ABSTRACT: We determined the association of lower-body fat mass (LFM) and trunk fat mass (TFM) with cardiometabolic risk factors and adipokines in young, healthy, slim women.
A total of 481 college female students underwent the following: regional body fat distribution as assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), a 75g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and fasting blood sampling for measurement of lipids, lipoproteins, apolipoproteins (apo), liver enzymes and adipokines.
After adjusting for TFM, LFM was positively associated with HDL cholesterol, adiponectin, pre-heparin lipoprotein lipase and insulin sensitivity, as estimated by the Matsuda index, whereas it was negatively related to triglycerides, apo B, apo B/A1 ratio, small dense LDL, FFA, glucose and insulin at 2h during OGTT, area under the curve of insulin response during OGTT and the white blood cell count. Participants were divided into 9 groups according to tertiles of TFM and LFM. In the middle tertile of TFM, HDL cholesterol and adiponectin increased and triglycerides, apoB/A1 ratio and plasminogen-activator inhibitor-1 decreased from the low to high LFM tertiles. Gamma-glutamyltransferase levels in middle and high LFM tertiles were lower than in the lower LFM tertile.
For a given level of trunk fat mass, a higher lower-body fat mass is associated with an advantageous profile of not only blood lipoproteins but also serum adipokines, even in healthy, slim women in early adulthood.
Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis 01/2011; 18(5):365-72. · 2.69 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Although the mean body mass index (BMI) of Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes was within the normal range, we have previously shown that approximately half of all patients classified as normal weight had been formerly obese. The present study examined the clinical features of Japanese type 2 diabetic patients who are currently of normal weight but had formerly been obese (NWFO).
Body weight history with selfreported body weight was obtainable for 108 of 114 type 2 diabetic outpatients who had been regularly attending our department. Common carotid artery intimamedia thickness (IMT) was also measured.
At the time of the examinations, 5 (5%) and 36 (33%) of 108 type 2 diabetic patients were lean (BMI <18.5 kg/m(2)) and obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m(2)), respectively, whereas normal weight (BMI ≥18.5-<25 kg/m(2)) was found in 67 (62%) patients. Among 108 patients, 67 (62%) were normal weight, of which 32 (48%) were formerly obese (NWFO). NWFO patients with a mean age of 65 years old at the clinic visit had reached their lifetime maximum body weight at age 45 and became diabetic at age 51 years. Obese patients aged 62 years at the clinic visit became diabetic at age 50 and had reached their maximum weight at age 51 years. Diabetes duration was 11 years in patients who had never been obese. Thus, NWFO patients had been exposed to obesity-related metabolic abnormalities and/or hyperglycemia for 20 years on average whereas obese and never obese patients had been exposed for 11-12 years. Although obese patients had higher fasting TG and greater BMI than NWFO, both obese and NWFO patients had similarly lower HDL cholesterol levels than those who had never been obese; however, there was no difference among the 3 groups in diabetic treatment, diabetes duration, HbA1c levels, and prevalence of atherosclerotic risk factors, including smokers, users of statins and antihypertensive drugs. Carotid max IMT was thicker in NWFO type 2 diabetic patients (0.86±0.04 mm) than either obese patients (0.78±0.03 mm, p=0.041) or those who had never been obese (0.78±0.02 mm, p=0.046).
This report confirms that approximately half of 108 Japanese type 2 diabetic patients who are currently normal weight were formerly obese and shows that these patients had a thicker carotid IMT than either obese patients or those who had never been obese. Formerly obese diabetic patients who have lost weight and are currently normal weight might have been exposed to long-term obesity-related cardiometabolic abnormalities and/or hyperglycemia, resulting in increased common carotid IMT. We therefore suggest that an improved clinical screening tool would include the assessment of body weight history for all Japanese type 2 diabetic patients at their first clinic visit.
Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis 11/2010; 18(2):115-21. · 2.69 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: We assessed the relationship of the body mass index (BMI) of 187 college female students aged 18 years with the reported BMI of their middle-aged biological parents measured on 2 occasions: when the parents were 18-20 years old and at the time of the study. The relationships of fat mass measured using whole body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and serum leptin levels were also determined between 148 daughters and middle-aged parents (148 mothers and 59 fathers).
The BMI of daughters was associated with their mothers' BMI (r=0.30, p<0.0001) but not with their fathers' BMI measured when they were 18 years old. Daughters' BMI showed a stronger association with the current BMI of their mothers BMI (r=0.36, p<0.0001) than that of their fathers' BMI (r=0.19, p=0.01). In addition, the serum leptin levels of daughters were correlated with their mothers' leptin values (r=0.22, p=0.04). Further, not only total body fat mass (r=0.19, p<0.05) but also fat mass in the trunk (r=0.18, p<0.05) and legs (r=0.17, p<0.05) was associated between daughters and their mothers.
The significant correlation between daughters' and mothers' BMI measured when their mothers were 18 years old did not result from shared environmental factors, including the intrauterine environment. The results in the present study therefore suggest that adiposity in 18-year-old daughters may be influenced by the maternal effect. The associations of serum leptin and DXA-derived fat mass between daughters and their mothers may support our hypothesis.
Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis 10/2010; 17(10):1077-81. · 2.69 Impact Factor