[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies have shown less cognitive decline and lower risk of Alzheimer's disease in elderly individuals consuming either antioxidant vitamins or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The potential of added benefit from their combined use has not been studied. We therefore analyzed data from 3,376 elderly participants of the Cache County Study who were given the Modified Mini-Mental State examination up to three times during a period of 8 years. Those who used a combination of vitamins E and C supplements and NSAIDs at baseline declined by an average 0.96 fewer points every 3 years than nonusers (P < .05). This apparent effect was attributable entirely to participants with the APOE epsilon4 allele, whose users declined by 2.25 fewer points than nonusers every 3 years (P < .05). These results suggest that among elderly individuals with an APOE epsilon4 allele, there is an association between using antioxidant supplements in combination with NSAIDs and less cognitive decline over time.
Alzheimer's & dementia: the journal of the Alzheimer's Association 05/2008; 4(3):223-7. · 5.90 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidemiologic studies have suggested that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may be useful for the prevention of Alzheimer disease (AD). By contrast, clinical trials have not supported NSAID use to delay or treat AD. Few studies have evaluated cognitive trajectories of NSAID users over time.
Residents of Cache County, UT, aged 65 or older on January 1, 1995, were invited to participate in the study. At baseline, participants provided a detailed inventory of their medications and completed a revised Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS). Participants (n = 3,383) who were cognitively normal at baseline were re-examined after 3 and 8 years. The association between NSAID use and 3MS scores over time was estimated using random effects modeling.
Associations depended upon when NSAIDs were started and APOE genotype. In participants who started NSAID use prior to age 65, those with no APOE epsilon4 alleles performed similarly to nonusers (a difference of 0.10 points per year; p = 0.19), while those with one or more epsilon4 allele(s) showed more protection (0.40 points per year; p = 0.0005). Among participants who first used NSAIDs at or after age 65, those with one or more epsilon4 alleles had higher baseline scores (0.95 points; p = 0.03) but did not show subsequent difference in change in score over time (0.06 points per year; p = 0.56). Those without an epsilon4 allele who started NSAID use after age 65 showed greater decline than nonusers (-0.16 points per year; p = 0.02).
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use may help to prevent cognitive decline in older adults if started in midlife rather than late life. This effect may be more notable in those who have one or more APOE epsilon4 alleles.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We prospectively examined associations between intakes of antioxidants (vitamins C, vitamin E, and carotene) and cognitive function and decline among elderly men and women of the Cache County Study on Memory and Aging in Utah.
In 1995, 3831 residents 65 years of age or older completed a baseline survey that included a food frequency questionnaire and cognitive assessment. Cognitive function was assessed using an adapted version of the Modified Mini-Mental State examination (3MS) at baseline and at three subsequent follow-up interviews spanning approximately 7 years. Multivariable-mixed models were used to estimate antioxidant nutrient effects on average 3MS score over time.
Increasing quartiles of vitamin C intake alone and combined with vitamin E were associated with higher baseline average 3MS scores (p-trend = 0.013 and 0.02 respectively); this association appeared stronger for food sources compared to supplement or food and supplement sources combined. Study participants with lower levels of intake of vitamin C, vitamin E and carotene had a greater acceleration of the rate of 3MS decline over time compared to those with higher levels of intake.
High antioxidant intake from food and supplement sources of vitamin C, vitamin E, and carotene may delay cognitive decline in the elderly.
The Journal of Nutrition Health and Aging 01/2007; 11(3):230-7. · 2.39 Impact Factor