[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the primary cause of bronchiolitis in young children. Upon infection both T helper 1 (Th1) and Th2 cytokines are produced. Because RSV-induced Th2 responses have been associated with severe immunopathology and aggravation of allergic reactions, the regulation of the immune response following RSV infection is crucial. In this study we examined the influence of RSV on the activation and function of murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs). RSV induced the expression of maturation markers on myeloid DCs (mDCs) in vitro. The mDCs stimulated with RSV and ovalbumin (OVA) enhanced proliferation of OVA-specific T cells, which produced both Th1 and Th2 cytokines. In contrast to mDCs, RSV did not induce the expression of maturation markers on plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs), not did it enhance the proliferation of OVA-specific T cells that were cocultured with pDCs. However, RSV stimulated the production of interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) by pDCs. Our findings indicate a clear difference in the functional activation of DC subsets. RSV-stimulated mDCs may have immunostimulatory effects on both Th1 and Th2 responses, while RSV-stimulated pDCs have direct antiviral activity through the release of IFN-alpha.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of severe lower respiratory tract infection in children. Severe RSV disease is related to an inappropriate immune response to RSV resulting in enhanced lung pathology which is influenced by host genetic factors. To gain insight into the early pathways of the pathogenesis of and immune response to RSV infection, we determined the transcription profiles of lungs and lymph nodes on days 1 and 3 after infection of mice. Primary RSV infection resulted in a rapid but transient innate, proinflammatory response, as exemplified by the induction of a large number of type I interferon-regulated genes and chemokine genes, genes involved in inflammation, and genes involved in antigen processing. Interestingly, this response is much stronger on day 1 than on day 3 after infection, indicating that the strong transcriptional response in the lung precedes the peak of viral replication. Surprisingly, the set of down-regulated genes was small and none of these genes displayed strong down-regulation. Responses in the lung-draining lymph nodes were much less prominent than lung responses and are suggestive of NK cell activation. Our data indicate that at time points prior to the peak of viral replication and influx of inflammatory cells, the local lung response, measured at the transcriptional level, has already dampened down. The processes and pathways induced shortly after RSV infection can now be used for the selection of candidate genes for human genetic studies of children with severe RSV infection.
Journal of Virology 07/2007; 81(11):5958-67. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection has been shown to be a risk factor for the development of allergy in humans and mice. The allergy-enhancing properties of RSV may be dependent on atopic background and an individual's history of RSV infection. We examined the influence of the timing of infection and prior inoculation with RSV in a mouse model of allergic asthma. Mice were sensitized to and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA) and were inoculated with RSV either before or during the sensitization or challenge period. One group of mice was inoculated with RSV both before sensitization to OVA and during challenge with OVA. Increased pulmonary expression of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13 mRNA and aggravated alveolitis and hypertrophy of mucus-producing cells were observed only when OVA-sensitized mice were inoculated with RSV shortly before or during challenge with OVA. Despite protection against viral replication, prior inoculation with RSV did not abrogate RSV-enhanced, OVA-induced expression of T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines in the lung. In conclusion, inoculation with RSV enhances allergic disease only when the immune system has already been Th2-primed by the allergen (i.e., OVA). This RSV-enhanced allergy is not completely abrogated by prior inoculation with RSV.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 06/2004; 189(10):1866-72. · 5.85 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Respiratory viral infections in early childhood may interact with the immune system and modify allergen sensitization and/or allergic manifestations. In mice, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection during allergic provocation aggravates the allergic T helper (Th) 2 immune response, characterized by the production of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, and inflammatory infiltrates. However, it is unclear whether the RSV-enhanced respiratory allergic response is a result of non-specific virus-induced damage of the lung, or virus-specific immune responses.
In the present study we investigated whether RSV, pneumonia virus of mice (PVM) and influenza A virus similarly affect the allergic response.
BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA), and inoculated with virus during the challenge period. Pulmonary inflammation, lung cytokine mRNA responses, and IgE production in serum were assessed after the last OVA-challenge.
Like RSV, PVM enhanced the OVA-induced pulmonary IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 mRNA expression, which was associated with enhanced perivascular inflammation. In addition, PVM increased the influx of eosinophils in lung tissue. In contrast, influenza virus decreased the Th2 cytokine mRNA expression in the lungs. However, like PVM, influenza virus enhanced the pulmonary eosinophilic infiltration in OVA-allergic mice.
The Paramyxoviruses RSV and PVM both are able to enhance the allergic Th2 cytokine response and perivascular inflammation in BALB/c mice, while the Orthomyxovirus influenza A is not.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previously, we reported genetic associations between severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis in infants and polymorphisms in the interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-4 receptor alpha (IL-4Ralpha) genes, providing evidence for involvement of T helper type 2 cytokines in the pathogenesis of RSV bronchiolitis. We expanded our studies to polymorphisms in genes encoding IL-9, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, using both a transmission/disequilibrium test and a case-control approach. Children homozygous for the IL-10 -592C or -592A allele had a higher risk of hospitalization for RSV bronchiolitis than did heterozygous carriers (odds ratio [OR], 1.73 vs. 2.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-2.66 vs. 1.21-5.39). In children hospitalized at < or =6 months of age, a significant association between RSV bronchiolitis and the IL-10 -592C allele was found (OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.10-2.35). No significant associations of TNF-alpha and IL-9 polymorphisms with RSV bronchiolitis were observed. We also explored the interactions between different polymorphisms and found an interaction between the IL-4Ralpha Q551R and IL-10 C-592A polymorphisms.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 02/2004; 189(2):239-47. · 5.85 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In mice, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection during allergic provocation aggravates the allergic Th2 immune response, characterised by production of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13, and eosinophilic inflammation. This enhancement of the Th2 response occurs simultaneously with a strong RSV-induced Th1 cytokine response (IL-12 and IFN-gamma). The present study investigated whether IFN-gamma and IL-12 are critically involved in this RSV-enhanced OVA allergy. Therefore, IFN-gammaR- and IL-12-deficient mice (both on a 129/Sv/Ev background) were sensitised and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA) and infected with RSV during the OVA challenge period. Neither gene deletion affected the development of ovalbumin-induced allergic inflammation in mice. However, when OVA-allergic IFN-gammaR deficient mice were infected with RSV, an increased pulmonary eosinophilic infiltrate and increased IL-4 and IL-13 mRNA expression in lung tissue were observed compared with identically treated wild-type mice. In contrast, deficiency of IL-12 did not aggravate the Th2 immune and inflammatory response in OVA/RSV-treated mice, compared with wild-type. In conclusion, the virus-induced IFN-gamma response diminishes the Th2 inflammatory response during OVA allergy but fails to prevent totally the enhancement of the OVA allergy by RSV. In contrast, IL-12 is not involved in inhibiting nor increasing the RSV-enhanced allergy in 129/Sv/Ev mice.
Journal of Medical Virology 02/2003; 69(1):156-62. · 2.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The association of variants of genes encoding interleukin (IL)-4 and the IL-4 receptor alpha chain (IL-4Ralpha) with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis was examined in hospitalized infants. Polymorphisms in IL-4 (C-590T) and IL-4Ralpha (I50V and Q551R) were genotyped by restriction fragment-length polymorphism analysis. Control subjects included parents of the hospitalized children (for the transmission/disequilibrium test), and a random population sample (for the case-control study). Results were also analyzed in a combination of these 2 tests, using Fisher's method. The IL-4 590T allele was found more frequently among children hospitalized with RSV than expected in the case-control (odds ratio [OR], 1.43; P=.04) and combination (OR, 1.41; P=.02) tests. Among children who were >6 months old when they were hospitalized, compared with the control group or with the <6 months old who were hospitalized for RSV infection, higher frequencies of both the IL-4 590T allele and the IL-4Ralpha R551 allele were found. These results indicate that gain-of-function variants of T helper type 2 cytokine genes may play a role in increasing the severity of RSV disease, which appears more pronounced after the first half-year of life.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 01/2003; 187(1):2-11. · 5.85 Impact Factor