M J Papandreou

University of Milan, Milano, Lombardy, Italy

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Publications (13)41.3 Total impact

  • C Canonne, M J Papandreou, G Medri, B Verrier, C Ronin
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    ABSTRACT: Recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (recTSH) has recently been engineered to detect metastatic lesions in patients operated on for thyroid cancer. In this report, we have compared the microheterogeneity, carbohydrate (CHO) content, mitogenic potency and immunoreactivity of the biotechnology product to those of human TSH of pituitary origin (pitTSH). Compositional analysis revealed that recombinant (rec) TSH produced in Chinese hamster ovary cells was overglycosylated compared with the native hormone (21 and 14%, respectively) with a higher amount of sialic acid and lack of N-acetylgalactosamine. Electrofocusing followed by immunoblotting resolved recTSH into six glycoforms with pIs ranging from 6.0 to 8.6, which were converted to a major species of pI 8.9 by sialidase treatment. pitTSH contained five main isoforms of pI 6.5-8.2 distinct from those of recTSH and partially resistant to sialidase. Binding activity of both human TSHs to porcine thyroid membrane receptors was found to be similar, but recTSH appeared to be 20% active compared to pitTSH in eliciting cAMP production and cell growth in rat FRTL-5 cells. Immunoreactivity of the recombinant hormone was investigated using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies raised against the native hormone or synthetic peptide sequences of its subunits. While rec- and pitTSH were recognized to a similar extent by anti-protein antibodies, they exhibited a different binding pattern to antipeptide antibodies. Serial dilution of anti-alpha 1-25, anti-alpha 26-51, anti-beta 96-112 antisera bound recTSH to a greater extent than pitTSH, while anti-beta 31-51 and anti-beta 53-76 displayed similar recognition toward both preparations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    Glycobiology 08/1995; 5(5):473-81. · 3.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alkaline (pI 8.6-7.5) and neutral (pI 7.0-6.0) isoforms of human TSH have been isolated from a highly purified intrapituitary preparation by isoelectric focusing and compared for their respective actions on thyroid cell proliferation. Both TSH isoforms displayed the same ability to bind to porcine thyroid membranes as the original hormone preparation, indicating a similar recognition at the receptor sites. Alkaline forms showed a higher potency in inducing either cyclic AMP (cAMP) production or [3H]thymidine incorporation in FRTL-5 cells (half-maximal effective doses (ED50 values) = 0.25 and 0.29 nM respectively) compared with their neutral counterparts (ED50 values = 0.66 and 0.70 nM respectively). Increasing the concentration of alkaline forms in the presence of a half-maximal concentration of neutral TSH resulted in a profound inhibition of cell growth without a significant change in cAMP. Conversely, increasing the amount of neutral forms in the presence of a half-maximal dose of alkaline TSH resulted in an additive response for cAMP production but not in cell proliferation. To assess whether glycosylation might be responsible for the variation in hormone action, both alkaline and neutral TSH isoforms were tested for recognition of their carbohydrate chains by concanavalin A (Con A) and ricin. No major difference was found in binding to Con A, indicating that the contribution of carbohydrates to changes in hormone pI was not related to core branching. Very few galactose residues were accessible in either hormone fraction since little binding to ricin was observed. Isoelectric focusing of TSH forms before and after neuraminidase treatment revealed that neutral forms had a higher sialic acid content than alkaline TSH. In conclusion, the current findings show that TSH isoforms differentially affect cAMP production and cell growth. TSH fractions with a high sialic acid content and a low mitogenic activity behave as antagonists to the more active forms for cell proliferation. It is suggested that physiological control of TSH action at the thyroid gland may reside in the respective amounts of various TSH forms which, once bound to their receptor, can induce variable activation of post-receptor events while controlling cell proliferation.
    Journal of Molecular Endocrinology 11/1994; 13(2):187-98. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Carbohydrate structures of intrapituitary and circulating TSH were studied by Concanavalin-A (Con A) and ricin lectin chromatography under different clinical conditions. Con A permits the separation of molecules differing in the extent of their carbohydrate branching, whereas ricin gives an estimation of the degree of their sialylation. Intrapituitary TSH was more retained on Con A and less sialylated than circulating hormone, suggesting that carbohydrate chains of intrapituitary molecules are less mature than those present in the circulation. A greater proportion of TSH firmly bound to Con A, compared to control values, was found in sera from fetuses and patients with uremia, TSH-secreting adenomas, and central hypothyroidism. In primary hypothyroid patients, TSH binding to Con A was similar to that found in controls, but a greater percentage of sialylated forms was seen. In central hypothyroidism patients, TSH released in response to TRH was less sialylated. Interestingly, no sialylated TSH was found in normal fetuses. In conclusion, the present data show that both TSH carbohydrate branching and sialylation may vary in different clinical conditions. As some of the above clinical conditions are known to be accompanied by variations in the bioactivity of circulating TSH, the finding of changes in TSH carbohydrate structures further supports the view that glycosylation modulates the expression of TSH biological activity.
    Journal of Clinical Endocrinology &amp Metabolism 09/1993; 77(2):393-8. · 6.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have studied the carbohydrate of circulating human gonadotropins (FSH and LH) in different clinical conditions using Concanavalin A (Con A) affinity chromatography. This technique permits separation of molecules differing in the extent of carbohydrate branching. The proportion of molecules that does not bind to Con A was greater in circulating FSH than in LH, reflecting a higher content of multiantennary and/or bisected biantennary complex carbohydrate structures in serum FSH. No significant difference in gonadotropin binding pattern to Con A was found between normal controls and patients with chronic uremia or gonadotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas. On the contrary, sera from postmenopausal women and fetuses contained a greater proportion of FSH and LH that bound to Con A, indicating a shift from multiantennary and/or bisecting structures to hybrid and/or high mannose forms, i.e. to the secretion of less mature forms. International Reference Preparations, derived from pituitary extracts, were more retained on Con A than circulating hormones, suggesting that carbohydrate chains of the intrapituitary hormone stock are less mature than those present in the circulation. Less mature forms were also found in FSH, but not in LH, from normal controls after GnRH injection. Finally, a higher proportion of unbound forms, i.e. complex carbohydrate chains, was found in healthy subjects presenting with an immunologically anomalous variant of LH. In conclusion, the current data show that the hormonal status of the individual may differently affect carbohydrate branching of gonadotropins. Alteration in glycosylation is likely to be involved in masking at least one epitope specific for intact LH dimer, thus indicating that it may modulate the tertiary structure of glycoprotein hormones.
    Journal of Clinical Endocrinology &amp Metabolism 05/1993; 76(4):1008-13. · 6.43 Impact Factor
  • I Sergi, G Medri, M J Papandreou, G Gunz, P Jaquet, C Ronin
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    ABSTRACT: To understand better why patients with TSH-secreting pituitary tumors exhibit variable degree of hyperthyroidism, we analyzed the various isoforms of TSH and alpha-subunit secreted by 4 TSH-secreting adenomas in primary culture. All patients had macrodenomas clinically associated with hyperthyroidism with normal to elevated TSH plasma levels. The in vivo molar alpha/TSH ratio ranged from 18.4 to 3.8. The hormone material secreted over 4 to 48 h in culture was separated by gel isoelectrofocusing, eluted and estimated by immunoassays. The release of free alpha-subunit was noticeably different among adenomas. Three tumors were found to release an homogeneous and acidic (pI = 5.4-4.5) species totally unrelated to the alpha-subunit dissociated from intrapituitary TSH (5 isoforms, pI = 8.8-5.8) while another was more heterogeneous (pI = 8.8, 8.4, 7.6, 6.8, 5.8, 5.4-4.5). Tumoral TSH exhibited at least six detectable isoforms (pI = 8.6, 8.3-8.0, 7.5, 7.0, 6.5, 6.0) very similar to those present in a purified intrapituitary hormone preparation. While intrapituitary TSH was composed of 70% of alkaline (pI = 8.6-7.5), 25% of neutral (pI = 7.0-6.0) and 5% (pI = 5.8-4.5) of acidic forms, these species were found to be more evenly distributed in adenomatous secretion (43%/42%/15%). The TSH-secreting tumors thus appeared to relase preferentially neutral and acidic forms of TSH than alkaline components but for one tumor, this ratio could be modified by chronic incubation with TRH. When assayed for their capacity to stimulate 3H-thymidine incorporation in FRTL-5 cells, neutral TSH appeared definitely less potent than the alkaline and acidic isohormones. Altogether, these data show that pituitary adenomas synthesize normal forms of TSH but release them in variable amount in the medium. When circulating in the blood, the ratio between active and inactive isoforms of TSH may thus be responsible for the variable stimulation of the thyroid gland observed in the patients.
    Journal of endocrinological investigation 02/1993; 16(1):45-55. · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The recent availability of both cordocentesis and ultrasensitive/highly specific immunometric assays for TSH and its subunit determination along with direct "two-step" assays for free thyroid hormone measurement, prompted us to study the maturation of hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis in normal and anencephalic human fetuses from 17 to 26 weeks of gestation. In addition, TSH bioactivity was measured as cAMP accumulation in CHO cells transfected with recombinant human TSH receptor and TSH carbohydrate structure was studied by lectin chromatography. In both normal and anencephalic fetuses, circulating TSH and FT4 levels significantly increased from 17 to 26 weeks of gestation. Circulating FT3 concentrations were very low (0.5-3.1 pmol/l), while alpha-SU levels were very high (20-417 mg/l). Both FT3 and alpha-SU levels did not change from 17 to 26 weeks of gestation and, again, no differences between normal and anencephalic fetuses were recorded. Circulating TSH from both normal and anencephalic fetuses showed an enhanced bioactivity and was more retained on the lectin column than adult TSH, thus indicating that molecules with different carbohydrate structure are circulating during fetal development. In conclusion, the present data demonstrate that the absence of the hypothalamus does not compromise the maturation of pituitary-thyroid function and that the mechanisms underlying the secretion of TSH molecules with elevated bioactivity and different structure of glycosylated chains are not dependent on hypothalamic neuroendocrine control.
    Acta Medica Austriaca 02/1992; 19 Suppl 1:72-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Pituitary thyroid hormone resistance (PRTH) refers to a particular form of thyroid hormone refractoriness that is accompanied by peripheral hyperthyroidism, as only the TSH-secreting pituitary cells appear to be resistant to the effects of thyroid hormones. The presence of PRTH is suspected and diagnosed on the basis of the finding of high free thyroid hormone levels along with unsuppressed TSH, clinical signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism and values of at least one of the parameters evaluating peripheral thyroid hormone action in the hyperthyroid range. However, most patients with PRTH present with clinical signs and symptoms of thyroid dysfunction, particularly goiter and tachycardia, overlapping those recorded in patients with generalized thyroid hormone resistance (GRTH), i.e. refractoriness to thyroid hormones at both pituitary and peripheral tissue level. Moreover, most of them display normal values of other parameters evaluating the peripheral effects of thyroid hormones and bear mutations in the gene encoding for T3 nuclear receptors similar to those found in patients with GRTH. These findings are questioning the existence of PRTH as a separate clinical entity and support the view that the various forms of thyroid hormone resistance may be part of a spectrum of disease with variable expression in different issues.
    Hormone Research 02/1992; 38(1-2):66-72. · 2.48 Impact Factor
  • I Sergi, M J Papandreou, G Medri, C Canonne, B Verrier, C Ronin
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    ABSTRACT: Isoforms of intrapituitary human TSH were separated by gel isoelectrofocusing, and their immunoreactivity analyzed by subsequent immunoblotting using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. Under these conditions, TSH polymorphism could be resolved as seven major isoforms (pI 8.6, 8.3, 8.0, 7.5, 7.0, 6.5, and 6.0) by both silver staining of the gels and binding to anti-TSH polyclonal antibodies. The distribution pattern of these forms appeared totally distinct from that of individual TSH alpha (pI 8.8, 8.4, 8.2, 7.6, 7.4, 6.8, 6.6, 5.8, and 5.4) and TSH beta (pI 8.7, 8.1, 7.2, 6.8, 6.2, and 5.8) subunits. While most anti-TSH polyclonal antibodies recognized neutral and alkaline isoforms of TSH (pI 8.6, 8.3, 8.0, 7.5, 7.0, 6.5, and 6.0) through beta determinants, they displayed a variable potency to bind acidic forms of the hormone (pI 5.8, 5.5, 4.8, and 4.5), in contrast to anti-TSH alpha antisera, which enlighted the broadest spectrum of isoforms. Monoclonal antibodies of various specificities largely reproduced this distribution, indicating that at least five distinct epitopes are coexpressed in the neutral and alkaline forms of TSH, but only two are expressed in the acidic ones. All of the forms were found to induce cAMP production and stimulate growth of FRTL-5 rat thyroid cells, although neutral forms proved to be definitely less potent than the others. We therefore, conclude that TSH isoforms differ in the expression of both their immunoreactive and bioactive domains and that the bioactive/immunoreactive ratio is not an accurate index for the biopotency of the hormone.
    Endocrinology 07/1991; 128(6):3259-68. · 4.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Enzymatic deglycosylation of human thyroid-stimulating hormone (hTSH) was shown to result in a mixture of partially and fully deglycosylated forms of the hormone by gel electrophoresis, silver staining and immunoblotting. Radioiodination of the enzymatic digest, followed by gel filtration and concanavalin A-Sepharose chromatography allowed to separate two different forms of partially deglycosylated [125I]hTSH and a fully deglycosylated hormone. The final recovery was of approx. 60% for [125I]hTSH deglycosylated in its beta-subunit, of 30% for [125I]hTSH missing the oligosaccharide in beta and one in alpha but only of 10% for [125I]hTSH deglycosylated in both the alpha- and beta-subunits. Gel electrophoresis under non-denaturing conditions showed that each form migrated distinctly from free subunits and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography after reduction and carboxymethylation identified the presence of the two subunits. Mapping of [125I]hTSH derivatives with polyclonal, monoclonal and anti-peptide antibodies allowed to identify two novel glycosylation-independent epitopes preserved in deglycosylated hTSH while the main immunogenic determinant was lost. When assayed in a bioassay with FRTL-5 cells, the hormone deprived of its beta-linked carbohydrate chain was found to be as effective as the native hormone on cAMP production and cell growth. In contrast, the fully deglycosylated derivative proved to stimulate cAMP release but appeared to be definitely less potent on thyroid cell growth. Our findings thus demonstrate that glycosylation of the alpha-subunit but not that of the beta-subunit is essential to express the domains involved in hTSH immunoreactivity as well as those controlling the post-receptor biological activity of the hormone.
    Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 07/1991; 78(1-2):137-50. · 4.04 Impact Factor
  • M J Papandréou, H Darbon, C Ronin
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    ABSTRACT: The glycoprotein hormones are a family of four proteins: LH, FSH, TSH and CG. These molecules are glycosylated dimers, sharing a common alpha-subunit and differing by their beta-subunit which confers to the hormone its immunological and biological specificity. The biological function of these hormones is mediated through the recognition of specific receptors at the target organ. Although still controversial, it appears that both subunits of the hormone are required to bind to the receptor and induce cAMP release. Furthermore, these hormones exhibit natural variability in their bioactivity and the molecular basis of this process are poorly understood at the moment. Recent data relative to the mapping of glycoprotein hormones, were obtained by site-directed mutagenesis as well as by the use of synthetic peptides. These two approaches allowed to elucidate several linear peptide sequences involved in the biologically active conformation and immunoreactivity of these molecules. Furthermore, these hormones exist in different molecular forms with a variable biological activity and immunological ratio, and this polymorphism is probably due to the glycan moities. The presence of these glycans are necessary for full expression of their biological activity as well as immunoreactivity, and both the biosynthesis and the secretion of these various glycoforms are probably under physiological regulation. We therefore propose that glycosylation may alter the expression of several domains at the surface of the hormone to modulate its plasmatic clearance as well as the action of each individual glycoform at the receptor and this will ultimately control its biological function.
    Annales d Endocrinologie 02/1991; 52(4):254-68. · 1.02 Impact Factor
  • M J Papandreou, I Sergi, M Benkirane, C Ronin
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    ABSTRACT: To probe possible effects of carbohydrate chains in the conformation of pituitary glycoprotein hormones, two radiolabeled derivatives of human thyroid-stimulating hormone (hTSH), either partially deglycosylated in the beta-subunit or fully deglycosylated in both the alpha- and beta-subunits, were compared to the native hormone for binding to monoclonal as well as polyclonal antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies were screened for their ability to bind the intact hormone (anti-hTSH), hTSH and its free alpha-subunit (anti-alpha) or its free beta-subunit (anti-beta). A panel of 14 monoclonal antibodies directed against at least eight out of the 12 epitopes known to be present in the hormone was tested in solid-phase assays for their capacity to bind intact and deglycosylated forms of hTSH. All of them displayed identical recognition of native and partially deglycosylated 125I-hTSH. In contrast, binding of fully deglycosylated 125I-hTSH to anti-hTSH and anti-beta antibodies was dramatically lost while that of anti-alpha was preserved. This clearly indicates that most of the epitopes specific for subunit association as well as those present on the beta-subunit are glycosylation dependent. No alteration was found in antibody recognition following deglycosylation of free individual subunits, indicating that the carbohydrate effect can only occur in the combined dimer. Using polyclonal antisera raised against the International Reference Preparations, we found that the deglycosylated hormone could be bound by the anti-beta antiserum although at a much lower dilution than the native antigen, suggesting the presence of at least one glycosylation-independent epitope in the beta-subunit. Competitive binding assays revealed that deglycosylated hTSH is 5 times less immunoreactive toward the anti-beta compared to the anti-alpha antiserum. The current data thus demonstrate the presence of the glycosylation-independent epitopes in the alpha-subunit of hTSH and the localization of most of the glycosylation-dependent domains in the beta-subunit.
    Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 11/1990; 73(1):15-26. · 4.04 Impact Factor
  • International Journal of Radiation Applications and Instrumentation Part B Nuclear Medicine and Biology 02/1990; 17(7):651-6.
  • C Ronin, M J Papandreou, C Canonne, B D Weintraub
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    ABSTRACT: The accessibility of the asparagine-linked carbohydrate chains of human thyrotropin (hTSH) and free alpha and beta subunits was investigated by their susceptibility to endoglycosidases H and F as well as to peptide:N-glycosidase F. Iodinated hTSH or subunits were incubated with a commercial enzyme preparation containing both endoglycosidase F and N-glycosidase F activities and further analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis followed by quantitative autoradiography. We show that, working at the optimum of the N-glycosidase activity, the relative amount of endoglycosidase required for half-deglycosylation was 20-fold higher for native hTSH than for the reduced and dissociated subunits. Under nondenaturing conditions, the 18K beta subunit of hTSH could be readily deglycosylated to a 14K species while the 22K alpha subunit was largely resistant. However, both subunits were converted to an apoprotein of similar apparent molecular weight of 14K following reduction of disulfide bonds. In contrast, the free alpha subunit of human choriogonadotropin appeared fully sensitive to carbohydrate removal under nonreducing conditions despite the presence of a partially deglycosylated 18K intermediate at low concentration of endoglycosidase. Similarly, both hTSH-alpha and hTSH-beta could be completely deglycosylated after acid dissociation of the native hormone. While all three carbohydrate chains of hTSH are sensitive to pure peptide:N-glycosidase F, only one on alpha and the single oligosaccharide present on beta in hTSH appeared to be cleaved by pure endoglycosidase F. Interestingly, one of the two carbohydrate chains present on alpha was also found to be susceptible to endoglycosidase H.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    Biochemistry 10/1987; 26(18):5848-53. · 3.38 Impact Factor