Marco Montillo

Azienda Ospedaliera Niguarda Ca' Granda, Milano, Lombardy, Italy

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Publications (117)491.99 Total impact

  • Haematologica 06/2014; · 5.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Addition of rituximab (R) to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide (FC) has significantly improved patient outcomes in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Whether baseline gene expression can identify patients who will benefit from immunochemotherapy over chemotherapy alone has not been determined. We assessed genome-wide expression of 300 pretreatment specimens from a subset of 552 patients in REACH, a study of FC or R-FC in relapsed CLL. An independent test set was derived from 282 pretreatment specimens from CLL8, a study of FC or R-FC in treatment-naïve patients. Genes specific for benefit from R-FC were determined by assessing treatment-gene interactions in Cox proportional hazards models. REACH patients with higher pretreatment protein tyrosine kinase 2 (PTK2) mRNA levels derived greater benefit from R-FC, with significant improvements in progression-free survival, independent of known prognostic factors in a multivariate model. Examination of PTK2 gene expression in CLL8 patients yielded similar results. Furthermore, PTK2 inhibition blunted rituximab-dependent cell death in vitro. This retrospective analysis from 2 independent trials revealed that increased PTK2 expression is associated with improved outcomes for CLL patients treated with R-FC vs FC. PTK2 expression may be a useful biomarker for patient selection in future trials. REACH (NCT00090051) and CLL8 (NCT00281918) were registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov.
    Blood 06/2014; · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background In patients with chronic lymphoid leukemia (CLL) or small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL), a short duration of response to therapy or adverse cytogenetic abnormalities are associated with a poor outcome. We evaluated the efficacy of ibrutinib, a covalent inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase, in patients at risk for a poor outcome. Methods In this multicenter, open-label, phase 3 study, we randomly assigned 391 patients with relapsed or refractory CLL or SLL to receive daily ibrutinib or the anti-CD20 antibody ofatumumab. The primary end point was the duration of progression-free survival, with the duration of overall survival and the overall response rate as secondary end points. Results At a median follow-up of 9.4 months, ibrutinib significantly improved progression-free survival; the median duration was not reached in the ibrutinib group (with a rate of progression-free survival of 88% at 6 months), as compared with a median of 8.1 months in the ofatumumab group (hazard ratio for progression or death in the ibrutinib group, 0.22; P<0.001). Ibrutinib also significantly improved overall survival (hazard ratio for death, 0.43; P=0.005). At 12 months, the overall survival rate was 90% in the ibrutinib group and 81% in the ofatumumab group. The overall response rate was significantly higher in the ibrutinib group than in the ofatumumab group (42.6% vs. 4.1%, P<0.001). An additional 20% of ibrutinib-treated patients had a partial response with lymphocytosis. Similar effects were observed regardless of whether patients had a chromosome 17p13.1 deletion or resistance to purine analogues. The most frequent nonhematologic adverse events were diarrhea, fatigue, pyrexia, and nausea in the ibrutinib group and fatigue, infusion-related reactions, and cough in the ofatumumab group. Conclusions Ibrutinib, as compared with ofatumumab, significantly improved progression-free survival, overall survival, and response rate among patients with previously treated CLL or SLL. (Funded by Pharmacyclics and Janssen; RESONATE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01578707 .).
    New England Journal of Medicine 05/2014; · 54.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In a phase II trial, we evaluated chlorambucil and rituximab (CLB-R) as first-line induction treatment with or without R as maintenance for elderly chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients. Treatment consisted of eight 28-day cycles of CLB (8 mg/m(2) /day, days 1-7) and R (day 1 of cycle 3, 375 mg/m(2) ; cycles 4-8, 500 mg/m(2) ). Responders were randomized to twelve 8-week doses of R (375 mg/m(2) ) or observation. As per intention-to-treat analysis, 82.4% (95% CI, 74.25-90.46%) of 85 patients achieved a response (OR), 16.5% a complete response (CR), 2.4% a CR with incomplete bone marrow recovery. The OR was similar across Binet stages (A 86.4%, B 81.6%, C 78.6%) and age categories (60-64 years, 92.3%; 65-69, 85.2%; 70-74, 75.0%; ≥75, 81.0%). CLB-R was well tolerated. After a median follow-up of 34.2 months, the median progression-free survival (PFS) was 34.7 months (95% CI, 33.1-39.5). TP53 abnormalities, complex karyotype and low CD20 gene expression predicted lack of response; SF3B1 mutation and BIRC3 disruption low CR rates. IGHV mutations significantly predicted PFS. R maintenance tended towards a better PFS than observation, was safe and most beneficial for patients in partial response and for unmutated IGHV cases. CLB-R represents a promising option for elderly CLL patients.
    American Journal of Hematology 01/2014; · 4.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: By using the GRADE system we produced the following recommendations for the use of bendamustine in the first-line treatment of CLL: 1) bendamustine with rituximab is recommended in elderly fit patients potentially eligible to FCR; 2) Bendamustine alone is recommended in patients who are candidate to chlorambucil alone; 3) Rituximab-bendamustine is recommended in patients not eligible to FCR, but suitable to receive rituximab. Consensus-based recommendations addressed evidence-orphan issues concerning the use of bendamustine in genetically-defined high-risk patients and the appropriate dose of bendamustine as single agent or in association with rituximab.
    Leukemia Research. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background NOX-A12 is a novel, potent, L-stereoisomer RNA aptamer (Spiegelmer®) that binds and neutralizes CXCL12/SDF-1, a chemokine which attracts and activates immune- and non-immune cells via interaction with its receptors, CXCR4 and CXCR7. The signaling of CXCL12 has been shown to play an important role in the pathophysiology of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), especially in the interaction of leukemic cells with tissue microenvironment. The therapeutic concept of NOX-A12 is to mobilize these bone marrow- and tissue-resident CLL cells into the blood, thereby removing CLL cells from the nurturing milieu and sensitizing them to cytotoxic drugs such as bendamustine and rituximab (BR). Methods To date, 19/33 planned patients have been enrolled into a multicenter Phase IIa study of NOX-A12 alone and in combination with BR in relapsed CLL patients. Here we report interim data on PK, PD and preliminary efficacy of a pilot group consisting of 3 cohorts of 3 patients each. In the pilot phase, cohorts received single doses of 1, 2 or 4 mg/kg NOX-A12 alone, respectively, two weeks prior to 6 cycles of combined treatment of NOX-A12 with BR repeated every 28 days. During combination therapy, NOX-A12 was administered 1-2 hours prior to rituximab following a dose titration design for all patients: NOX-A12 doses were increased from 1 mg/kg to 2 mg/kg and 4mg/kg at cycles 1, 2 and 3, respectively. During cycles 4-6, doses of NOX-A12 were kept at the highest individually titrated dose. Bendamustine (70 - 100 mg/m², according to SPC) was given on day 2 and 3 (cycle 1) or 1 and 2 (cycle 2-6), combined with 375 mg/m2 rituximab on day 1 for the first cycle and 500 mg/m2 for subsequent cycles. Tumor response was assessed according to NCI-WG 1996 criteria (updated by iwCLL 2008). Results In total, 10 patients were enrolled in the pilot group (one additional patient was enrolled due to one patients’ under dosing). The median age was 69 years (range 57-77) with 8 women and 2 men being included. Median prior therapies were 2 (range 1-2), whereby all patients were bendamustine naïve and 6 patients had received rituximab treatment prior to enrolment. 2, 4 and 4 patients presented at screening with Binet stage A, B, and C, respectively. 8 patients showed at least 1 cytogenetic aberration at the beginning of treatment. Tumor assessments before enrolment and at end of cycles 3 and 6 were evaluated. Plasma profiles of NOX-A12 in the patient population of the pilot group (Figure 1) were similar to those of healthy volunteers in which a plasma half-life of approximately 38 h was observed. After single doses of NOX-A12, the exposure was dose-linear with peak plasma concentrations of 1.7, 3.5, and 6.7 µM in the corresponding cohorts. CLL cells in the peripheral blood were found to be increased throughout the observational period of 3 days (Figure 2). In all patients presenting with lymphadenopathy, the lymph node size decreased markedly. NOX-A12 as single agent was safe and very well tolerated. All patients responded to the combination treatment of NOX-A12 and BR (ORR 100%); one patient had to be withdrawn from treatment due to multiple infections during cycle 4 having achieved a partial response (PR). At the end of cycle 6, seven patients (78%) showed a PR and two patients (22%) achieved a complete remission (CR). In combination with BR, NOX-A12 was equally safe and well tolerated. Conclusions Proof of principle was achieved as single doses of NOX-A12 reached the expected plasma exposure which translated into an effective and prolonged mobilization of CLL cells into the peripheral blood. In addition, the 100% ORR and 22% CR as well as the virtual absence of additional toxicity on top of BR observed in this pilot group compares very favorably with historical controls. Provided that this promising clinical picture will be maintained in the total sample of 33 patients, further development of this novel anti-CXCL12/SDF-1 Spiegelmer® seems warranted. https://ash.confex.com/ash/2013/webprogram/Paper61218.html
    ASH 2013, New Orleans; 12/2013
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The clinical course of patients with B-cell CLL is often complicated by autoimmune phenomena. The DAT might be positive at some time during the course of the disease in up to 35% of cases. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the relationship between the occurrence of a positive DAT and biological features of CLL patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In our institution, 146 untreated patients with CLL were studied using the DAT. RESULTS: According to the statistical analysis, a high level of β2-microglobulin and unmutated IgHV emerged as factors significantly related to the presence of DAT positivity. Time to first TFS was significantly shorter in DAT-positive patients. The adverse effect of a DAT positive result was maintained in terms of TFS when patients with mutated IgHV status were excluded from statistical analysis. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the DAT might provide additional prognostic information regarding patients with IgHV unmutated status.
    Clinical lymphoma, myeloma & leukemia 06/2013;
  • Marco Montillo, Alessandra Tedeschi
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    ABSTRACT: Evaluation of: Weide R, Feiten S, Friesenhahn V et al. Retreatment with bendamustine-containing regimens in patients with relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia and indolent B-cell lymphomas achieves high response rates and some long lasting remissions. Leuk. Lymphoma doi:10.3109/10428194.2012.747679 (2012) (Epub ahead of print). A pattern of relapse followed by further therapy is prevalent in patients with indolent lymphoid malignancies indicating the need for additional effective salvage therapies. Previous therapy, response and duration of response to that therapy are among the most important factors in determining the next therapy. Bendamustine, a bifunctional alkylating agent, has been tested alone or in combination in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. In this article, the authors reported data, collected retrospectively, regarding repeatedly treating patients affected by indolent lymphoid malignancies with bendamustine-including regimens at the moment of relapse. Their experience showed that this drug is effective and manageable even when reused in both settings: chronic lymphocytic leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas combined with rituximab and/or mitoxantrone. The slow evolution in the treatment of patients with lymphoid malignancies has recently given way to a major revolution. Over the past decade, the availability of novel and active targeted agents, particularly monoclonal antibodies, has engendered major progress in the treatment of both aggressive and indolent lymphoid malignancies. Despite the fact that new therapeutic strategies are relying less on nonspecific cytotoxic drugs and more on targeted agents, a pattern of relapse followed by further therapy is prevalent in patients with indolent lymphoid malignancies, indicating the need for additional effective salvage therapies.
    Expert Review of Hematology 06/2013; 6(3):247-50. · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CLL-like monoclonal B lymphocytosis (MBL) shares common immunophenotype and cytogenetic abnormalities with CLL, from which it is discriminated by a cut-off value of 5x10(9)/l circulating clonal B cells. However, the clonal size amongst MBL is extremely variable and allows discrimination of two distinct entities (High- and Low-count MBL) based on a cut-off value of 0.5x10(9)/l clonal B cells. High-count (HC) MBL is associated with lymphocytosis and progresses to CLL requiring treatment at a rate of 1.1%/year, whereas low-count (LC) MBL is found in the general population only through high-sensitivity techniques and carries limited -if any- risk of progression. We performed an immunogenetic profiling of 333 CLL-like MBL cases supplemented by detailed comparisons with CLL, focusing especially on CLL Rai stage-0 (CLL-0). LC and HC-MBL had similar somatic hypermutation status, yet different IGHV gene repertoires and frequencies of B-cell receptor (BcR) stereotypy. In particular, stereotyped BcRs were infrequent in LC-MBL and often not CLL-specific. In contrast, HC-MBL exhibited clear immunogenetic similarities to CLL-0, extending to the frequent presence of CLL-specific stereotypes. These findings indicate that LC-MBL may not represent a true preleukemic condition, thus differing from HC-MBL/CLL-0 where the identification of factors endowing malignant potential is strongly warranted.
    Blood 04/2013; · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Key points Only a complete disruption of TP53 function increases the risk for disease progression in previously treated CLL patientsMiR-34a expression significantly correlates with the predicted TP53 activity in previously treated CLL patients with TP53 abnormalities.
    Blood 03/2013; · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Deletion on the long arm of chromosome 11 occurs in 5-20% of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) patients. We analysed clinical-biological characteristics of 131 CLL patients carrying 11q deletion documented before therapy (de novo 11q deleted CLL). De novo 11q deleted CLL were characterized by high frequencies of unmutated immunoglobulin variable heavy genes, multiple fluorescence in situ hybridization aberrations and lymph node involvement. Factors significantly associated with shorter time to first treatment (TTFT) were advanced Binet stages, high white blood cell count, increased β(2) -microglobulin levels, 17p in addition, splenomegaly and more extensive lymphadenopathy. We found that patients with <25% 11q deleted nuclei (n = 22) experienced longer TTFT compared with patients with ≥25% 11q deleted nuclei (n = 87; median TTFT, 40 vs. 14 months, p = 0.011) and also showed better response to treatments (complete response, 50% vs. 21%, p = 0.016). The variables identified by multivariate analysis as independently associated with reduced TTFT were advanced Binet stages [hazard ratio (HR) 4.69; p < 0.001] and ≥25% 11q deleted nuclei (HR 4.73; p = 0.004). De novo 11q deleted CLLs exhibit variable clinical outcome. The percentage of deleted nuclei inside leukemic clone should be included in the prognostic definition of therapy-naïve 11q deleted CLL patients. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Hematological Oncology 10/2012; · 2.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The efficacy of bendamustine versus chlorambucil in a phase III trial of previously untreated patients with Binet stage B/C chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) was re-evaluated after a median observation time of 54 months in May 2010. Overall survival (OS) was analysed for the first time. At follow-up, investigator-assessed complete response (CR) rate (21·0% vs 10·8%), median progression-free survival (21·2 vs 8·8 months; P < 0·0001; hazard ratio 2·83) and time to next treatment (31·7 vs 10·1 months; P < 0·0001) were improved for bendamustine over chlorambucil. OS was not different between groups for all patients or those ≤65 years, >65 years, responders and non-responders. However, patients with objective response or a CR experienced a significantly longer OS than non-responders or those without a CR. Significantly more patients on chlorambucil progressed to second/further lines of treatment compared with those on bendamustine (78·3% vs 63·6%; P = 0·004). The benefits of bendamustine over chlorambucil were achieved without reducing quality of life. In conclusion, bendamustine is significantly more effective than chlorambucil in previously untreated CLL patients, with the achievement of a CR or objective response appearing to prolong OS. Bendamustine should be considered as a preferred first-line option over chlorambucil for CLL patients ineligible for fludarabine, cyclophosphamide and rituximab.
    British Journal of Haematology 08/2012; 159(1):67-77. · 4.94 Impact Factor
  • M Montillo
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    ABSTRACT: Despite significant advances in the frontline treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), patients eventually experience disease progression. Treatment selection of relapsed disease depends upon a variety of factors, including patient age, performance status, duration of response to initial therapy, type of prior therapy, disease-related manifestations and genetic abnormalities within the CLL cells. This presentation offers synthetic overview of the options in this field.
    Leukemia Supplements. 08/2012;
  • Marco Montillo
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    ABSTRACT: First-line chemoimmunotherapy approaches offer prolonged disease-free survival in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Despite the improved results with purine analogs ± cyclophosphamide and rituximab (FCR) the disease remains incurable, and patients with CLL are destined to relapse after primary treatment. The prior therapy administered and the response, and duration of response to that therapy, are among the most important factors in determining the next therapy. Bendamustine, a bifunctional alkylating agent, combined with rituximab (BR) has been tested in patients with relapsed and/or refractory CLL in order to investigate the safety and efficacy of this combination. In conclusion, chemoimmunotherapy with BR showed interesting results, with the exception of patients carrying del(17p). Bendamustine appears to be a good choice for second-line therapy owing to its lack of significant cross-resistance with other alkylating agents or fludarabine.
    Expert Review of Hematology 02/2012; 5(1):43-6. · 2.38 Impact Factor
  • Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 01/2012; 26(7):1703-7. · 10.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prognostic index for survival estimation by clinical-demographic variables were previously proposed in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients. Our objective was to test in a large retrospective cohort of CLL patients the prognostic power of biological and clinical-demographic variable in a comprehensive multivariate model. A new prognostic index was proposed. Overall survival and time to treatment in 620 untreated CLL patients were analyzed retrospectively to evaluate the multivariate independence and predictive power of mutational status of immunoglobulin heavy chain variable gene segments (IGHV), high-risk chromosomal aberration such as 17p or 11q deletions, CD38 and ZAP-70 expression, age, gender, Binet stage, β2-microglobulin levels, absolute lymphocyte count and number of lymph node regions. IGHV mutational status and 17p deletion were the sole biological variables with independent prognostic relevance in a multivariate model for overall survival, which included easily measurable clinical parameters (Binet staging, β2-microglobulin levels) and demographics (age and gender). Analysis of time to treatment in Binet A patients below 70 years of age showed that IGHV was the most important predictor. A novel 6-variable clinical-biological prognostic index was developed and internally validated, which assigned 3 points for Binet C stage, 2 points/each for Binet B stage and for age > 65 years, 1 point/each for male gender, high β2-microglobulin levels, presence of an unmutated IGHV gene status or 17p deletion. Patients were classified at low-risk (score = 0-1; 21%), intermediate-risk (score 2-5; 63% of cases), high-risk (score 6-9; 16% of cases). Projected 5-year overall survival was 98%, 90% and 58% in low-, intermediate- and high-risk groups, respectively. A nomogram for individual patient survival estimation was also proposed. Data indicate that IGHV mutational status and 17p deletion may be integrated with clinical-demographic variables in new prognostic tools to estimate overall survival.
    Journal of Translational Medicine 01/2012; 10:18. · 3.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: By using GRADE system we updated the guidelines for management of CLL issued in 2006 from SIE, SIES and GITMO group. We recommended fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, rituximab (FCR) in younger and selected older patients with a good fitness status, no unfavourable genetics (deletion 17p and/or p53 mutations), and a less toxic treatment in nonfit and elderly patients. In patients without unfavourable genetics, relapsed after 24 months the same initial treatment including rituximab can be considered. In patients with unfavourable genetics, refractory or relapsed within 24 months from a prior fludarabine-based treatment, allogeneic SCT or experimental treatments should be given.
    Leukemia research 08/2011; 36(4):459-66. · 2.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although combination regimens have improved outcomes over monotherapy in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), patients eventually relapse. Combined fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and monoclonal anti-CD52 antibody alemtuzumab (FCC) provided synergistic cytotoxicity with effective clearing of minimal residual disease. This phase 2 study determined FCC efficacy and safety in relapsed/refractory CD52(+) B-CLL after ≥ 1 line of treatment. From January 2005 through June 2008, up to 6 courses of oral fludarabine 40 mg/m² per day, oral cyclophosphamide 250 mg/m² per day, and subcutaneous alemtuzumab (Mab-Campath) 10 mg (increased to 20 mg after first 10-patient cohort) were administered days 1 to 3 every 28 days. The primary objective was overall response rate (ORR); secondary objectives included response duration, time to disease progression, and safety and tolerability. ORR was 67% in 43 patients; 30% achieved complete response. ORR significantly improved with 1 versus ≥ 2 prior therapies (P = .018), and without versus with previous monoclonal antibody treatment (P = .003). Median progression-free survival was 24.4 months, not reached in patients achieving complete response. Median overall survival was 33.6 months. Myelosuppression was the most common adverse event, with a low percentage of cytomegalovirus reactivations and manageable infections. However, close vigilance of opportunistic infections is warranted. FCC provides effective immunotherapy in relapsed/refractory CLL, including in patients with poor-risk prognostic factors.
    Blood 07/2011; 118(15):4079-85. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We wish to validate in a multicentric CLL population a nomogram and a risk score recently developed to predict overall survival (OS). Complete records from 1037 CLL patients were retrospectively collected to estimate OS and time to treatment (TTT). Cox models were used to test the independence of age, β-2-microglobulin, absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), sex, Rai stage and number of involved lymph node regions (LNR). Accuracy of prognostic models was tested with the concordance index (c-index). Median follow-up was 5.5 years, with 151 deaths and 475 treated patients. Median OS was not reached (65% survival rate at 13.9 years), median TTT was 6 years. We confirmed the ability of the prognostic score to predict OS and TTT in three risk groups, with results comparable with those reported in the original report. However, ALC and Rai stage were not independent predictors, whereas the Binet staging system, which incorporates LNR variable, showed independent predictive power; furthermore, both 5- and 10-year OS estimates from nomogram were lower compared to real data. When separately analysed, the impact of therapy on OS was not selected as independent predictor of OS in our series. According to these results, we proposed a simpler four-variable model (age, sex, Binet staging, β-2-microglobulin) and a new nomogram. This model had a c-index of 0.78 versus 0.76 of the six-variable model (p  =  0.043), showing better predictive accuracy. External validation and refinement are needed on independent data sets, possibly from cancer registry patients' series.
    Hematological Oncology 06/2011; 29(2):91-9. · 2.04 Impact Factor
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    Thomas Elter, Michael Hallek, Marco Montillo
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    ABSTRACT: Over the past decade, the use of the monoclonal antibody alemtuzumab in chronic lymphocytic leukemia has expanded from administration as a single-agent therapy, into use in combination with fludarabine or rituximab, and further to use as a consolidation agent with the goal of eradicating minimal residual disease. Numerous clinical studies have shown that alemtuzumab is effective as first-line treatment and in patients who have relapsed disease or who are refractory to fludarabine. Despite improvements in response rates and survival compared with combination chemotherapy, there remains some hesitation to incorporate alemtuzumab into management because of known toxicities. Adverse events in patients treated with standard-dose, single-agent alemtuzumab occur at generally predictable time points during treatment and can be managed effectively; this outcome is less established when alemtuzumab is incorporated into combination regimens. Variability in alemtuzumab dosing, route of administration, and duration of therapy has led to inconsistent and sometimes adverse safety consequences. This article presents an overview of clinical studies with alemtuzumab as a single agent, in combination, or in consolidation, with discussion of toxicity and suggestions for ensuring that the efficacious outcomes following alemtuzumab therapy are not outweighed by safety concerns.
    Clinical advances in hematology & oncology: H&O 05/2011; 9(5):364-73.

Publication Stats

2k Citations
491.99 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1999–2014
    • Azienda Ospedaliera Niguarda Ca' Granda
      • Department of Hematology
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2011
    • University of Cologne
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Köln, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2007
    • University of Bologna
      Bolonia, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
  • 2002
    • Policlinico San Matteo Pavia Fondazione IRCCS
      Ticinum, Lombardy, Italy
  • 1996–2001
    • Catholic University of the Sacred Heart
      • Institute of Hematology
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy