M J Tyas

University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

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Publications (159)281.94 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To determine Australian dentists’ attitudes to the United Nations Environment Programme approach to a ‘phase-down’ of the use of amalgam. Method: A survey was carried out based on literature and a qualitative study. Likert Scale questions included demographics, usage of amalgam in practice and specific aspects of a phase-down of amalgam. The survey was validated by six volunteer dentists. Members of the Australian Dental Association were invited to complete the survey online. Data were analysed by percentage. Results: Responses were received from 381 dentists – with 14,890 dentists in Australia this represents a confidence level of 95% ± 4.96. Key findings included that 44% of respondents strongly disagreed (SD) or disagreed (D) with the statement that a phase-down of amalgam is a ‘good thing’, and 50% who strongly agreed (SA) or agreed (A) that a phase-down would make ‘no significant difference’ to their practise. Responses diverged when asked if adequate materials alternative to amalgam existed: there were 50% SD plus D and 40% SA plus A. 62% ‘cared’ if amalgam was phased-down or not. Results were comparable when filtered by gender or place of primary dental qualification, but differed between respondents who did or did not use amalgam in practice and year of primary dental qualification. Respondents were neutral or undecided as to a phase-down being a ‘good thing’ (30%) and whether or not they trusted policy-makers to make the ‘right decision’ (22%). Conclusion: There is a divergence in attitudes of Australian dentists to a phase-down of amalgam, which is influenced by current amalgam practises and years since obtaining a primary dental qualification. Neutral or undecided response rates suggest the possible need for formulation and dissemination of information on this issue.
    IADR General Session and Exhibition 2014; 06/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To compare the shear bond strength (SBS) and failure mode of a self-adhesive resin-based luting cement to five different metals using three different de-bonding methods. Method: A self-adhesive resin luting cement (RelyX Unicem; 3M, St Paul, MN)) was bonded to five metals using two ‘unsupported’ and one ‘supported’ specimen and an adhesive area diameter of 2.36 mm. For each of the 15 groups, n = 15. The bond was stressed to failure at 1 mm/min using flat shear knife and wire loop methods. The distance of the shear force from the interface was 0 mm for the shear knife method, and for the wire loop method the wire was placed directly against the bonding surface. Failure mode was assessed by stereomicroscope and SEM analysis. Result: ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests within each metal demonstrated significant differences between the unsupported and supported mean SBSs. SBS, MPa (SD) Metal Type Supported; Shear knife Unsupported; Shear knife Unsupported; Wire loop Wironit Cobalt-based 11.7 (2.5)a 9.4 (2.1) a 10.9 (3.3) a Titanium Ti 14.3 (2.7)b 9.5 (1.0) a 11.2 (3) a Rexillium III Nickel-based 10.8 (2.1)b 13.0 (1.8) c 6.8 (1.1) a Argenco 68 Gold-based 13.2 (2.5)b 7.8 (1.3) a 7.0 (2.1) a SS 316 Stainless steel 12.1 (1.3)c 8.5 (1.6) b 5.1 (1.7) a In all cases, except for cobalt-based metal, the SBS of supported specimens were significantly higher (p<0.05) than specimens that were not supported. Mean SBS ranged from (5.1 ± 1.7) MPa to (14.3 ± 2.7) MPa. Failure mode for each method was adhesive for 96% for supported specimens and between 77 - 68% for unsupported specimens. Conclusion: Supported (i.e., mold enclosed) specimens exhibited higher mean SBS and higher instances of adhesive failure than unsupported specimens.
    IADR General Session and Exhibition 2014; 06/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To compare the macro mean shear bond strength (SBS) and failure mode of three cements to two types of metal using mould-enclosed and non-enclosed cement specimens. Methods: Titanium and base metal cobalt-based substrates were finished with 50 μm aluminium oxide. Two resin-modified glass-ionomers (Riva Luting Plus, Fuji Plus) and one resin cement (RelyX Unicem) were prepared as per manufacturers’ instructions. Metal mould-enclosed and non-enclosed cement specimens with a bonding area diameter of 3.5 mm were prepared and stressed to failure using a 2 mm blunt edge shear knife at a cross-head speed of 1 mm/min to determine mean SBS. The shear knife was placed against the surface of the substrate. Failure analysis of the failed interface was performed with a stereo microscope at 40× magnification. Results: Two-way Analysis of Variance demonstrated a significant difference in mean SBS between materials (p = 0.004) and cement (p = 0.001). There was also a significant interaction between method and cement on SBS, F(2, 170) = 7.209, p = 0.003. Post hoc Tukey tests demonstrated no significant difference for either resinmodified glass-ionomer cements (RMGIC) (p = 0.864, p = 0.620) when comparing non-enclosed and mould-enclosed test methods bonded to titanium. There was however a significant difference (p
    Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology 05/2014; 28(10). DOI:10.1080/01694243.2013.871403 · 0.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To compare the mean shear bond strength (SBS) and failure mode of a resin-modified glass-ionomer luting cement (RM-GIC) to five different metals using unsupported and supported cement specimens with different placement of the shear load. Materials and methods: A RM-GIC was bonded to five metals using "unsupported" and "supported" techniques at a SBS-specimen diameter of 2.36 mm. The bond was stressed to failure using shear knife and wire loop debonding protocols. For the shear knife method, the distance of the shear force from the interface was 0 mm or 0.3 mm. Failure analysis was assessed by stereomicroscope and SEM. Results: Two-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey's test revealed a significant difference between the unsupported and supported mean SBS. The SBS of supported specimens, where the shear force was applied to the mold that enclosed the specimens, were in most cases statistically significantly higher (p < 0.05) than specimens that were not supported. The mean bond strengths of RM-GIC ranged from 4.5 ± 2.3 MPa to 27.4 ± 3.7 MPa. Analysis of the failure mode showed significant differences (p < 0.001) for the test methods except for adhesion to gold-based metal. The adhesive failure mode was between 91% and 97% for supported specimens and between 47% and 63% for unsupported specimens. Conclusion: Within the limits of this study, supported specimens exhibited higher mean SBS than unsupported specimens. The method of debonding had a significant effect on the mean SBS for RM-GIC bonded to metal. Mold-supported specimens had a higher incidence of adhesive failure than unsupported cement specimens.
    The journal of adhesive dentistry 01/2014; 16(3). DOI:10.3290/j.jad.a31345 · 1.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of the study was to compare 1) the mean micro-shear bond strength and 2) failure mode of cements to metals in nonenclosed and mold-enclosed specimens. Specimens were prepared in mold-enclosed and non-enclosed formats from two RMGIC's and a self-adhesive resin-cement. 3-way ANOVA analysis and Tukey post hoc tests were used to compare mean µSBS results (α=0.05). Failure mode was analysed with Pearson's chi-square test (α=0.05). µSBS was significantly affected by the factors substrate and method (p<0.001) but not by material (p=0.077). There was an interaction between substrate, method and material F (2,144)=3.57, p=0.031, and method and material (2,144)=5.86, p=0.004. All mold-enclosed specimens for the three cements bonded to titanium and non-precious metal exhibited higher (p<0.001) mean µSBS than the non-enclosed specimens. Within this study, mold-enclosed specimens exhibited significantly higher (p<0.001) mean µSBS and adhesive failure compared to non-enclosed specimens.
    Dental Materials Journal 11/2013; 32(6). DOI:10.4012/dmj.2013-065 · 0.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the interfacial work of fracture of conventional (C-) and resin-modified (RM-) glass-ionomer cements (GICs) bonded to dentin. One hundred and sixty five aries-free human molars were embedded in epoxy resin, sectioned and polished with 300- and 600- grit silicon carbide paper to remove enamel on the occlusal surface. Equilateral triangular-shaped plastic molds (4×4×4×5mm(4)) were clamped to the prepared dentin surfaces by a stainless steel test apparatus. Teflon tape was placed under one internal vertex of the mold to create a 0.1-mm notch at the material-dentin interface. Interfacial work of fracture (γwofint) in tensile fracture mode-I (opening) was determined for six C-GIC, three RM-GIC, and two GIC luting cements at a cross-head speed of 0.1mm/min and a crosshead distance (L) from the interface of 4.3mm. The debonded surfaces were evaluated for the predominant failure mode. SEM analysis of examples showing interfacial and notch areas was performed. ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test demonstrated the highest mean γwofint value (90.16±16.6J/m(2)) of one RM-GIC was significantly different (p<0.05) from the other materials. 'High viscosity' GICs achieved lower results with the lowest recorded at 20.4±10.1J/m(2). There was a significant difference observed (p<0.05) between the mean γwofint of luting C-GIC and luting RM-GIC. Although differences were observed between different material mean γwofint, when comparing groups no significant differences (p=0.181) were observed. For all groups, mixed GIC-interface failure (41%) was the most commonly observed, followed by cohesive failure in GIC (25%) and adhesive failure (20%). SEM analysis revealed that specimens generally fractured from the notch initiation point into the GIC or along the dentin-GIC interface. Within the limits of this study, significant differences (p<0.05) were observed in the γwofint between different glass-ionomer materials. The null hypothesis that there is no difference in the γwofint among different glass-ionomer materials bonded to human dentin was rejected. In the current study, the interfacial work of fracture (γwofint) of glass-ionomer adhesive interfaces has been reported using a simple method that can be used to study the fracture mechanics of an adhesive interface without the need for complicated specimen preparation.
    10/2013; 29C:427-437. DOI:10.1016/j.jmbbm.2013.09.020
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the polymerisation shrinkage stress under water of four resin-modified glass-ionomers and three resin composite materials. Transparent acrylic rods (5mm diameter×30mm) were prepared and secured into drill chucks connected to a universal testing machine. A plastics cup was placed around the lower rod and a distance of 1.00mm was established between the prepared surfaces which provided a C-factor of 2.5. For composite only, an adhesive layer (Scotchbond Universal Adhesive) was placed on the rod ends and cured to achieve a bond with the rod end. Materials were placed between the rods and a strain gauge extensometer was installed. Materials were light cured for 40s and the plastics cup was filled with ambient temperature water. To determine polymerisation shrinkage stress (σpol) three specimens of each material were tested for a 6-h period to determine mean maximum σpol (MPa), σpol rate (MPa/s) and final σpol (MPa). ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests were used to determine significant differences between means. The highest mean maximum σpol of (5.4±0.5) MPa was recorded for RMGIC and (4.8±1.0) MPa for composite. The lowest mean final σpol of (0.8±0.4) MPa was recorded for RMGIC. For mean maximum σpol,σpol rate and final σpol there were significant differences between materials within groups, although no significant difference (p>0.05) was observed when comparing the RMGIC group to the composite group. When comparing mean σpol, maximum σpol, and σpol rates between individual RMGIC and composite materials significant differences (p<0.05) were observed. However when comparing the group RMGIC to composite no significant differences (p>0.05) were observed. The null hypothesis that there is no difference in the short term σpol of RMGIC materials when compared to composite materials is only partly rejected. Limited information is available on the comparison of RMGIC and resin composite σpol levels. This study provides information on the short term levels in a wet environment and will assist in understanding the initial σpol rates RMGIC place in cavities.
    08/2013; 29C:33-41. DOI:10.1016/j.jmbbm.2013.07.003
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    ABSTRACT: The main aim of the study was to compare the clinical performance of the conventional high-powder/liquid ratio glass-ionomer cement (GIC) Fuji IX GP Extra (F IX), Fuji IX GP Extra with a low-viscosity nano-filled resin coating, G-Coat Plus (F IX+GCP), and a resin composite, Solare (S), as a comparison material. Moderate-depth occlusal cavities in the first permanent molars of 91 11-12-year-old children (1-4 restorations per child) were restored with either F IX (87 restorations), F IX+GCP (84 restorations) or S (83 restorations). Direct clinical assessment, photographic assessment and assessment of stone casts of the restorations were carried out at 6 months, 1 year, 2 years and 3 years. The colour match with the tooth of the GIC restorations improved over the 3 years of the study. Marginal staining and marginal adaptation were minimal for all restorations; three restorations exhibited secondary caries at 3 years. From the assessment of the casts, at 2 years, there was significantly less wear of the F IX GP Extra+GCP restorations than the F IX GP Extra restorations (P < 0.005). At 3 years, approximately 37 % of F IX GP Extra restorations showed wear slightly more than the adjacent enamel, compared to 28 % of F IX GP Extra+GCP restorations and 21 % of Solare restorations. Although this was not statistically significant, there was a trend that GCP can protect F IX GP Extra against wear. Although both Fuji IX GP Extra and Fuji IX GP Extra with G-Coat Plus showed acceptable clinical performance in occlusal cavities in children, the application of G-Coat Plus gave some protection against wear. The application of G-Coat Plus to Fuji IX GP Extra glass-ionomer cement may be beneficial in reducing wear in occlusal cavities.
    Clinical Oral Investigations 07/2013; 18(3). DOI:10.1007/s00784-013-1026-z · 2.35 Impact Factor
  • OA Adebayo · M F Burrow · M J Tyas ·
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the association between the fracture toughness of two nanofilled-hybrid resin composites (Clearfil Majesty Esthetic [CME], Kuraray Medical, Japan; Estelite Σ [ES], Tokuyama, Japan) and their bond strengths to enamel and dentine mediated by a self-etching primer system (Clearfil SE Bond [CSE]; Kuraray). Twenty-four permanent human molars were sectioned into enamel and dentine specimens and finished with 600-grit silicon carbide paper, bonded with CSE and either CME or ES, for μ-shear bond strength (μSBS) and μ-tensile bond strength (μTBS). The specimens were tested until failure at a cross-head speed of 1 mm/min, failure loads recorded, bond strengths calculated and results analysed using independent samples t-tests. Eight single-notched bar-shaped specimens, 30 mm × 5.2 mm × 2.2 mm, were prepared for each resin composite and fracture toughness measured using four-point bending at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min. Results were analysed using independent samples t-tests. For μSBS and μTBS, there was no significant difference between the resin composites for enamel or dentine. The fracture toughness of CME was significantly higher than that of ES. For both enamel and dentine, resin composite fracture toughness affected neither μTBS nor μSBS to enamel or dentine.
    Australian Dental Journal 09/2012; 57(3):319-24. DOI:10.1111/j.1834-7819.2012.01704.x · 1.10 Impact Factor
  • OA Adebayo · M F Burrow · M J Tyas · J Palamara ·
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the bonding effectiveness of four self-etching primer adhesives after various tooth preparation protocols. Enamel/dentin specimens were prepared from 84 permanent molars, divided into three enamel preparation groups (silicon carbide paper [SiC1; erbium, chromium:yttri-um, scandium, gallium, garnet [Er,Cr:YSGG] laser [EL] and diamond bur [DB]) and five dentin preparation groups (SiC, EL, DB, steel[SB], and ceramic burs [CBs]). In each group,specimens were equally divided into four sub-groups and were bonded using Clearfil SEBond (CSE, Kuraray), Xeno IV (XE, Dentsply),Tokuyama Bond Force (TK, Tokuyama) and Filtek Silorane System Adhesive (FS, 3MESPE), as well as a hybrid resin composite(Clearfil Majesty Esthetic, Kuraray) for CSE,XE, and TK, and Filtek Posterior Restorative(3M ESPE) for FS). After 24 hours of water storage at 370C, microshear bond strength(iSBS) testing was carried out. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA)-Tukey test at a=0.05 and bond failure modes assessed. Representative debonded specimens were prepared and examined under the scanning electron microscope (SEM). All adhesives exhibited no significant differences in 1SBS on enamel and dentin under the clinical cavity preparation protocols, except for TK on den-tin. SEM revealed areas of altered subsurface enamel/dentin following EL ablation.
    Operative Dentistry 09/2011; 37(2):137-49. DOI:10.2341/11-172-L · 1.67 Impact Factor
  • Michael F Burrow · Martin J Tyas ·
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical performance of S(3) Bond (Kuraray Corp., Japan) and G-Bond (GC Corp., Japan) all-in-one bonding agents, over 3 years in non-carious cervical lesions (NCCLs). Ethics Committee approval was obtained, and 60 restorations were placed in 11 patients aged 45-84 years (mean 60.5 years), using either Clearfil ST resin composite (Kuraray) and S(3) Bond or Gradia resin composite (GC) and G-Bond alternately, without phosphoric acid etch on the uncut enamel margins. Patients were recalled at 6 months, 1 year, 2 years and 3 years, and photographs were taken for assessment of colour match and marginal discoloration. One patient was not available at 3 years, resulting in 54 restorations being available for evaluation. One restoration of S(3)/Clearfil ST was lost at 2 years, giving retention rates of 97% for S(3) and 100% for G-Bond. At 3 years, six restorations for S(3)/Clearfil ST showed slight marginal discoloration and one restoration pronounced marginal staining. For G-Bond/Gradia at 3 years, 11 restorations exhibited slight marginal staining and one restoration pronounced marginal staining. Most restorations were bonded to sclerotic dentin. Statistical analysis of marginal staining showed no significant difference between the two restoration groups. The degree of marginal staining was almost identical for both materials and tended to be in larger restorations. Both S(3) and G-Bond all-in-one bonding systems appear to be good adhesives for the restoration of NCCL for the length of the current study. Restoration of NCCLs with the newer all-in-one adhesives appears to be a viable alternative technique to more complicated adhesive materials.
    Clinical Oral Investigations 07/2011; 16(4):1089-94. DOI:10.1007/s00784-011-0595-y · 2.35 Impact Factor
  • Martin J Tyas · Michael F Burrow ·

    Australian Dental Journal 06/2011; 56 Suppl 1:1. DOI:10.1111/j.1834-7819.2010.01290.x · 1.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A survey was conducted of 100 dental schools worldwide to investigate the current teaching of posterior resin composite restorations. A 20 multi-part question questionnaire was emailed to the selected schools. Schools were selected by ability to understand and respond in English. The questionnaire consisted of four open-ended questions and 16 closed questions on topics such as material selection for restoring posterior teeth, preclinical teaching of resin composite for posterior teeth, restoration size, contraindications, matrix placement methods, lining use, adhesive selection and finishing. Forty-six schools responded. The outcomes showed all schools included the teaching of resin composite for posterior restorations but varied. The majority of schools (63%) no longer taught amalgam as the preferred posterior restorative material. Half of the schools surveyed set numerical clinical requirements for restoration placement. Australian schools had no requirements whilst 92% of Asian schools did. There was a consensus that larger restorations were less suitable for resin composite. Selection of adhesives depended on region. Generally, the schools surveyed showed minor variations philosophically in teaching of the use and placement of resin composite restorations.
    International Dental Journal 02/2011; 61(1):12-8. DOI:10.1111/j.1875-595X.2011.00003.x · 1.26 Impact Factor
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    Rafat Bagheri · Ayşe Mese · Michael F Burrow · Martin J Tyas ·
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    ABSTRACT: To measure the shear punch strength of eight resin-containing luting cements before and after immersion in acidic solution and ethanol at different temperatures (37 degrees C and 60 degrees C). Specimens were prepared from six resin luting cements; Set (SDI), Panavia F (Kuraray), RelyX Veneer (3M/ESPE), VarioloinkII (Ivoclar), Maxcem (Kerr), Nexus2 (Kerr) and two Resin-modified glass-ionomer luting cements (RM-GICs); GC Fuji Plus (GC Corporation), RelyX Luting 2 (3M/ESPE). For each material a total of 114 disc-shaped specimens were prepared. Six specimens were immersed in distilled water for 24 h at 37 degrees C, polished and subjected to baseline measurement for shear punch strength. The remaining 108 specimens were randomly divided into 18 groups of six, and immersed in three solutions; distilled water, 0.01 mol/L lactic acid, and 50% ethanol at 37 degrees C or 60 degrees C, for 1 week, 1 month or 3 months. Specimens were washed, dried and tested for final shear punch strength. Values were material and solution dependent. Values of Nexus 2 and Rely X Veneer are the highest, and Rely X Luting 2 the lowest. Ethanol and lactic acid specimens showed significantly lower values compared with the distilled water specimens. The shear punch strengths of the resin-containing luting cements were affected by time and storage solution. While some of the resin luting cements had significantly higher values compared to that of the RM-GICs, there were no significant differences between the RM-GICs and resin cements such as Panavia F and Set.
    Journal of dentistry 10/2010; 38(10):820-7. DOI:10.1016/j.jdent.2010.06.014 · 2.75 Impact Factor
  • Chaiwat Maneenut · Rangsima Sakoolnamarka · Martin J Tyas ·
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    ABSTRACT: To measure the 'repair' strength of various combinations of composite using four manufacturers' adhesive systems, to compare the bond strengths with the cohesive strength of the original, unrepaired products and to assess whether the chemical nature of the resin matrix influenced the repair strength. Specimens were prepared of three composite materials Durafill, Heraeus Kulzer; P90 (Silorane) 3M ESPE; Z250 (3M ESPE) and aged in water at 60°C for 1 month. One surface of each specimen was faced with 80-grit silicone carbide paper, one of four adhesives placed (Ecusit, DMG; Clearfil Repair, Kuraray; P90 System Adhesive; Single Bond 2, 3M ESPE) and 'repair' composite added of the same type as above, such that all combinations of original and repair composite and adhesive were used. 'Stick' samples, approximately 6 mm × 0.8 mm × 4 mm were prepared from each repair specimen, a neck created at the junction of original and repair composites and the hour-glass sample tested in tension at 1 mm/min. The microtensile bond strength of the repair was calculated and the mode of failure (adhesive; cohesive in the original composite; cohesive in the repair composite) recorded. There was no significant difference between the cohesive strengths of Filtek P90 and Filtek Z250 (both ≈106 MPa); both were significantly stronger than Durafill (67.0 MPa). For bonding to Durafill the bond strengths ranged from 17.6 MPa to 50.9 MPa; for bonding to P90, the bond strengths ranged from 5.0 MPa to 54.2 MPa; for bonding to Z250, the bond strengths ranged from 17.2 MPa to 75.4 MPa. Clearfil Repair appeared to provide the most consistently high bond strengths, followed by the P90 System Adhesive, Single Bond 2 and Ecusit. Overall, the majority of failures (74%) was adhesive. It appears that bonding of new dimethacrylate-based composite to old dimethacrylate-based composite can be a viable clinical procedure. However, if the original composite is silorane-based (e.g., P90), then using the silane-based adhesive may be the best repair option, and similarly if it is planned to effect a repair with a silorane-based composite, using a silane-based adhesive may give the best outcome. The null hypotheses are thus rejected.
    Dental materials: official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials 10/2010; 27(2):e20-7. DOI:10.1016/j.dental.2010.09.006 · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This systematic review sought to quantitatively answer the question as to whether, in tooth cavities of the same size, type of dentition and follow-up period, resin-modified glass-ionomer (GIC) restorations, when compared to conventional GIC restorations, offer a significant caries preventive effect, as measured by the absence of caries lesions at the margin of restorations. Six databases were searched for articles in English, Portuguese or Spanish until 07 May 2009. Four articles were accepted and 22 separate datasets extracted. The difference between both types of material were computed as relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). No meta-analysis was undertaken due to aspects of clinical/methodological heterogeneity. The results of the extracted datasets ranged between RR 0.90 (95% CI 0.81-1.01) and 1.08 (95% CI 0.71-1.63; p > 0.05) indicating no difference in the caries preventive effect between both types of materials. Further high-quality randomized control trials are needed in order to confirm these results.
    The European journal of prosthodontics and restorative dentistry 09/2010; 18(3):139-45.
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    ABSTRACT: In 2007, new clinical criteria were approved by the FDI World Dental Federation and simultaneously published in three dental journals. The criteria were categorized into three groups: esthetic parameters (four criteria), functional parameters (six criteria), and biological parameters (six criteria). Each criterion can be expressed with five scores, three for acceptable and two for non-acceptable (one for reparable and one for replacement). The criteria have been used in several clinical studies since 2007, and the resulting experience in their application has led to a requirement to modify some of the criteria and scores. The two major alterations involve staining and approximal contacts. As staining of the margins and the surface have different causes, both phenomena do not appear simultaneously. Thus, staining has been differentiated into marginal staining and surface staining. The approximal contact now appears under the name "approximal anatomic form" as the approximal contour is a specific, often non-esthetic issue that cannot be integrated into the criterion "esthetic anatomical form". In 2008, a web-based training and calibration tool called e-calib (www.e-calib.info) was made available. Clinical investigators and other research workers can train and calibrate themselves interactively by assessing clinical cases of posterior restorations, which are presented as high quality pictures. Currently, about 300 clinical cases are included in the database which is regularly updated. Training for 8 of the 16 clinical criteria is available in the program: "Surface luster"; "Staining (surface, margins)"; "Color match and translucency"; "Esthetic anatomical form"; "Fracture of material and retention"; "Marginal adaptation"; "Recurrence of caries, erosion, abfraction"; and "Tooth integrity (enamel cracks, tooth fractures)". Typical clinical cases are presented for each of these eight criteria and their corresponding five scores.
    The journal of adhesive dentistry 08/2010; 12(4):259-72. DOI:10.3290/j.jad.a19262 · 1.31 Impact Factor
  • Chaiwat Maneenut · Rangsima Sakoolnamarka · Martin J Tyas ·
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the repair potential of resin-modified glass-ionomer cements (RMGICs) with additional RMGIC and resin composite. Specimens of two proprietary RMGICs (Ketac N100 (Ketac Nano), 3M/ESPE, St Paul, MN; Fuji II LC, GC Corporation, Tokyo) were prepared and stored in water at 37 degrees C for 4 days. The surface of the RMGIC was finished flat with 600-grit silicon carbide paper. After treatment of the original surface by either phosphoric acid or polyacrylic acid for 20s, fresh RMGIC of the same brand was added in a plastics cylinder. Untreated specimens were used as a control. Further specimens were either left untreated (control) or etched with phosphoric acid for 20s, and resin composite added. Specimens were stored in water at 37 degrees C for 24h, and the shear bond strength measured. The fractured surfaces were examined for mode of failure. Additional RMGIC specimens were prepared for the examination of replicas of the finished and acid treated surfaces. The bond strength of new Ketac N100 to old Ketac N100 was in the order of 1.7 MPa, irrespective of the surface treatment, and many specimens failed before testing. The bond strength of new Fuji II LC to old Fuji II LC was in the order of 10 MPa, irrespective of the surface treatment. The bond strength of resin composite bonded to both RMGICs approximated 9-16 MPa. The mode of failure of the RMGIC to RMGIC bond varied depending on the products, and the mode of failure of the resin composite to RMGIC bond was predominantly cohesive in the RMGIC. SEM examination of the RMGIC surfaces showed little effect from acid treatment. Based on this laboratory study, repair of RMGIC with additional RMGIC maybe clinically unpredictable, depending on the products used; repair with resin composite appears to be the preferred option.
    Dental materials: official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials 07/2010; 26(7):659-65. DOI:10.1016/j.dental.2010.03.009 · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    Rafat Bagheri · Mohammad R Azar · Martin J Tyas · Michael F Burrow ·
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the fracture toughness (KIc) of tooth-colored restorative materials based on a four-point bending; to assess the effect of distilled water and a resin surface sealant (G-Coat Plus) on the resistance of the materials to fracture. Specimens were prepared from six materials: Quix Fil; Dyract (Dentsply), Freedom (SDI), Fuji VII (GC), Fuji IX (GC); Fuji II LC (GC). Fuji II LC and Fuji IX were tested both with and without applying G-Coat Plus (GC). The specimens were divided into the three groups which were conditioned in distilled water at 37 degrees C for 48 hours, 4 and 8 weeks. The specimens were loaded in a four-point bending test using a universal testing machine. The maximum load to specimen failure was recorded and the fracture toughness calculated. There were significant differences among most of the materials (P < 0.001). Quix Fil had the highest mean KIc value and Fuji VII the lowest. Immersion in distilled water for the resin composite and polyacid-modified resin composites caused a significant decrease in KIc as the time interval increased. For glass-ionomer cements, KIc decreased significantly after 4 weeks, and after 8 weeks immersion slightly increased. G-Coat Plus affected Fuji II LC positively while it had no effect on the Fuji IX.
    American journal of dentistry 06/2010; 23(3):142-6. · 0.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between enamel surface microhardness and microshear bond strength (microSBS). Buccal and lingual mid-coronal enamel sections were prepared from 22 permanent human molars and divided into two groups, each comprising the buccal and lingual enamel from 11 teeth, to analyze two self-etching primer adhesives (Clearfil SE Bond and Tokuyama Bond Force). One-half of each enamel surface was tested using the Vickers hardness test with 10 indentations at 1 N and a 15-s dwell time. A hybrid resin composite was bonded to the other half of the enamel surface with the adhesive system assigned to the group. After 24 h of water storage of specimens at 37 degrees C, the microSBS test was carried out on a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm min(-1) until bond failure occurred. The mean microSBS was regressed on the mean Vickers hardness number (VHN) using a weighted regression analysis in order to explore the relationship between enamel hardness and microSBS. The weights used were the inverse of the variance of the microSBS means. Neither separate correlation analyses for each adhesive nor combined regression analyses showed a significant correlation between the VHN and the microSBS. These results suggest that the microSBS of the self-etch adhesive systems are not influenced by enamel surface microhardness.
    European Journal Of Oral Sciences 04/2010; 118(2):191-6. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0722.2010.00711.x · 1.49 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
281.94 Total Impact Points


  • 1990-2014
    • University of Melbourne
      • Melbourne Dental School
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2001-2011
    • Victoria University Melbourne
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2010
    • Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich
      • Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2009
    • University of Adelaide
      Tarndarnya, South Australia, Australia