent, whereas in the Asian-Pacific region there is a highly complex situation with multi-species coexistence and variable species dominance.
The competence of the mapping methodology to accurately portray DVS distributions is discussed. The comprehensive and contemporary database of species-specific spatial occurrence (currently available on request) will be made directly available via the Malaria Atlas Project (MAP) website from early 2012.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plasmodium vivax occurs globally and thrives in both temperate and tropical climates. Here, we review the evidence of the biological limits of its contemporary distribution and the global population at risk (PAR) of the disease within endemic countries. We also review the most recent evidence for the endemic level of transmission within its range and discuss the implications for burden of disease assessments. Finally, the evidence-base for defining the contemporary distribution and PAR of P. vivax are discussed alongside a description of the vectors of human malaria within the limits of risk. This information along with recent data documenting the severe morbid and fatal consequences of P. vivax infection indicates that the public health significance of P. vivax is likely to have been seriously underestimated.
Advances in Parasitology 01/2012; 80:1-111. · 3.78 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT: In our original publication detailing the distribution of the dominant vector species of malaria in the Americas (Sinka et al. Parasit Vectors 2010, 3: 72.), both Figure one (The predicted distribution map of An. darlingi) and the An. darlingi map shown in Additional file two (The predicted distribution maps of the nine dominant vector species of the Americas) included points on the border between Costa Rica and Nicaragua. These are confirmed absence points and therefore should not have been included. These maps are intended to indicate locations only where the species presence has been confirmed. Anopheles darlingi has never been found or reported from Costa Rica or Nicaragua (as indicated in the Expert opinion map) despite numerous and comprehensive surveys in the area trying to locate it. Copies of the corrected figure and the updated Additional file can be found in Figure 1 and Additional file 1 (in this publication) and are also available on the Malaria Atlas Project (MAP) website: Figure One: http://www.map.ox.ac.uk/media/PDF/Figure%201%20-%20An%20darlingi%20-%20corrected.png Additional File Two (all species maps): http://www.map.ox.ac.uk/media/PDF/Sinka%20et%20al_Additional%20file%202%20-%20final%20maps%20(FINAL).pdf.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The final article in a series of three publications examining the global distribution of 41 dominant vector species (DVS) of malaria is presented here. The first publication examined the DVS from the Americas, with the second covering those species present in Africa, Europe and the Middle East. Here we discuss the 19 DVS of the Asian-Pacific region. This region experiences a high diversity of vector species, many occurring sympatrically, which, combined with the occurrence of a high number of species complexes and suspected species complexes, and behavioural plasticity of many of these major vectors, adds a level of entomological complexity not comparable elsewhere globally. To try and untangle the intricacy of the vectors of this region and to increase the effectiveness of vector control interventions, an understanding of the contemporary distribution of each species, combined with a synthesis of the current knowledge of their behaviour and ecology is needed.
Expert opinion (EO) range maps, created with the most up-to-date expert knowledge of each DVS distribution, were combined with a contemporary database of occurrence data and a suite of open access, environmental and climatic variables. Using the Boosted Regression Tree (BRT) modelling method, distribution maps of each DVS were produced. The occurrence data were abstracted from the formal, published literature, plus other relevant sources, resulting in the collation of DVS occurrence at 10116 locations across 31 countries, of which 8853 were successfully geo-referenced and 7430 were resolved to spatial areas that could be included in the BRT model. A detailed summary of the information on the bionomics of each species and species complex is also presented.
This article concludes a project aimed to establish the contemporary global distribution of the DVS of malaria. The three articles produced are intended as a detailed reference for scientists continuing research into the aspects of taxonomy, biology and ecology relevant to species-specific vector control. This research is particularly relevant to help unravel the complicated taxonomic status, ecology and epidemiology of the vectors of the Asia-Pacific region. All the occurrence data, predictive maps and EO-shape files generated during the production of these publications will be made available in the public domain. We hope that this will encourage data sharing to improve future iterations of the distribution maps.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A detailed knowledge of the distribution of the main Anopheles malaria vectors in Kenya should guide national vector control strategies. However, contemporary spatial distributions of the locally dominant Anopheles vectors including Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles arabiensis, Anopheles merus, Anopheles funestus, Anopheles pharoensis and Anopheles nili are lacking. The methods and approaches used to assemble contemporary available data on the present distribution of the dominant malaria vectors in Kenya are presented here.
Primary empirical data from published and unpublished sources were identified for the period 1990 to 2009. Details recorded for each source included the first author, year of publication, report type, survey location name, month and year of survey, the main Anopheles species reported as present and the sampling and identification methods used. Survey locations were geo-positioned using national digital place name archives and on-line geo-referencing resources. The geo-located species-presence data were displayed and described administratively, using first-level administrative units (province), and biologically, based on the predicted spatial margins of Plasmodium falciparum transmission intensity in Kenya for the year 2009. Each geo-located survey site was assigned an urban or rural classification and attributed an altitude value.
A total of 498 spatially unique descriptions of Anopheles vector species across Kenya sampled between 1990 and 2009 were identified, 53% were obtained from published sources and further communications with authors. More than half (54%) of the sites surveyed were investigated since 2005. A total of 174 sites reported the presence of An. gambiae complex without identification of sibling species. Anopheles arabiensis and An. funestus were the most widely reported at 244 and 265 spatially unique sites respectively with the former showing the most ubiquitous distribution nationally. Anopheles gambiae, An. arabiensis, An. funestus and An. pharoensis were reported at sites located in all the transmission intensity classes with more reports of An. gambiae in the highest transmission intensity areas than the very low transmission areas.
A contemporary, spatially defined database of the main malaria vectors in Kenya provides a baseline for future compilations of data and helps identify areas where information is currently lacking. The data collated here are published alongside this paper where it may help guide future sampling location decisions, help with the planning of vector control suites nationally and encourage broader research inquiry into vector species niche modeling.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Simon Hay and colleagues describe how the Malaria Atlas Project has collated anopheline occurrence data to map the geographic distributions of the dominant mosquito vectors of human malaria.
PLoS Medicine 01/2010; 7(2):e1000209. · 15.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This is the second in a series of three articles documenting the geographical distribution of 41 dominant vector species (DVS) of human malaria. The first paper addressed the DVS of the Americas and the third will consider those of the Asian Pacific Region. Here, the DVS of Africa, Europe and the Middle East are discussed. The continent of Africa experiences the bulk of the global malaria burden due in part to the presence of the An. gambiae complex. Anopheles gambiae is one of four DVS within the An. gambiae complex, the others being An. arabiensis and the coastal An. merus and An. melas. There are a further three, highly anthropophilic DVS in Africa, An. funestus, An. moucheti and An. nili. Conversely, across Europe and the Middle East, malaria transmission is low and frequently absent, despite the presence of six DVS. To help control malaria in Africa and the Middle East, or to identify the risk of its re-emergence in Europe, the contemporary distribution and bionomics of the relevant DVS are needed.
A contemporary database of occurrence data, compiled from the formal literature and other relevant resources, resulted in the collation of information for seven DVS from 44 countries in Africa containing 4234 geo-referenced, independent sites. In Europe and the Middle East, six DVS were identified from 2784 geo-referenced sites across 49 countries. These occurrence data were combined with expert opinion ranges and a suite of environmental and climatic variables of relevance to anopheline ecology to produce predictive distribution maps using the Boosted Regression Tree (BRT) method.
The predicted geographic extent for the following DVS (or species/suspected species complex*) is provided for Africa: Anopheles (Cellia) arabiensis, An. (Cel.) funestus*, An. (Cel.) gambiae, An. (Cel.) melas, An. (Cel.) merus, An. (Cel.) moucheti and An. (Cel.) nili*, and in the European and Middle Eastern Region: An. (Anopheles) atroparvus, An. (Ano.) labranchiae, An. (Ano.) messeae, An. (Ano.) sacharovi, An. (Cel.) sergentii and An. (Cel.) superpictus*. These maps are presented alongside a bionomics summary for each species relevant to its control.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An increasing knowledge of the global risk of malaria shows that the nations of the Americas have the lowest levels of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax endemicity worldwide, sustained, in part, by substantive integrated vector control. To help maintain and better target these efforts, knowledge of the contemporary distribution of each of the dominant vector species (DVS) of human malaria is needed, alongside a comprehensive understanding of the ecology and behaviour of each species.
A database of contemporary occurrence data for 41 of the DVS of human malaria was compiled from intensive searches of the formal and informal literature. The results for the nine DVS of the Americas are described in detail here. Nearly 6000 occurrence records were gathered from 25 countries in the region and were complemented by a synthesis of published expert opinion range maps, refined further by a technical advisory group of medical entomologists. A suite of environmental and climate variables of suspected relevance to anopheline ecology were also compiled from open access sources. These three sets of data were then combined to produce predictive species range maps using the Boosted Regression Tree method. The predicted geographic extent for each of the following species (or species complex*) are provided: Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albimanus Wiedemann, 1820, An. (Nys.) albitarsis*, An. (Nys.) aquasalis Curry, 1932, An. (Nys.) darlingi Root, 1926, An. (Anopheles) freeborni Aitken, 1939, An. (Nys.) marajoara Galvão & Damasceno, 1942, An. (Nys.) nuneztovari*, An. (Ano.) pseudopunctipennis* and An. (Ano.) quadrimaculatus Say, 1824. A bionomics review summarising ecology and behaviour relevant to the control of each of these species was also compiled.
The distribution maps and bionomics review should both be considered as a starting point in an ongoing process of (i) describing the distributions of these DVS (since the opportunistic sample of occurrence data assembled can be substantially improved) and (ii) documenting their contemporary bionomics (since intervention and control pressures can act to modify behavioural traits). This is the first in a series of three articles describing the distribution of the 41 global DVS worldwide. The remaining two publications will describe those vectors found in (i) Africa, Europe and the Middle East and (ii) in Asia. All geographic distribution maps are being made available in the public domain according to the open access principles of the Malaria Atlas Project.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1. Euedaphic collembola alter their soil distribution in response to above-ground aphid herbivory of Poa annua L. Graminae, a host grass.2. Two mechanisms potentially underpin this effect. Carbon-rich aphid honeydew falling onto the soil surface may affect mycophagous collembola; alternatively aphid-induced changes in root biomass may be necessary to produce changes in collembola abundance.3. When compared to a plant-only control, aphid herbivory increased the number of collembola in the top 5 cm of soil, reduced both foliar and root biomass, and increased shoot/root ratio. Honeydew addition had no effect on collembola numbers or any recorded host-plant parameter.4. Honeydew deposition is not responsible for the increased numbers of collembola found in the upper soil after aphid herbivory; aphid-induced reductions in root biomass may be the most important factor explaining knock-on effects of aphid herbivory on soil fauna.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Above-ground aphid herbivory of a shared host plant results in increased collembola populations within the rhizosphere. Three mechanisms potentially underpin this effect: honeydew deposition, aphid-induced reduction in root biomass and altered soil water content (as a result of root reduction inhibiting plant water uptake). This study focuses on the third mechanism, altered soil water content. This has the potential to influence collembola populations as, like most soil invertebrates, these organisms are highly susceptible to humidity levels. The indirect effects of leaf chewers (grasshoppers), phloem feeders (aphids) and manual (artificial) defoliation on soil water content, and hence on collembola population abundance, were compared. The different defoliation treatments significantly affected root biomass but not soil water content, and only aphid herbivory increased collembola abundance. Altered soil water content is unlikely to be the mechanism responsible for the increased collembola populations. The study demonstrated a strong negative relationship between soil water content and collembola abundance, confirming that soil moisture is an important factor in determining where collembola are found within the soil. The results also suggest that collembola have a higher tolerance for dry than for wet conditions.