[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous reports have indicated that a proportion of pigs, homozygous normal for the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor gene (RYR1), was halothane sensitive, and this was associated with poor meat quality when pigs were handled aggressively. This study was conducted to evaluate halothane sensitivity in RYR1-normal pigs, managed under simulated commercial conditions, to ascertain the association of halothane sensitivity with growth rate and meat quality. A total of 363 pigs across four farrowing groups, from seven Landrace sires and 38 Yorkshire-Landrace F1 dams, were tested at 8 weeks of age for halothane sensitivity using a closed system that delivered 5% halothane at 2 l/min for 3 (group 1) or 2 (groups 2 to 4) min. After 1 min, limb rigidity, limb tremors and abdominal discoloration were evaluated on a binomial scale with 0 indicating no reaction and 1 indicating reaction. Testing was repeated 2 days later. At 10 weeks of age, pigs were moved to finishing pens and not moved again until marketing. Within farrowing group, pigs were harvested in one of two groups, and at marketing were moved a distance of 91 m, weighed, tattooed, loaded and transported a distance of 550 km to a commercial harvest plant. After overnight rest, pigs were harvested and the pH of the loin muscle was measured at 45 min (pH45) after stunning. After an 18-h chill, loin muscle pH (pHu), International Commission on Illumination (CIE) L*, a*, b*, color (1 to 6) and marbling (1 to 10) scores and fluid loss percent were collected. Generalized linear mixed models were used to estimate repeatabilities for response to halothane challenge. Repeatabilities for limb rigidity for the front right and left legs were 0.24 and 0.31, respectively, whereas rear right and left leg repeatabilities were 0.19 and 0.17, respectively. Repeatabilities for front right and left leg tremors were 0.16 and 0.20, respectively. Growth rate was not influenced by any measure of halothane sensitivity. Carcasses from pigs exhibiting limb rigidity tended to have lower pH45 (5.88 v. 5.97; P = 0.06), similar pHu (5.47 v. 5.49; P = 0.32), less pH decline from 45 min to 18 h (-0.40 v. -0.50; P = 0.04) and a tendency for greater fluid loss percent (5.01 v. 4.55; P = 0.08) than carcasses from pigs that did not exhibit limb rigidity during halothane challenge. A proportion of pigs normal for RYR1 did exhibit limb rigidity during halothane gas challenge, and subsequently tended to have lower 45 min pH and greater longissimus muscle fluid loss post harvest.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Understanding preadipocyte differentiation in economically important adipose depots will facilitate efforts to selectively increase intramuscular (i.m.) lipid accretion in cattle. The objectives of this study were to determine if glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression differs among bovine stromal-vascular (S-V) cells derived from i.m., subcutaneous (s.c.), and peri-renal (p.r.) adipose tissue, and to evaluate the effects of dexamethasone (DEX) on adipogenesis of these cell populations. Stromal-vascular cells isolated from i.m., s.c., and p.r. adipose tissues of 2 steers were propagated in culture and exposed to 0 or 250 nM DEX for 48 h. Cell lysates were subjected to GR immunoblot analysis, and immunoreactive protein bands of approximately 97, approximately 62, and approximately 48 kDa were detected and expressed relative to beta-actin immunoreactivity. The abundance of each GR immunoreactive protein was similar among S-V cell populations (P > 0.50). Dexamethasone exposure decreased the abundance of the approximately 97 and approximately 62 kDa GR immunoreactive bands in S-V cells from the 3 depots (P < 0.001), but did not affect the expression of the approximately 48 kDa band (P = 0.96). Stromal-vascular cells isolated from 3 steers were grown in culture, and upon confluence, were exposed to 0, 25, or 2,500 nM DEX for 48 h. After an additional 10 d in differentiation media, differentiation was determined by glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) specific activity and oil red O staining. The extent of differentiation differed by depot (p.r. > s.c. > i.m.; P < 0.05). Compared with control, 2,500 nM DEX increased GPDH activity in S-V cells from all depots (P < 0.05), and no interaction between depot and DEX concentration was observed (P = 0.99). We observed an adipose tissue depot by DEX concentration interaction (P = 0.03) for S-V cells with large (> or = 10 microm-diameter) lipid droplets. The percentage of p.r. S-V cells with large lipid droplets increased in response to DEX in a linear manner (P < 0.02), but only increased greater than control in s.c. cells exposed to 2,500 nM DEX (P = 0.002). Dexamethasone did not significantly increase the percentage of i.m. S-V cells with large lipid droplets (P > 0.27). Collectively, these data demonstrate differences in adipogenic activity among bovine i.m., s.c., and p.r. S-V cells, but indicate no relationship between adipogenic activity and glucocorticoid receptor abundance or function.
Journal of Animal Science 02/2009; 87(6):1913-20. · 2.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objectives of these experiments were to compare differentiation of bovine stromal-vascular (S-V) cells isolated from i.m. and s.c. adipose tissues in response to a glucocorticoid and a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist. Stromal-vascular cells were isolated from i.m. and s.c. fat depots of 3 Angus steers and propagated in culture. Cells were exposed to differentiation media containing 0.25 microM dexamethasone (DEX), a glucocorticoid analog, and 40 microM troglitazone (TRO), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist, or both. Cells treated with DEX and TRO had greater (P < 0.02) glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity than control cells. No interactions between DEX, TRO, and depot (P > 0.59) or depot differences (P = 0.41) in glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity were found. Morphological assessment of adipogenic colonies showed that DEX induced a 1.8-fold increase in the percentage of adipogenic colonies (P = 0.03), whereas TRO increased the proportion of adipogenic colonies by 1.9-fold (P = 0.02) compared with those not treated with DEX or TRO, respectively. Depots had a similar percentage of adipogenic colonies (P = 0.18); however, the percentage of differentiated cells within adipogenic colonies was found to be 6.4-fold greater in s.c. isolates compared with i.m. (P < 0.001). Addition of TRO increased the proportion of differentiated cells within colonies by 10-fold compared with those of nontreated colonies (P < 0.001), whereas the percentage of differentiated cells within adipogenic colonies only tended to be increased by DEX (P = 0.10). These data indicate that bovine i.m. and s.c. S-V cells are capable of enhanced differentiation in response to DEX and TRO, and these effects were additive. Most importantly, inherent differences in the capacity to differentiate exist between adipogenic bovine i.m. and s.c. S-V cells.
Journal of Animal Science 07/2008; 86(10):2531-8. · 2.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pigs from the F(2) generation of a Duroc x Pietrain resource population were evaluated to discover QTL affecting carcass composition and meat quality traits. Carcass composition phenotypes included primal cut weights, skeletal characteristics, backfat thickness, and LM area. Meat quality data included LM pH, temperature, objective and subjective color information, marbling and firmness scores, and drip loss. Additionally, chops were analyzed for moisture, protein, and fat composition as well as cook yield and Warner-Bratzler shear force measurements. Palatability of chops was determined by a trained sensory panel. A total of 510 F(2) animals were genotyped for 124 microsatellite markers evenly spaced across the genome. Data were analyzed with line cross, least squares regression interval, mapping methods using sex and litter as fixed effects and carcass weight or slaughter age as covariates. Significance thresholds of the F-statistic for single QTL with additive, dominance, or imprinted effects were determined on chromosome- and genome-wise levels by permutation tests. A total of 94 QTL for 35 of the 38 traits analyzed were found to be significant at the 5% chromosome-wise level. Of these 94 QTL, 44 were significant at the 1% chromosome-wise, 28 of these 44 were also significant at the 5% genome-wise, and 14 of these 28 were also significant at the 1% genome-wise significance thresholds. Putative QTL were discovered for 45-min pH and pH decline from 45 min to 24 h on SSC 3, marbling score and carcass backfat on SSC 6, carcass length and number of ribs on SSC 7, marbling score on SSC 12, and color measurements and tenderness score on SSC 15. These results will facilitate fine mapping efforts to identify genes controlling carcass composition and meat quality traits that can be incorporated into marker-assisted selection programs to accelerate genetic improvement in pig populations.
Journal of Animal Science 03/2008; 86(2):254-66. · 2.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of these experiments was to develop an in vitro cell culture system for differentiation of bovine preadipocytes, which will permit examination of differences in differentiation between intramuscular (i.m.) and subcutaneous (s.c.) bovine preadipocytes. Stromal-vascular cells from bovine i.m. and s.c. adipose depots were isolated and cultured. Clonally derived s.c. preadipocytes were used to determine the ability of insulin, bovine serum lipids, octanoate, acetic acid, dexamethasone (DEX), and troglitazone (TRO) to elicit differentiation of these cells when added to serum-free medium. Addition of 10 and 20 microL/mL of a commercially available serum lipids supplement to low-glucose Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium containing 280 nM insulin increased glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity (P < 0.01). Inclusion of 1.25 to 10 microM TRO to medium containing 280 nM insulin and 20 microL/ mL serum lipids supplement also increased GPDH activity (P < 0.001) compared with 0 microM TRO. The combination of 280 nM insulin, 1 mM octanoate, and 10 mM acetic acid, with 48 h exposure to 0.25 microM DEX caused morphological differentiation in a small number of cells but did not stimulate GPDH activity (P = 0.99). When used together, 280 nM insulin, 20 microL/mL of serum lipids supplement, 40 microM TRO, and 0.25 microM DEX stimulated differentiation compared with the aforementioned treatment (P < 0.001). Omission of TRO or insulin from this medium reduced GPDH activity by 68% (P < 0.001), whereas removal of DEX tended to reduce GPDH activity (P = 0.06). Preadipocytes from s.c. (n = 3) and i.m. (n = 2) adipose tissues of 3 steers were used to determine the effects of TRO on differentiation using the established conditions. Forty to sixty microM TRO enhanced differentiation compared with 0 microM TRO (P < 0.02) in both depots. No depot differences in response to TRO were detected (P = 0.32). These data demonstrate that bovine preadipocytes are capable of differentiation in response to combinations of insulin, serum lipids, DEX, and TRO. Although TRO enhanced differentiation of bovine preadipocytes, no differential effects of TRO on the differentiation of s.c. and i.m. cells were detected.
Journal of Animal Science 02/2008; 86(1):73-82. · 2.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine if HAL-1843-normal pigs that respond abnormally to halothane anesthesia were more likely to become nonambulatory (NA) when subjected to rigorous handling than pigs that exhibit a normal response to halothane. After a 1,100-km transport, pigs exhibiting low (HS-L; n = 33), intermediate (HS-I; n = 10), and high (HS-H; n = 47) sensitivity to halothane were moved through a 36.6-m long aisle that was 2.1 m wide at each end and 0.6 m wide in the middle 18.3 m. Ten groups of 8 pigs were briskly moved down the aisle and back 4 times, receiving a minimum of 1 electrical prod per pass (8 prods/pig). Before testing, rectal temperature was measured, open-mouth breathing and skin discoloration were visually evaluated, and a blood sample was collected from each pig. After the test, the pigs were returned to their pens, and the same measurements were taken immediately posttest and 1 h posttest (no blood at 1 h posttest). Pigs that were HS-H were more prone to becoming NA compared with HS-L pigs (P < 0.02). Regardless of halothane status, a greater number of pigs exhibited open-mouth breathing and skin discolorations immediately posttest than at the pretest or 1 h posttest times (P < 0.05). No differences were observed in blood metabolites between the different halothane sensitivity categories. However, pigs that became NA had elevated blood levels of creatine phosphokinase, lactate, glycerol, nonesterified fatty acids, ammonia, and urea nitrogen before testing (P < 0.05). Collectively, these data suggest HS-H pigs are more susceptible to becoming NA than HS-L. The elevated pretest blood metabolites of NA pigs suggest that they were in a hypermetabolic state that predisposed them to becoming NA.
Journal of Animal Science 04/2006; 84(4):1015-21. · 2.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives of this study were to determine the incidence of halothane sensitivity in pigs that are homozygous normal at the ryanodine receptor nucleotide 1843 (HAL-1843-normal) and the relationships between halothane sensitivity and carcass composition or meat quality. In Exp. 1, piglets (Lines A, B, C, and D; n = 168, 170, 168, and 169, respectively) were obtained from mating a HAL-1843-normal sire line to four HAL-1843-normal dam lines. In Exp. 2, piglets from Lines A and B (n = 87 and 90, respectively) were included with piglets (Lines E, F, G, and H; n = 94, 92, 89, and 89, respectively) obtained from mating four HAL-1843-normal sire lines to a single HAL-1843-normal dam line. Pigs were subjected to 3% halothane at approximately 9 wk of age. In Exp. 1, limb rigidity, blotching of the skin, and muscle tremors were visually assessed, and based on these criteria, halothane sensitivity (HS) was observed in 48% of the pigs. To better characterize this response, a scoring system was developed and used in Exp. 2. Using this system, 25, 42, and 33% of the pigs in E and 40, 33, and 27% of the pigs in Line G were categorized as HS-low (HS-L), HS-intermediate (HS-I), and HS-high (HS-H), respectively. In Lines F and H, 13 and 18% of the pigs were HS-I, and 0 and 2% were HS-H, respectively. No consistent effects due to HS were observed in carcass composition or meat quality; however, when a subset of pigs from Exp. 2 were subjected to more extensive handling and transportation before slaughter, ultimate pH was lower and drip loss was higher in LM from HS-H compared with HS-L pigs (P < 0.05; n = 71). These results demonstrate that some pigs are sensitive to halothane anesthesia even in the absence of the known HAL-1843 polymorphism. Additionally, halothane sensitivity may be associated with inferior pork quality under adverse antemortem conditions.
Journal of Animal Science 04/2005; 83(3):671-8. · 2.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our objective was to determine the effect of repeated use of implants on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of Holstein cattle. Holstein steers (n = 128) weighing an average of 211 kg were blocked by weight and randomly assigned to 16 pens. At the start of the trial (d 0), pens were assigned to one of four treatments: 1) nonimplanted control (C); 2) implant on d 0, 112, and 224 (T3); 3) implant on d 112 and 224 (T2); and 4) implant on d 224 (T1). Component TE-S implants (120 mg of trenbolone acetate and 24 mg of estradiol per implant) were used for all treatments during the 291-d feeding period. Over the course of the study, T2 and T3 cattle had greater ADG and final weights than C and T1 cattle (P < 0.05). Steers were harvested at a commercial abattoir on d 291. Hot carcass weights of T3 steers were greater than those of C and T1 steers (P < 0.05). Dressing percentage, adjusted 12th-rib fat, percentage of kidney, pelvic, and heart fat, yield grade, and longissimus color were not different among treatments (P > or = 0.26). Longissimus muscle areas (LMA) of T2 and T3 carcasses were larger than LMA of C (P < 0.01). No USDA Select carcasses were produced from C cattle, whereas the percentage of Select carcasses from implanted cattle ranged from 10 to 18%. Skeletal maturity advanced (P < 0.05) progressively with each additional implant. Steaks from T3 carcasses had a higher percentage of protein than controls (P < 0.05) and were less tender than all other treatments (P < 0.05). Repeated administration of combination trenbolone acetate and estradiol implants increased ADG and resulted in heavier carcasses with larger LMA. Administration of three successive implants decreased tenderness of Holstein beef, and resulted in more advanced skeletal maturity scores.
Journal of Animal Science 10/2003; 81(10):2395-400. · 2.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our objective was to determine if increased glycolytic enzyme capacity accommodates rapid glycolysis, which leads to inferior pork color and water-holding capacity. Progeny from HAL-1843 free Duroc (n=16) or Pietrain (n=16) sires were harvested over a 2-week period. Coupled enzyme assays were used to quantify total capacity of pyruvate kinase (PK) and phosphofructokinase (PFK) in the sarcoplasmic fractions and crude homogenates of longissimus muscle (LM), respectively. Capacity of PK was not correlated with LM pH (20, 45, 180 min or 24 h), purge, drip loss, or CIE L* (P > 0.2). However, PFK capacity was inversely related to fluid loss (P<0.05). This finding was unexpected, but may result from PFK becoming partially denatured and inactivated by 20 min postmortem in samples that undergo a rapid pH decline. These data indicate that lighter pork color and reduced water-holding capacity are not associated with an increase in the capacity of enzymes that catalyze regulated steps of glycolysis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Age-related changes in satellite cell proliferation and differentiation during rapid growth of porcine skeletal muscle were examined. Satellite cells were isolated from hindlimb muscles of pigs at 1, 7, 14, and 21 wk of age (4 animals/age group). Satellite cells were separated from cellular debris by using Percoll gradient centrifugation and were adsorbed to glass coverslips for fluorescent immunostaining. Positive staining for neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) distinguished satellite cells from nonmyogenic cells. The proportion of NCAM-positive cells (satellite cells) in isolates decreased from 1 to 7 wk of age. Greater than 77% of NCAM-positive cells were proliferating cell nuclear antigen positive at all ages studied. Myogenin-positive satellite cells decreased from 30% at 1 wk to 14% at 7 wk of age and remained at constant levels thereafter. These data indicate that a high percentage of satellite cells remain proliferative during rapid postnatal muscle growth. The reduced proportion of myogenin-positive cells during growth may reflect a decrease in the proportion of differentiating satellite cells or accelerated incorporation of myogenin-positive cells into myofibers.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Over 2 yr, 45 Angus-sired steer offspring of Angus and Angus crossbred females were used to determine the effects of early weaning on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and economic return to the cow-calf enterprise. Steers were assigned by birth date to one of two weaning treatments: 1) weaned at an average age of 100 d (early weaned) or 2) weaned at an average age of 200 d (normally weaned). Within 36 d of weaning, steers were given ad libitum access to a high-concentrate diet (90% dry, wholeshelled corn). Steers were harvested when 12th-rib fat thickness averaged 1.27 cm within treatment as estimated by ultrasound. Carcass measurements were taken 48 h postmortem and rib steak tenderness was determined at 14 d postmortem by Warner-Bratzler shear force. Early-weaned steers had greater ADG from time of early weaning to normal weaning than suckling normally weaned steers (1.27 vs. 0.86 kg/d, respectively; P < 0.001). However, early-weaned steers tended to have lower ADG for the entire finishing period than did normally weaned steers (1.33 vs. 1.39 kg/d, respectively; P = 0.08). Compared with normally weaned steers, early-weaned steers had lower daily DMI (7.40 vs. 5.95 kg/d, respectively; P < 0.001) and lower total DMI for the finishing period (1,618 vs 1,537 kg, respectively; P < 0.05). Early-weaned steers had greater gain:feed for the finishing period than normally weaned steers (0.223 vs 0.189, respectively; P < 0.001). Carcass weights were lighter for early-weaned steers than for normally weaned steers (277.9 vs. 311.2 kg, respectively; P < 0.001). There was no difference in yield grade (3.1 vs. 3.2; P < 0.10) between treatments. All carcasses graded Low-Choice or greater, and there was no difference in the percentage of carcasses grading Mid-Choice or greater (94.5 vs 83.9% for early- and normally-weaned, respectively; P > 0.10). Warner-Bratzler shear force values were similar between treatments. Early-weaned steers had a lower cost of gain than normally weaned steers ($ 0.82 vs. 0.91/kg, respectively; P < 0.001). However, due to lighter carcass weights, early-weaned steers generated less return to the cow-calf enterprise than normally weaned steers ($ 380.89 vs 480.08/steer; P < 0.001). The early weaning of steers at 100 d of age decreased total DMI, improved gain:feed, and lowered the cost of gain; however, return to the cow-calf enterprise was decreased due to lighter carcass weights.
Journal of Animal Science 12/2001; 79(11):2762-9. · 2.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A negative correlation exists between calpastatin activity and meat tenderness. Therefore, it is important to determine the mechanism of calpastatin inactivation in postmortem skeletal muscle. Western immunoblot analysis was performed to determine the protease(s) responsible for degradation of muscle calpastatin during postmortem storage. To accomplish this, purified calpastatin was digested with different proteases in vitro, and their pattern of calpastatin degradation was compared with that of calpastatin degradation in postmortem muscle. Polyclonal antibodies raised in mice against recombinant bovine skeletal muscle calpastatin were used to monitor calpastatin degradation. Lamb longissimus was stored at 4 degrees C and sampled at 0, 6, 12, 24, 72, 168, and 336 h postmortem. Postmortem storage produced a discrete pattern of calpastatin degradation products that included immunoreactive bands at approximately 100, 80, 65, 54, 32, and 29 kDa. Undegraded calpastatin (130 kDa) was barely detectable after 72 h of postmortem storage at 4 degrees C, and no immunoreactive calpastatin was observed by 336 h postmortem. For in vitro proteolysis, lamb longissimus calpastatin (0 h postmortem) was purified using Affi-Gel Blue chromatography. Calpastatin was digested with m-calpain, mu-calpain, cathepsin B, proteasome, trypsin, or chymotrypsin. Each of these enzymes degraded calpastatin. Immunoreactive fragments resulting from digestion of calpastatin with m- and mu-calpain were similar to each other and closely resembled those observed during postmortem aging of lamb longissimus at 4 degrees C. Digestion of calpastatin with mu-calpain reduced calpastatin activity. Degradation of calpastatin by other proteases resulted in unique patterns of immunoreactive fragments, distinct from that observed in longissimus. Thus, m- and(or) mu-calpain seem to be responsible for calpastatin degradation during postmortem storage of meat.
Journal of Animal Science 07/1999; 77(6):1467-73. · 2.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Subjecting cloned porcine myogenic satellite cells to multiple passages leads to decreased rates of cell division and myotube formation. Because IGF have been implicated in the regulation of muscle cell proliferation and differentiation, the present study was conducted to characterize secretion of IGF-I and IGF-binding proteins (IGFBP) in cultures of cloned porcine satellite cells at two stages of multiple passaging. To this end, we obtained a single porcine satellite cell clone that demonstrated relatively high capacities for cellular proliferation and differentiation into myotubes at the fifth passage but that had greatly diminished capacities for proliferation and myotube formation by the seventh passage. The predominant IGFBP secreted by this satellite cell clone was immunologically identified as IGFBP-2, and quantities of it were increased in medium from seventh-passage cultures. Quantities of IGF-I in medium were determined with a newly developed "titration" radioimmunoassay in which interference from IGFBP was minimized by adding a range of saturating quantities of IGF-II. Medium IGF-I concentrations in seventh-passage cultures were also increased relative to the fifth-passage cultures when expressed per unit of DNA. It is hypothesized that the observed increase of IGF-I in medium likely resulted from protective sequestration of IGF-I by IGFBP-2 rather than from enhanced IGF-I secretion. In summary, these data suggest that multiple passaging of cloned porcine satellite cells results in increased secretion of IGFBP-2, which is associated with depressed cell proliferation and myotube formation, perhaps because the increased IGFBP-2 sequestered IGF-I and reduced its bioactivity.
Journal of Animal Science 09/1998; 76(8):2086-93. · 2.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that meat toughening during the first 24 h postmortem results from sarcomere shortening during rigor mortis development. Eleven market-weight lambs were used to measure changes in shear force of clamped longissimus during rigor development. Within 15 min of exsanguination, while attached at both ends, each longissimus was separated from the vertebrae body and clamped between three sets of metal plates to prevent muscle shortening (six clamped sections per lamb). Five of the clamped sections were placed at -1.1 degrees C for 0, 3, 6, 12, or 24 h. After storage at their respective times at -1.1 degrees C, the samples were placed at -30 degrees C for 90 min and then at -5 degrees C for 8 d. The sixth section (168-h section) was stored at -1.1 degrees C for the first 24 h, at 4 degrees C for 144 h, and then treated the same as other sampling times. Sections were sampled for pH, sarcomere length, shear force, and Western blot analyses before and after storage at -5 degrees C. Shear force values were the same (P > .05) from 0 to 24 h (4.5 kg at 0 h to 4.9 kg at 24 h) then declined (P < .05) to 3.3 kg at 168 h postmortem. As evident by lack of statistical difference in the sarcomere lengths, we were successful in holding the muscle length constant. Western blot analyses of nebulin, vinculin, and troponin-T indicated that minimum degradation occurred through 12 h, was slightly increased by 24 h, and was relatively extensive by 168 h postmortem. Although limited proteolysis occurred during storage at -5 degrees C for 8 d, this by itself had no effect on shear force. Results indicate that shear force values do not increase during rigor development when muscle is prevented from shortening; thus, the toughening that occurs during the first 24 h of slaughter is most likely due to sarcomere shortening.
Journal of Animal Science 12/1996; 74(12):2935-42. · 2.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An indirect antibody ELISA was developed for rapid and sensitive quantification of skeletal muscle calpastatin. Polyclonal antibodies were raised in rabbits against recombinant calpastatin, corresponding to domains 2, 3, and 4 of bovine skeletal muscle calpastatin. Western blot analysis revealed that these antibodies specifically recognize an immunoreactive calpastatin protein of approximately 130 kDa in prerigor skeletal muscle extracts. The intensity of the immunoreactive bands corresponds qualitatively with assayable calpastatin activity. For ELISA development, optimum dilutions of sample, primary anti-calpastatin antibody, and peroxidase-conjugated secondary antibody were determined by titration. A dilution optimum for coating of Immulon 4 (Dynatech) plates was observed when heated muscle extracts were diluted to 2 to 4 micrograms of protein/mL and incubated for 2 h at 37 degrees C. Optimum primary (30 micrograms IgG/mL) and secondary (Sigma A-6154; 1:1000 dilution) antibody incubations were for 1 h at 37 degrees C. Tetramethylbenzidine was used as substrate and A450 of the stopped reaction product was recorded in an automated plate reader. Calpastatin ELISA results were linearly related to calpastatin activity (calpain inhibitory activity) of heated longissimus muscle homogenates from prerigor lamb (r2 = .89; n = 40) and beef aged for 24 or 48 h (r2 = .90; n = 47). Intra-assay CV was < 5% (n = 8) and inter-assay CV was < 6% (n = 5). This assay offers advantages of speed, simplicity, and sensitivity over conventional methodology for calpastatin quantification.
Journal of Animal Science 11/1996; 74(11):2679-86. · 2.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accumulation of DNA is essential for muscle growth, yet mechanisms of androgen-induced DNA accretion in skeletal muscle are unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine whether androgen receptors (AR) are present in cultured skeletal muscle satellite cells and myotubes and examine the effects of testosterone on satellite cell proliferation and differentiation. Immunoblot analysis using polyclonal AR antibodies (PG-21) revealed an immunoreactive AR protein of approximately 107 kDa in porcine satellite cells and myotubes. Immunocytochemical AR staining was confined to the nuclei of satellite cells, myotubes, and muscle-derived fibroblasts. Administration of 10(-7) M testosterone to satellite cells, myotubes, and muscle-derived fibroblasts increased immunoreactive AR. In satellite cells and myotubes, AR increased incrementally after 6, 12, and 24 h of exposure to testosterone. Testosterone (10(-10) - 10(-6) M), alone or in combination with insulin-like growth factor I, basic fibroblast growth factor, or platelet-derived growth factor-BB, had no effect (P > 0.01) on porcine satellite cell proliferation, and testosterone pretreatment for 24 h did not alter the subsequent responsiveness of cells to these growth factors. Satellite cell differentiation was depressed (20-30%) on days 2-4 of treatment with 10(-7) M testosterone. This effect was not reversible within 48 h after treatment withdrawal and replacement with control medium. These data indicate that satellite cells are direct targets for androgen action, and testosterone administration increases immunoreactive AR protein and reduces differentiation of porcine satellite cells in vitro.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Satellite cells are the postnatal myogenic cells, as they provide myonuclei to support skeletal muscle hypertrophy and are principal cells responsible for myofiber repair and regeneration. Even though research with satellite cells from meat animals is new, considerable data exist to suggest that these cells are regulated through both intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms. This review covers the present status of the extrinsic factors known or postulated to modulate meat animal satellite cell growth and development.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present experiment was conducted to determine the effect of the callipyge phenotype on traits affecting muscle growth and meat tenderness. Dorset wethers (N = 40) that were either carriers or non-carriers were fed grain and slaughtered at 169 d of age. Callipyge phenotype did not affect (P > .05) slaughter weight, hot carcass weight, or weights of the heart, spleen, viscera, kidney-pelvic fat, head, and pelt; however, callipyge lambs had a higher dressing percentage and lighter lungs, liver, and kidneys (P < .01). Callipyge lambs had reduced fat thickness and marbling score and higher leg scores and longissimus area (34%). Adductor (30%), biceps femoris (42%), gluteus group (31%), longissimus (32%), psoas group (20%), quadriceps femoris (18%), semimembranosus (38%), and semitendinosus (26%) weights were higher in the callipyge phenotype (P < .01); however, phenotype did not affect (P > .05) weights of infraspinatus or supraspinatus. Longissimus pH and temperature declines were not affected (P > .05) by phenotype. Longissimus myofibril fragmentation index was lower at 1 (27%), 7 (35%), and 21 (37%) d postmortem and Warner-Bratzler shear force was higher at 1, 7, and 21 d postmortem in the callipyge phenotype (P < .01). Shear force values of callipyge lambs at 21 d postmortem tended to be greater (P = .12) than shear force values of non-carriers at 1 d postmortem . Activities of calpastatin (83%) and m-calpain (45%) were higher in the callipyge (P < .01); however mu-calpain activity was not affected (P > .05). Longissimus and semitendinosus RNA concentration, DNA content, RNA content, protein content, and the RNA:DNA ratio were higher (P < .05), but DNA concentration, protein concentration, and protein:DNA were not affected in the callipyge phenotype. The higher calpastatin activity associated with callipyge suggests that protein degradation may be reduced in the live animal. Additionally, the increased muscle DNA content associated with the callipyge phenotype suggests an increase in satellite cell proliferation, and results in an increased capacity of skeletal muscle to accumulate and maintain myofibrillar protein. These results suggests that both reduced rate of protein degradation and higher capacity for protein synthesis are consequences of the callipyge condition.
Journal of Animal Science 12/1995; 73(12):3596-607. · 2.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta) stimulated porcine satellite cell proliferation in basal serum-free medium by 25%, but inhibited growth in serum-containing medium by 58%. The effect of TGF-beta on cell proliferation in serum-free medium was examined in combination with the following human recombinant growth factors: platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), and epidermal growth factor (EGF). TGF-beta inhibited PDGF-stimulated proliferation, enhanced FGF-stimulated proliferation, and had no effect on proliferation stimulated by IGF-I. The response of satellite cells to EGF and TGF-beta in serum-free medium was not different than TGF-beta alone. TGF-beta depressed proliferation stimulated by the following combinations of two growth factors: PDGF and IGF-I, PDGF and EGF, PDGF and FGF, and IGF-I and EGF. In combination with IGF-I and FGF, TGF-beta did not affect proliferation. TGF-beta inhibited proliferation stimulated by the combination of PDGF, EGF, and IGF-I, but had no effect on proliferation stimulated by combinations of three growth factors that included FGF. FGF stimulated proliferation in Minimum Essential Medium containing 10% porcine serum (MEM-10% PS) by 13% above control. When the combination of TGF-beta and FGF was added to MEM-10% PS, a 78% increase in proliferation was observed. Polyclonal antihuman PDGF-AB (this form neutralizes PDGF-AA, AB, and BB) reduced proliferation in MEM-10% PS by 44%. The combination of TGF-beta and anti-PDGF-AB reduced proliferation by 59%, indicating the effects were not additive. These data indicate that: (1) FGF and TGF-beta interact to increase proliferation of clonally derived porcine satellite cells, and (2) the inhibitory effect of TGF-beta on proliferation of clonally derived porcine satellite cells can be primarily attributed to a reduction in the mitogenic effects of PDGF.
Journal of Cellular Physiology 12/1993; 157(2):307-12. · 4.22 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clonally derived cultures of porcine skeletal muscle satellite cells were developed. The mitogenic effects of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I and -II), and platelet-derived growth factors (PDGF-AA and -BB) were examined. Individually, bFGF, IGFs, and PDGF-BB stimulated proliferation of porcine satellite cells grown in basal serum-free medium or Minimum Essential Medium containing 2% fetal bovine serum (MEM-2% FBS). EGF stimulated proliferation in MEM-2% FBS, but neither EGF nor PDGF-AA were mitogenic when added to serum-free medium. The interactions among bFGF, EGF, IGF-I, and PDGF-BB were examined in serum-free medium, using growth factor concentrations shown in dose-response experiments to induce maximal proliferative responses (10 ng/ml bFGF, EGF and PDGF-BB, and 50 ng/ml IGF-I). The combination of bFGF and IGF-I dramatically increased proliferation, and IGF-I also synergized with EGF to increase proliferation. EGF, IGF-I, and bFGF interacted with PDGF-BB to stimulate proliferation. With the exception of EGF and bFGF, combinations of two growth factors typically resulted in greater than additive responses. Simultaneous exposure of satellite cells to bFGF, PDGF-BB, EGF, and IGF-I produced a fivefold increase in DNA compared to cells grown in basal serum-free medium. Elimination of EGF did not reduce the mitogenic response, yet removal of IGF-I, bFGF, or PDGF-BB reduced proliferation by approximately 40, 20, and 10%, respectively. These mitogens are likely physiological regulators of porcine satellite cell activity.
Journal of Cellular Physiology 12/1993; 157(2):326-32. · 4.22 Impact Factor