[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Higher levels of sodium intake are reported to be associated with higher blood pressure. Whether this relationship varies according to levels of sodium or potassium intake and in different populations is unknown.
New England Journal of Medicine 08/2014; 371(7):601-11. · 51.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Urinary albumin excretion is a strong predictor of cardiovascular disease. It is uncertain whether improvement from microalbuminuria or deterioration from normoalbuminuria over time in patients with differing changes in glucose and BP change their cardiovascular risk.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Why South Asians are at increased risk of premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases compared with other ethnic groups is not fully understood. Atherogenic dyslipoproteinemia - hypertriglyceridemia, elevated numbers of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) - is more common in South Asians but the mechanisms responsible have not been explicated. Here we examined whether the circulating lipid transfer protein, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), plays a role in the pathogenesis of the atherogenic dyslipoproteinemia among South Asians.
CETP activity was determined by exogenous substrate assay in the serum of healthy, metabolically well-characterized individuals of South Asian and European descent (N = 244 and 238, respectively). Serum and lipoprotein lipids and apolipoproteins were measured and lipoprotein particle number and size were quantified via nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. All the elements of the atherogenic dyslipoproteinemia were more severe in South Asians and CETP activity was significantly greater by 30% in South Asians compared with Europeans, adjusted for age, sex, body mass index and waist circumference (p < 0.0001). CETP activity was directly associated with serum triglycerides and inversely with HDL-C in the whole population. CETP activity was also directly related to apoB and LDL particle number. Finally, increased CETP activity was associated with pro-atherogenic reductions in HDL and LDL particle size.
We identified novel associations between elevated CETP activity and the triad of quantitative and qualitative lipoprotein abnormalities in the atherogenic dyslipidemia in South Asians, a major contributor of increased atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases in South Asians.
European journal of preventive cardiology. 03/2014;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (MINS) was defined as prognostically relevant myocardial injury due to ischemia that occurs during or within 30 days after noncardiac surgery. The study's four objectives were to determine the diagnostic criteria, characteristics, predictors, and 30-day outcomes of MINS. METHODS: In this international, prospective cohort study of 15,065 patients aged 45 yr or older who underwent in-patient noncardiac surgery, troponin T was measured during the first 3 postoperative days. Patients with a troponin T level of 0.04 ng/ml or greater (elevated "abnormal" laboratory threshold) were assessed for ischemic features (i.e., ischemic symptoms and electrocardiography findings). Patients adjudicated as having a nonischemic troponin elevation (e.g., sepsis) were excluded. To establish diagnostic criteria for MINS, the authors used Cox regression analyses in which the dependent variable was 30-day mortality (260 deaths) and independent variables included preoperative variables, perioperative complications, and potential MINS diagnostic criteria. RESULTS: An elevated troponin after noncardiac surgery, irrespective of the presence of an ischemic feature, independently predicted 30-day mortality. Therefore, the authors' diagnostic criterion for MINS was a peak troponin T level of 0.03 ng/ml or greater judged due to myocardial ischemia. MINS was an independent predictor of 30-day mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 3.87; 95% CI, 2.96-5.08) and had the highest population-attributable risk (34.0%, 95% CI, 26.6-41.5) of the perioperative complications. Twelve hundred patients (8.0%) suffered MINS, and 58.2% of these patients would not have fulfilled the universal definition of myocardial infarction. Only 15.8% of patients with MINS experienced an ischemic symptom. CONCLUSION: Among adults undergoing noncardiac surgery, MINS is common and associated with substantial mortality.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Urine albumin is the primary biomarker for detection and monitoring of kidney damage. Because fixed decision criteria are used to identify patients with increased values, we investigated if commonly used routine measurement procedures gave comparable results.METHODS: Results from 17 commercially available urine albumin measurement procedures were investigated vs an isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) procedure. Nonfrozen aliquots of freshly collected urine from 332 patients with chronic kidney disease, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and hypertension were distributed to manufacturers to perform urine albumin measurements according to the respective instructions for use for each procedure. Frozen aliquots were used for measurements by the IDMS procedure. An error model was used to determine imprecision and bias components.RESULTS: Median differences between the largest positive and negative biases vs IDMS were 45%, 37%, and 42% in the concentration intervals of 12-30 mg/L, 31-200 mg/L, and 201-1064 mg/L, respectively. Biases varied with concentration for most procedures and exceeded ±10% over the concentration interval for 14 of 16 quantitative procedures. Mean biases ranged from -35% to 34% at 15 mg/L. Dilution of samples with high concentrations introduced bias for 4 procedures. The combined CV was >10% for 5 procedures. It was not possible to estimate total error due to dependence of bias on concentration. CVs for sample-specific influences were 0% to 15.2%.CONCLUSIONS: Bias was the dominant source of disagreement among routine measurement procedures. Consequently, standardization efforts will improve agreement among results. Variation of bias with concentration needs to be addressed by manufacturers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES
To determine if 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in Europeans are also associated with T2DM in South Asians and Latinos, and if they can add to the prediction of incident T2DM in a high-risk population.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
In the EpiDREAM prospective cohort study, physical measures, questionnaires, and blood samples were collected from 25,063 individuals at risk for dysglycemia. Sixteen SNPs that have been robustly associated with T2DM in Europeans were genotyped. Among 15,466 European, South Asian, and Latino subjects, we examined the association of these 16 SNPs alone and combined in a gene score with incident cases of T2DM (n = 1,016) that developed during 3.3 years of follow-up.RESULTSNine of the 16 SNPs were significantly associated with T2DM, and their direction of effect was consistent across the three ethnic groups. The gene score was significantly higher among subjects who developed incident T2DM (cases vs. noncases: 16.47 [2.50] vs. 15.99 [2.56]; P = 0.00001). The gene score remained an independent predictor of incident T2DM with an odds ratio of 1.08 (95% CI, 1.05-1.11) per additional risk allele after adjustment for T2DM risk factors. The gene score in those with no family history of T2DM was 16.02, whereas it was 16.19 in those with one parent with T2DM and it was 16.32 in those with two parents with T2DM (P trend = 0.0004). The C statistic of T2DM risk factors was 0.708 (0.691-0.725) and increased only marginally to 0.714 (0.698-0.731) with the addition of the gene score (P for C statistic change = 0.0052).CONCLUSIONT2DM genetic associations are generally consistent across ethnic groups, and a gene score only adds marginal information to clinical factors for T2DM prediction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES
To evaluate the effects of insulin glargine and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3FA) supplements on carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT).RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We enrolled 1,184 people with cardiovascular (CV) disease and/or CV risk factors plus impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, or early type 2 diabetes in a randomized multicenter 2 × 2 factorial design trial. Participants received open-label insulin glargine (targeting fasting glucose levels ≤5.3 mmol/L [95 mg/dL]) or standard glycemic care and double-blind therapy with a 1-g capsule of n-3FA or placebo. The primary trial outcome was the annualized rate of change in maximum CIMT for the common carotid, bifurcation, and internal carotid artery segments. Secondary outcomes were the annualized rates of change in maximum CIMT for the common carotid and the common carotid plus bifurcation, respectively. Baseline followed by annual ultrasounds were obtained during a median follow-up of 4.9 years.RESULTSCompared with standard care, insulin glargine reduced the primary CIMT outcome, but the difference was not statistically significant (difference = 0.0030 ± 0.0021 mm/year; P = 0.145) and significantly reduced the secondary CIMT outcomes (differences of 0.0033 ± 0.0017 mm/year [P = 0.049] and 0.0045 ± 0.0021 mm/year [P = 0.032], respectively). There were no differences in the primary and secondary outcomes between the n-3FA supplement and placebo groups.CONCLUSIONS
In people with CV disease and/or CV risk factors and dysglycemia, insulin glargine used to target normoglycemia modestly reduced CIMT progression, whereas daily supplementation with n-3FA had no effect on CIMT progression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with increased numbers of cholesterol-depleted apolipoprotein B (apoB) particles frequently have multiple other abnormalities, which might confound the comparison of apoB and non-high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-C) as markers of cardiovascular risk.
We wanted to determine whether the superiority of apoB over non-HDL-C as a marker of cardiovascular risk in the INTERHEART study is due to such variables that act as confounders of the primary comparison.
To test for confounding, cases and controls were first separated into 3 groups on the basis of the percentile levels within the study of non-HDL-C and apoB with discordance defined as a difference of 5 percentile points. Logistic regression was used to compute odds ratio of myocardial infarction (as an outcome) for different categories, assuming concordance as reference adjusted for other confounders.
Plasma triglyceride and non-HDL-C levels were highest in the discordant group with lowest risk and lowest in the discordant group with highest risk, whereas apoB was highest in the discordant group with the highest risk and lowest in the discordant group with the lowest group. Moreover, no significant change was found in the odds ratio for either discordant group when adjusted for the effect of any of the variables examined, evidence that none confounded the primary comparison.
Factors such as hypertriglyceridemia do not confound the comparison of apoB and non-HDL-C, further evidence that apoB is superior to non-HDL-C as a marker of the importance of the apoB atherogenic lipoproteins in cardiovascular risk.
Journal of Clinical Lipidology 01/2013; 7(6):626-31. · 3.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The influence of multiple maternal and pregnancy characteristics on offspring cardiometabolic traits at birth is not well understood and was evaluated in this study.
The Family Atherosclerosis Monitoring In earLY life (FAMILY) Study prospectively evaluated 11 cardiometabolic traits in 901 babies born to 857 mothers. The influence of maternal age, health (pre-pregnancy weight, blood pressure, glycemic status, lipids), health behaviors (diet, activity, smoking) and pregnancy characteristics (gestational age at birth, gestational weight gain and placental-fetal ratio) were examined. Greater gestational age influenced multiple newborn cardiometabolic traits including cord blood lipids, glucose and insulin, body fat and blood pressure. In a subset of 442 singleton mother/infant pairs, principal component analysis grouped 11 newborn cardiometabolic traits into 5 components (anthropometry/insulin, 2 lipid components, blood pressure and glycemia), accounting for 74% of the variance of the 11 outcome variables. Determinants of these components, corrected for sex and gestational age, were examined. Baby anthropometry/insulin was independently predicted by higher maternal pre-pregnancy weight (standardized estimate 0.30) and gestational weight gain (0.30; both p<0.0001) and was inversely related to smoking during pregnancy (-0.144; p = 0.01) and maternal polyunsaturated to saturated fat intake (-0.135;p = 0.01). Component 2 (HDL-C/Apo Apolipoprotein1) was inversely associated with maternal age. Component 3 (blood pressure) was not clustered with any other newborn cardiometabolic trait and no associations with maternal pregnancy characteristics were identified. Component 4 (triglycerides) was positively associated with maternal hypertension and triglycerides, and inversely associated with maternal HDL and age. Component 5 (glycemia) was inversely associated with placental/fetal ratio (-0.141; p = 0.005). LDL-C was a bridging variable between the lipid factors and glycemia.
Maternal health, health behaviours and placenta to fetal weight ratio are associated with newborn cardiometabolic traits over and above gestational age. Future investigations are needed to determine if these factors remain important determinants of cardiometabolic health throughout childhood.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(2):e55815. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Apolipoproteins B (apoB) and A1 (apoA1) may be better markers of atherosclerosis than serum lipids. We used computational methods to estimate apoB and apoA1 from serum total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides and tested their clinical value in comparison to measured apoB and apoA1 values. METHODS: ApoB and apoA1 were measured with standard methods and estimated based on neural network regression models in 2166 young adult with data on carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT). RESULTS: Correlations between estimated and measured apoB and apoA1 were r = 0.98 and r = 0.95, respectively. ApoB/apoA1-ratio (both measured and estimated) associated with cIMT in multivariable models, and predicted cIMT at all levels of LDL-cholesterol concentration. Strong correlations between the estimated apolipoproteins and those measured from fasting samples were replicated in over 15,000 Caucasian subjects (r = 0.93-0.96 for apoB and r = 0.91-0.92 for apoA1). Correlations with cIMT were replicated in over 2000 individuals. Estimated apoB/apoA1-ratio calculated from non-fasting lipids in over 20,000 individuals in the INTERHEART study was better than any of the cholesterol measures for estimation of the myocardial risk. CONCLUSIONS: Serum cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides can be used to compute clinically useful estimates of apoB and apoA1. Using this methodology, estimates of apolipoproteins could be routinely added to laboratory reports to complement lipoprotein lipids in risk assessment.