[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) is the most common form of heart failure (HF), its diagnosis being a challenge to the outpatient clinic practice. Objective: To describe and compare two strategies derived from algorithms of the European Society of Cardiology Diastology Guidelines for the diagnosis of HFPEF. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 166 consecutive ambulatory patients (67.9±11.7 years; 72% of women). The strategies to confirm HFPEF were established according to the European Society of Cardiology Diastology Guidelines criteria. In strategy 1 (S1), tissue Doppler echocardiography (TDE) and electrocardiography (ECG) were used; in strategy 2 (S2), B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) measurement was included. Results: In S1, patients were divided into groups based on the E/E'ratio as follows: GI, E/E'> 15 (n = 16; 9%); GII, E/E'8 to 15 (n = 79; 48%); and GIII, E/E'< 8 (n = 71; 43%). HFPEF was confirmed in GI and excluded in GIII. In GII, TDE [left atrial volume index (LAVI) ≥ 40 mL/m2; left ventricular mass index LVMI) > 122 for women and > 149 g/m2 for men] and ECG (atrial fibrillation) parameters were assessed, confirming HFPEF in 33 more patients, adding up to 49 (29%). In S2, patients were divided into three groups based on BNP levels. GI (BNP > 200 pg/mL) consisted of 12 patients, HFPEF being confirmed in all of them. GII (BNP ranging from 100 to 200 pg/mL) consisted of 20 patients with LAVI > 29 mL/m2, or LVMI ≥ 96 g/m2 for women or ≥ 116 g/m2 for men, or E/E'≥ 8 or atrial fibrillation on ECG, and the diagnosis of HFPEF was confirmed in 15. GIII (BNP < 100 pg/mL) consisted of 134 patients, 26 of whom had the diagnosis of HFPEF confirmed when GII parameters were used. Measuring BNP levels in S2 identified 4 more patients (8%) with HFPEF as compared with those identified in S1. Conclusion: The association of BNP measurement and TDE data is better than the isolated use of those parameters. BNP can be useful in identifying patients whose diagnosis of HF had been previously excluded based only on TDE findings.
Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia 08/2014; · 1.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of Brazil's staple food, rice, beans and manioc, and the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM) in adults assisted by a Brazilian Family Doctor Program (FDP).
The baseline information was collected on visits to 13 units of the FDP from July 2006 to December 2007 (CAMELIA Study). The units were revisited by trained researchers between July and December 2011, who reviewed medical records of all participants of the baseline. Biochemical, anthropometrical and blood pressure measurements, new diagnoses, and medical prescriptions were collected. Individuals ages ≥20 y, who were non-diabetic at baseline were included (N = 409). Food consumption was estimated using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Incident of diabetes was classified according to fasting serum glucose (≥126 mg/dL), individual's use of antidiabetic drugs, and/or diagnosis of diabetes described in the medical record. Individuals who were negative at baseline and also were negative for the above conditions were classified as non-diabetics.
Individuals who developed T2DM (N = 30) reported higher consumption of red meat and beans and less consumption of cassava flour, independent of the interval between visits and other potential confounding variables. The cassava flour showed a protective effect (relative risk, 0.910; 95% confidence interval, 0.842-0.982).
The consumption of cassava flour, a low-cost product, could be considered in diets for the prevention and control of diabetes. The hypothesis must be investigated in cohorts from different populations and tested in randomized controlled trials.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ischemic stroke is a major cause of neurological sequelae and death. The correct use of thrombolytic therapy faces several barriers. The objective was to discuss barriers to thrombolytic therapy in a private hospital. This was a retrospective cohort study of patients with symptoms of acute ischemic stroke entering the emergency department of a private hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 2009 to 2011. 257 patients were admitted with suspected ischemic stroke. Among the 156 patients with confirmed diagnosis of ischemic stroke, 18 (11.5%) received thrombolytic therapy. Of the 30 patients with ischemic stroke within the therapeutic window and meeting NIHSS criteria for thrombolysis, 20 were not thrombolysed. Nine of these were due to administrative barriers (45%). In the current study, the thrombolysis rate was higher than in the United States, but barriers prevented treating 47.6% of patients with indication for thrombolysis. Importantly, this study was conducted in a private hospital, and the situation may be even more unfavorable in the public health system.
Cadernos de saúde pública / Ministério da Saúde, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública 12/2013; 29(12):2487-96. · 0.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) is a highly prevalent syndrome that is difficult to diagnose in outpatients. The measurement of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) may be useful in the diagnosis of HFPEF, but with a different cutoff from that used in the emergency room. The aim of this study was to identify the BNP cutoff for a diagnosis of HFPEF in outpatients.
This prospective, observational study enrolled 161 outpatients (aged 68.1±11.5 years, 72% female) with suspected HFPEF. Patients underwent ECG, tissue Doppler imaging, and plasma BNP measurement, and were classified in accordance with algorithms for the diagnosis of HFPEF. HFPEF was confirmed in 49 patients, who presented higher BNP values (mean 144.4pg/ml, median 113pg/ml, vs. mean 27.6pg/ml, median 16.7pg/ml, p<0.0001). The results showed a significant correlation between BNP levels and left atrial volume index (r=0.554, p<0.0001), age (r=0.452; p<0.0001) and E/E' ratio (r=0.345, p<0.0001). The area under the ROC curve for BNP to detect HFPEF was 0.92 (95% confidence interval: 0.87-0.96; p<0.001), and 51pg/ml was identified as the best cutoff to detect HFPEF, with sensitivity of 86%, specificity of 86% and accuracy of 86%.
BNP levels in outpatients with HFPEF are significantly higher than in those without. A cutoff value of 51pg/ml had the best diagnostic accuracy in outpatients.
Revista portuguesa de cardiologia : orgao oficial da Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia = Portuguese journal of cardiology : an official journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology. 08/2013;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aims investigate if nondiabetic subjects with fasting glucose < 126 mg/dL but altered HbA1c already have lower estimated glomerular filtration (eGFR) and high serum MCP-1 levels in comparison to nondiabetics with normal HbA1c, independent of other metabolic changes.
Data were derived from the database of the CAMELIA (cardio-metabolic-renal family) study, a cross sectional study performed between July 2006 and December 2007, with participants recruited from the Family Doctor Program, Niterói, RJ.
An independent association between changes in HbA1c (≥ 5.7 and < 6.5% versus < 5.7%) and decreased eGFR rate was found. The HbA1c was shown to be a marker of metabolic changes in nondiabetic subjects with fasting glucose < 126 mg/dL, particularly in women and blacks.
These observations support the use of HbA1c levels in strategies for early intervention and prevention of chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease.
Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia 07/2013; 57(5):381-7. · 0.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The consolidation of nephrology as a medical specialty is relatively new and its denomination does not intuitively reflects its true scope.
To assess the degree of knowledge from a population sample regarding the term "nephrology".
We carried out a cross-sectional study in Niterói, RJ, with adult passerby individuals answering to the question "Do you know what nephrology is?". The variables recorded included: gender, age, skin-color, residence, income, educational level and kidneydisease history in the family. p values < 0.05 were considered significant.
Of the 564 individuals asked, 504 were willing to answer. Of those who refused, 64% were males, 58% caucasians - from whom 85% were aged > 30 years. The mean age among participants was 39 (22-56) years, 49% were males and 56% caucasians. Twenty-eight percent of the interviewees knew the term "nephrology". Their knowledge came from school (39%) and family (30%). Those who knew about the term "nephrology" were older (42 ± 17 vs. 39 ± 17 years, p < 0.05), had higher income (R$ 4,522 vs. R$ 2,934, p < 0.05) and higher education (27% vs. 12% with complete higher education, p < 0.001). They were predominantly caucasians (64% vs. 53%, p = 0.001), and had a higher rate of renal disease in the family (55% vs. 36%, p < 0.001). In the multivariate analysis, associations were maintained for age (OR 1.02; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.03, p = 0.004); higher education (OR 10.60, 95% CI, 4.20 to 26.86, p < 0.001) and kidney disease in the family (OR 2.2, 95% CI, 1.40 to 3.41, p < 0.001).
Only 28% knew the term "nephrology", illustrating the specialty's low penetration. We must strive to popularize this field of medicine aiming at better educating the population concerning the prevention and care of kidney diseases.
Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia 06/2013; 35(2):107-111.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: This study aims investigate if nondiabetic subjects with fasting glucose < 126 mg/dL
but altered HbA1c already have lower estimated glomerular filtration (eGFR) and high serum
MCP-1 levels in comparison to nondiabetics with normal HbA1c, independent of other metabolic
changes. Materials and methods: Data were derived from the database of the CAMELIA
(cardio-metabolic-renal family) study, a cross sectional study performed between July
2006 and December 2007, with participants recruited from the Family Doctor Program,
Niterói, RJ. Results: An independent association between changes in HbA1c (≥ 5.7 and
< 6.5% versus < 5.7%) and decreased eGFR rate was found. The HbA1c was shown to be
a marker of metabolic changes in nondiabetic subjects with fasting glucose < 126 mg/
dL, particularly in women and blacks. Conclusion: These observations support the use
of HbA1c levels in strategies for early intervention and prevention of chronic diseases
such as diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Blacks show higher levels of HbA1c in studies with different populations and are disproportionately affected by most diabetes-related complications. AIMS: The study aims to investigate if the prevalence of altered glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) varies with skin color and if there is a familial aggregation of either skin color and HbA1c. METHODS: The study used the CAMELIA study (Cardio-Metabolic-Renal familiar) population, conducted between June 2006 and December 2007 (cross sectional). Families were recruited from 13 Family Doctor Program Unities of Niteroi, Brazil, a highly miscegenated population. The visits included questionnaire, medical consultation, anthropometric and nutritional assessment. Blood pressure, blood/urine samples were collected. The dosage of HbA1c was performed by immunoturbidimetry in Labmax 240 equipment. RESULTS: We compare data of 241 (25.5%) Blacks, versus 422 (44.7%) Mulattos or 272 (28.8%) Whites. The groups did not differ significantly with regard to most measures. Blacks had the lowest levels of income/education, higher frequency of diabetes and hypertension (p<0.20) as higher levels of HbA1c (p<0.05) that persisted after adjusting for possible confounders. Among blacks, the correlations between siblings of HbA1c were higher than among white/mulatto, reaching 86% versus 50%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Those results indicate that Brazilian Blacks patients must have more attention, focusing on diabetes preventive care. Longitudinal studies are needed to address the question if the altered level of HbA1c has a real clinical impact.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Urolithiasis is a common and recurrent disease, whose prevalence rate has recently increased in parallel to obesity pandemic. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of history of urolithiasis in a non-randomized sample of adults assisted by a community-based health program and to analyze its association with metabolic syndrome. METHODS: Cross-sectional study set in Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, including adults (non-diabetic hypertensives, diabetics or controls). Participants were assessed through a standardized questionnaire and underwent clinical and laboratory evaluation, including blood and urine samples. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was based on harmonized criteria. RESULTS: A total of 740 adults were enrolled (M: F = 0.85; 43±12 years; 30% white, and 70% non-white). Almost half of subjects (42.5%) had metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of urolithiasis in the sample was 10.1%. White skin colour, family history, and metabolic syndrome were independently associated with urolithiasis (P < 0.05). Subjects with the syndrome (excluding cases on diuretics) had more acidic urine (P = 0.014), increased natriuresis (P = 0.01) and higher uricosuria (P = 0.001) compared with non-affected ones. The prevalence of urolithiasis increased in proportion to the number of criteria for metabolic syndrome (P for trend <0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic syndrome is a modifiable factor associated with urolithiasis in a way that the frequency of positive history increases proportionally to the number of its diagnostic criteria. These findings reinforce the recent suggested link between urolithiasis and cardiovascular risk factors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to estimate the association of shortness of breath (SOB), fatigue and bilateral lower limb edema (LLE) - typical symptoms of HF - with quality of life (QOL) dimensions, measured by the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36).
This cross-sectional study was conducted as part of the CAMELIA study (Cardiometabolic Renal Familial Study), which involved families covered by the Family Doctor Program (FDP) in Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The study included 455 patients aged 30 and over, assessed by questionnaire, medical consultation, and blood and urine tests.
The prevalence of symptoms was: fatigue 56.9%, SOB 22.6% and LLE 16.9%. There were independent and statistically significant associations between SOB and fatigue and all SF-36 dimensions, excepting emotional performance and SOB (p<0.10).
The combination of SOB and fatigue with low QOL can increase the positive predictive value for a clinical diagnosis of HF and is a possible alternative for prioritizing patients for closer investigation in a primary care setting.
Revista portuguesa de cardiologia: orgao oficial da Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia = Portuguese journal of cardiology: an official journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology 08/2012; 31(9):559-65. · 0.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pathophysiological model of heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) focuses on the presence of diastolic dysfunction, which causes left atrial (LA) structural and functional changes. The LA size, an indicator of the chronic elevation of the left ventricular (LV) filling pressure, can be used as a marker of the presence of HFPEF, and it is easily obtained.
To estimate the accuracy of measuring the LA size by using indexed LA volume and diameter (ILAV and ILAD, respectively) for diagnosing HFPEF in ambulatory patients.
This study assessed 142 patients (mean age, 67.3 ± 11.4 years; 75% of the female sex) suspected of having HF, divided into two groups: with HFPEF (n = 35) and without HFPEF (n = 107).
The diastolic function, assessed by use of Doppler echocardiography, showed a significant difference between the groups regarding the parameters assessing ventricular relaxation (E': 6.9 ± 2.0 cm/s vs. 9.3 ± 2.5 cm/s; p < 0.0001) and LV filling pressure (E/E' ratio: 15.2 ± 6.4 vs. 7.6 ± 2.2; p < 0.0001). The ILAV cutoff point of 35 mL/m² best correlated with the diagnosis of HFPEF, showing sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 83%. The ILAD cutoff point of 2.4 cm/m² showed sensitivity of 71%, specificity of 66%, and accuracy of 67%.
For diagnosing HFPEF in ambulatory patients, the ILAV proved to be a more accurate parameter than ILAD. On echocardiographic assessment, ILAV, rather than ILAD, should be routinely measured.
Arquivos brasileiros de cardiologia 02/2012; 98(2):175-81. · 1.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective To estimate dietary habits and other factors associated with inadequate blood pressure (BP) control in hypertensive patients adherent to antihypertensive drug treatment assisted by a Brazilian Family Doctor Program (FDP).Design A cross-sectional study.Setting FDP units, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.Subjects We included data from both male and female participants aged ≥20 years. Participants completed a standardized questionnaire containing questions related to demographics, socio-economic factors, comorbidities and lifestyle, as well as a validated FFQ and eleven additional qualitative questions to investigate dietary habits. Food items were divided into sixteen groups. Medical consultations were performed, BP measurements were taken, blood and urine samples were assessed and anthropometric and nutritional status was evaluated.Results Individuals with inadequate BP control presented higher BMI values (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1·027, 95 % CI 1·009, 1·045) and also consumed more meat (PR = 1·091, 95 % CI 1·022, 1·165), which are potentially modifiable variables. Higher levels of serum creatinine (PR = 1·894, 95 % CI 1·241, 2·892) were also associated with inadequate BP control, as were skin colour (white). After inclusion of the Na excretion index, which is an indirect measure of salt intake, a slight decrease was observed in the PR for meat, which resulted in loss of statistical significance.Conclusions The results indicate that salt consumption, skin colour, BMI and serum creatinine are associated with inadequate BP control.
Public Health Nutrition 11/2011; 14(12):2176 - 2184. · 2.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aiming at improving the use of echocardiography tests, the Appropriateness Criteria (AC) were created by the American Society of Echocardiography (ASE)/American College of Cardiology (ACC).
To compare the appropriateness profile of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) requests in accordance with the AC, between a public University Hospital (UH) and a Private Hospital (PH), and verify which characteristics are associated with a better TTE request profile.
We prospectively assessed 779 consecutive TTE requests in a PH (49.8%) and a UH (50.2%), with 55.6% of requests for women and 44.4% for men, aged 59.1 ± 15.7 years. The indications were classified as appropriate, inappropriate or non-classified, and adequacy to AC was correlated with age, patient gender, and the time since graduation of the requesting physician. The statistical analysis used Kappa coefficient and chi-square test.
There was no significant difference regarding the adequacy profile of appropriate TTE requests in the two institutions (71% vs. 75%, p = 0.3). At PH, the factors associated with higher rates of appropriate tests were: female gender (p = 0.001) and age younger than 60 years (p <0.001). In the UH, physicians who had graduated between 5 and 10 years before had a higher rate of inappropriate requests (p = 0.02). The variables that were independent predictors of appropriate tests in the PH were: female sex (p = 0.001) and age <60 years (p = 0.001).
In this evaluation, the PH and the UH profiles showed similar request appropriateness profiles. Female gender, time since graduation of the requesting physician and the patient's age influenced the appropriateness of requests.
Arquivos brasileiros de cardiologia 10/2011; 97(4):281-8. · 1.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To estimate the association between food intake and metabolic syndrome (MetS). DESIGN: Cross-sectional design conducted from July 2006 to December 2007. SETTING: Adolescents assisted by the Family Doctor Program (FDP) in Niterói, a metropolitan area in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. SUBJECTS: Survey of 210 adolescents. Individuals with three or more of the following components of MetS were classified as having this syndrome: TAG ≥ 110 mg/dl; HDL cholesterol < 50 mg/dl for girls aged 12-19 years and boys aged 12-14 years or <45 mg/dl for boys aged 15-19 years; waist circumference ≥75th percentile; serum glucose >100 mg/dl; and blood pressure ≥90th percentile. A semi-quantitative FFQ was used, and foods were grouped as: unprocessed or minimally processed foods (Group 1), processed culinary and food industry ingredients (Group 2) and ultra-processed foods (Group 3). The associations between food consumption and MetS were adjusted for sociodemographic, behavioural and family history covariates and were estimated using generalized estimation equations with the Poisson regression model. RESULTS: MetS was diagnosed in 6·7 % of the adolescents; the most frequent diagnostic criteria included the reduction of HDL cholesterol (46·7 %), elevated serum glucose (17·1 %) and the elevation of waist circumference (16·7 %). Crude analysis showed higher average daily intakes of energy, carbohydrates and ultra-processed foods among adolescents with MetS. After statistical adjustment, the intake of ultra-processed foods (≥3rd quartile) remained associated with MetS (prevalence ratio = 2·5; P = 0·012). CONCLUSIONS: High consumption of ultra-processed foods was associated with the prevalence of MetS in this adolescents group.
Public Health Nutrition 07/2011; · 2.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The DSM-IV-TR postulates that PTSD symptoms are organized into 3 clusters. This assumption has been challenged by growing number of factor analytical studies, which tend to favor 4-factor, first-order models. Our objective was to investigate whether the clusters of PTSD symptoms identified in North American and European studies could be replicated in a Brazilian sample composed of 805 primary care patients living in hillside slums. Volunteers were asked to fill out the Brazilian version of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version and a confirmatory factor analysis of this scale was conducted with the software LISREL 8.80. Seven models were tested and a 4-factor, first-order solution including an emotional numbing cluster was found to provide the best fit. Although PTSD has been characterized by some critics as a Western culture-specific disorder lacking universal validity, our results seem to uphold the cross-cultural validity of the 4-factor, first-order model.
Journal of anxiety disorders 06/2011; 25(7):950-63. · 2.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The reduction in mortality from cardiovascular disease has been observed in Brazil for years, attributed to a fall in risk factors, improved treatment and reduced hospital mortality.
To compare the mortality, the rate of hospitalization and hospital mortality in hospitals belonging to the Brazilian Public Health System, for ischemic heart disease (IHD), cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) and heart failure (HF), in Niterói, between 1998 and 2007.
We used the number of deaths and hospitalizations and mortality of residents in Niterói for Chapter IX of ICD10 and specific causes available in Datasus, in population aged 30 and older. The difference between the magnitude of the indicators was calculated for men and women taking the average of the first three year period less the average of the second three year period.
There was drop in population mortality rates in men and women for all age groups, in three groups of causes and for Chapter IX. The falling trend of rates decreased with age. For IHD there was a decrease in hospital mortality. For CVD and HF, there was an increase. The rates of hospitalization from IHD decreased, with exception of some ranges.
This study has clarified some aspects of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in Niterói. The reduction in population and hospital mortality from IHD indicates that there is a better approach in this condition. Increased mortality rate from cerebrovascular diseases and HF points to the need to give greater attention to the quality of hospital care for these groups of diseases.
Arquivos brasileiros de cardiologia 04/2011; 96(6):477-83. · 1.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To evaluate the quality of life of glaucoma patients comparing public health system, and private practice, through the questionnaire National Eye Institute 25-Item Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ). METHODS: A cross-sectional study, developed through the application of NEI-VFQ questionnaire in 83 non-consecutive glaucoma patients at different stages of the disease, and 51 from public health system, and 32 patients from private clinic. RESULTS: Statistically significant difference between groups was demonstrated in subdomains related to the "general health", "general vision", "ocular pain", "near activities", "distance activities", "mental health" and "role difficulties" no significant difference was demonstrated in "social functioning", "dependency", "driving", "color vision" and "peripheral vision". Regarding the overall score given by the questionnaire statistical difference was observed with an average of 73.13 in the public institutions and 86.07 in the private practice. CONCLUSION: The impact on quality of life was higher in patients from the public institution when compared to those of the private practice through the NEI-VFQ questionnaire.
Revista brasileira de oftalmologia 12/2010; 69(6):378-382. · 0.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this work was to survey HPV information from a random population of young women from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
This cross-sectional study included cervical samples from 241 female students. To determine human papillomavirus status, polymerase chain reaction amplification was performed. HPV typing was determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Demographic data, life style, sexual and gynecological history were obtained through use of a structured questionnaire.
The average age of the women was 19.6 years-old (SD=3.4 years). HPV prevalence was 27.4%. Nineteen different HPV genotypes were detected, including 13 high risk types. HPV 16 was the most prevalent type (6.2%), followed by 31 (4.1 %) and 66 (3.7%). Most of the oncogenic types belonged to the A9 species (28/48). The frequency of women infected by at least one oncogenic type was significantly higher than those only infected by low risk types (18.7% versus 7.5%). Cervical changes were detected in 12.5% of the sample and were significantly linked to infection with HPV types of the A9 species. Demographic variables, sexual initiation, or number of sexual partners were not associated with HPV prevalence, variety of HPV genotypes or oncogenic types.
The relative frequency of HPV genotypes other than vaccine types in young females should be taken into account when evaluating vaccination strategies. Due to the high prevalence of HPV infection among the population studied, implementation of sex education in schools, promotion of condom use and an organized screening program to prevent cervical cancer must be encouraged for this age group.
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical 02/2010; 43(1):4-8. · 0.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in two female populations from diverse socio-economic strata from the state of Rio de Janeiro and we also investigated the possible co-factors related to infection and the progression to cancer. In Group I, the reference group of this study, 10.7% of the patients presented HPV infection, as detected by generic PCR, while in Group II (low socio-demographic conditions) HPV was detected in 31.1% of the samples. HPV16 was the most prevalent virus type found in both Groups I and II (5.3% and 10%, respectively), followed by HPV 18 (1.3% and 4.7%, respectively). Although only a small sample was analysed, we detected differences among the groups regarding the rates of HPV infection, HPV types, age, ethnicity, familial income, schooling, marital status, parity, tobacco smoking and oral contraceptive use. For Group I, the Papanicolaou test was the most powerful independent factor associated with HPV status, followed by an age of under 30 years old, the number of sexual partners and black ethnicity. Our data are in agreement with the co-factors that are typically described for the developed world. For Group II, the Pap test was also the most relevant variable that was analysed, but the history of other sexually transmitted diseases and the use of alcohol were additional factors that were implicated in infection. These findings point out the need for the development of general and specific strategies for HPV screening of all Brazilian women.
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 09/2009; 104(6):885-91. · 1.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heart failure (HF) is an important public health concern in Brazil due to its high prevalence. Our objective was to study the performance of primary care physicians of the public health system in the management of heart failure in the city of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro state, comparing their practice to that recommended by the Brazilian Society of Cardiology (BSC) guidelines.
In a cross-sectional study, 167 patients aged over 18, with a primary diagnosis of heart failure (HF), were studied at the university hospital by questionnaire, physical exam, electrocardiogram (ECG), chest X-ray, and echocardiogram (echo) as the gold standard exam.
HF was not confirmed by echo criteria in 56 cases (33.5%). Sixty-nine patients (40.6%) had not previously undergone any diagnostic exam. Mean age was 61 years (+/- 13.3) and 57% were women. The main divergences from the guidelines were underuse of echo (11.4%), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) (64.1%) and beta-blockers (BBs) (26.0%), and the most often prescribed of the latter were those without benefits in morbidity and mortality --propranolol (15.6%) and atenolol (6.6%). The association of ACEIs and BBs was used in 25% of patients. Diuretics were the most prescribed (64.7%) and spironolactone was used in 9.0% of cases.
There is a significant divergence between primary practice and the BSC guidelines. In this setting, the limited availability of echo and of the recommended drugs, combined with a lack of information, restricts their use. A program to improve adherence to the guidelines and to an evidence-based approach, through continuous medical training, should be implemented to improve the quality of primary care.
Revista portuguesa de cardiologia: orgao oficial da Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia = Portuguese journal of cardiology: an official journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology 07/2009; 28(6):683-96. · 0.53 Impact Factor