Maria Gigliotti

Boehringer Ingelheim, Ingelheim, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany

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Publications (3)49.56 Total impact

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In 1999, we reported safety and efficacy data for short-course nevirapine from a Ugandan perinatal HIV-1 prevention trial when 496 babies were followed up to age 14-16 weeks. Safety and efficacy data are now presented for all babies followed up to 18 months of age. From November, 1997, to April, 1999, HIV-1 infected pregnant women in Kampala, Uganda, were randomly assigned nevirapine (200 mg at labour onset and 2mg/kg for babies within 72 h of birth; regimen A) or zidovudine (600 mg orally at labour onset and 300 mg every 3 h until delivery, and 4 mg/kg orally twice daily for babies for 7 days, regimenB). Infant HIV-1 testing was done at birth, age 6-8 and 14-16 weeks, and age 12 months by HIV-1 RNA PCR, and by HIV-1 antibody at 18 months. HIV-1 transmission and HIV-1-free survival were assessed using Kaplan-Meier analysis. We recorded adverse experiences through 6-8 weeks postpartum for mothers, and 18 months for babies. Efficacy analyses were by intention to treat. We enrolled 645 mothers to the study: 313 were assigned regimen A, 313 regimen B, and 19 placebo. Eight mothers were lost to follow-up before delivery. 99% of babies were breastfed (median duration 9 months). Estimated risks of HIV-1 transmission in the zidovudine and nevirapine groups were 10.3% and 8.1% at birth (p=0.35); 20.0% and 11.8% by age 6-8 weeks (p=0.0063); 22.1% and 13.5% by age 14-16 weeks (p=0.0064); and 25.8% and 15.7% by age 18 months (p=0.0023). Nevirapine was associated with a 41% (95% CI 16-59) reduction in relative risk of transmission through to age 18 months. Both regimens were well-tolerated with few serious side-effects. Intrapartum/neonatal nevirapine significantly lowered HIV-1 transmission risk in a breastfeeding population in Uganda compared with a short intrapartum/neonatal zidovudine regimen. The absolute 8.2% reduction in transmission at 6-8 weeks was sustained at age 18 months (10.1% [95% CI 3.5-16.6]). This simple, inexpensive, well-tolerated regimen has the potential to significantly decrease HIV-1 perinatal transmission in less-developed countries.
    The Lancet 10/2003; 362(9387):859-68. · 39.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the effect of 2 weeks of treatment with prednisone on the incidence of nevirapine-associated rash in HIV-1-infected patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy. This was a 24-week, prospective, randomized, open-label, international study. Patients were randomized to receive nevirapine plus open-label prednisone (40 mg once daily for 14 days) (n = 69) or nevirapine alone (n = 69). All patients received at least two other antiretroviral drugs. Nevirapine was administered at the lead-in dosage of 200 mg once daily. After the initial 2 weeks of the study, the nevirapine dosage was increased to 200 mg twice daily. During the first 6 weeks of treatment, rash was not reduced in the patients who received prednisone: prednisone treatment group, 23 (33%)/69; nonprednisone treatment group, 13 (19%)/69 (one-tailed Fisher exact test for prednisone reducing the incidence of rash, p =.984). There tended to be more severe rashes (7% versus 1%, respectively) and more therapy discontinuations due to rash (16% versus 9%, respectively) in the prednisone treatment group than in the nonprednisone treatment group. Risk factors for rash included higher pretreatment CD4 cell count, lower HIV-1 RNA level, female sex, and higher trough nevirapine concentrations. The prednisone treatment group had a marked increase in the median CD4 cell count in the first 2 weeks, which stabilized at a level similar to that in the nonprednisone treatment group. HIV-1 RNA responses were similar between the two groups. Treatment-naive patients had similar decreases in plasma HIV-1 RNA levels at week 24: approximately 2.3 log(10) copies/mL. This study demonstrated that 2 weeks of concomitant therapy with prednisone does not decrease the occurrence of nevirapine-associated rash. The use of prednisone is not recommended to prevent rash in patients receiving nevirapine. Prednisone administration had no adverse effects on the virological responses or on CD4 cell count changes at 24 weeks.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 06/2003; 33(1):41-6. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the efficacy and safety of 2 inexpensive and easily deliverable antiretroviral (ARV) regimens for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 during labor and delivery, HIV-infected pregnant women were screened at 11 maternity health institutions in South Africa and were enrolled in an open-label short course ARV regimen of either nevirapine (Nvp) or multiple-dose zidovudine and lamivudine (Zdv/3TC). The overall estimated HIV-1 infection rates in 1307 infants by 8 weeks were 12.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.7-15.0) for Nvp and 9.3% (95% CI, 7.0-11.6) for Zdv/3TC (P=.11). Excluding infections detected within 72 h (intrauterine), new HIV-1 infections were detected in 5.7% (95% CI, 3.7-7.8) and 3.6% (95% CI, 2.0-5.3) of infants in the Nvp and Zdv/3TC groups, respectively, in the 8 weeks after birth. There were no drug-related maternal or pediatric serious adverse events. Common complications were obstetrical for mothers (Nvp group, 24.3%; Zdv/3TC group, 26.3%) and respiratory for infants (Nvp group, 16.1%; Zdv/3TC group, 17.0%). This study further confirms the efficacy and safety of short-course ARV regimens in reducing MTCT rates in developing countries.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 04/2003; 187(5):725-35. · 5.85 Impact Factor