[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glyceollins are pterocarpan phytoalexins elicited in high concentrations when soybeans are stressed. We have previously reported that the three glyceollin isomers (GLY I-III) exhibit antiestrogenic properties, which may have significant biological effects upon human exposure. Of the three isomers, we have recently shown that glyceollin I is the most potent antiestrogen. Natural (-)-glyceollin I recently was synthesized along with its racemate and unnatural (+) enantiomer. In this study, we compared the glyceollin I enantiomers' ER binding affinity, ability to inhibit estrogen responsive element transcriptional (ERE) activity and endogenous gene expression in MCF-7 cells. The results demonstrated similar binding affinities for both ERalpha and ERbeta. Reporter gene assays in MCF-7 cells revealed that while (+)-glyceollin I slightly stimulated ERE transcriptional activity, (-)-glyceollin I decreased activity induced by estrogen. Co-transfection reporter assays performed in HEK 293 cells demonstrated that (+)-glyceollin I increased ERE transcriptional activity of ERalpha and ERbeta with and without estrogen with no antiestrogenic activity observed. Conversely, (-)-glyceollin I decreased the activity of both ER subtypes stimulated by estradiol demonstrating potent antiestrogenic properties. Additionally, each Gly I enantiomer induced unique gene expression profiles in a PCR array panel of genes commonly altered in breast cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glyceollins, a group of novel phytoalexins isolated from activated soy, have recently been demonstrated to be novel antiestrogens that bind to the estrogen receptor (ER) and inhibit estrogen-induced tumor progression. Our previous publications have focused specifically on inhibition of tumor formation and growth by the glyceollin mixture, which contains three glyceollin isomers (I, II, and III). Here, we show the glyceollin mixture is also effective as a potential antiestrogenic, therapeutic agent that prevents estrogen-stimulated tumorigenesis and displays a differential pattern of gene expression from tamoxifen. By isolating the individual glyceollin isomers (I, II, and III), we have identified the active antiestrogenic component by using competition binding assays with human ERalpha and in an estrogen-responsive element-based luciferase reporter assay. We identified glyceollin I as the active component of the combined glyceollin mixture. Ligand-receptor modeling (docking) of glyceollin I, II, and III within the ERalpha ligand binding cavity demonstrates a unique type II antiestrogenic confirmation adopted by glyceollin I but not isomers II and III. We further compared the effects of glyceollin I to the antiestrogens, 4-hydroxytamoxifen and ICI 182,780 (fulvestrant), in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and BG-1 ovarian cancer cells on 17beta-estradiol-stimulated expression of progesterone receptor and stromal derived factor-1alpha. Our results establish a novel inhibition of ER-mediated gene expression and cell proliferation/survival. Glyceollin I may represent an important component of a phytoalexin-enriched food (activated) diet in terms of chemoprevention as well as a novel therapeutic agent for hormone-dependent tumors.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 10/2009; 332(1):35-45. DOI:10.1124/jpet.109.160382 · 3.97 Impact Factor