M Catherine Pietanza

Weill Cornell Medical College, New York City, New York, United States

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Publications (27)192.03 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We describe clinical, pathologic, and molecular characteristics of never-smoker patients with small-cell lung cancers (SCLCs). We identified cases of SCLCs evaluated at our institution from 2005 to 2012. We collected smoking history, demographic, treatment, and survival data. EGFR, KRAS, PIK3CA, ALK testing, RB protein expression, and next generation sequencing were performed on available samples. Two percent (23 of 1040) of patients with SCLCs were never-smokers. Eighty-three percent (19 of 23) had de novo SCLCs, whereas 17% had SCLC transformation as acquired resistance to erlotinib after treatment for EGFR-mutant lung carcinomas. Median survival from SCLC diagnosis was 23 months. Of de novo SCLCs, ALK rearrangement, KRAS mutations, EGFR mutations, and RB loss were identified in zero of five, zero of eight, two of eight, and six of seven, respectively. Two de novo samples underwent next generation sequencing. One had mutations in p53 and RB1 with amplification in TERT, and a second had mutations in CBL and GNAS with amplification in MYCL1. Two percent of patients with SCLCs are never-smokers. Although transformation to SCLC can rarely occur in acquired resistance to erlotinib, 83% of never-smokers with SCLCs had de novo SCLC. RB loss was noted in 86% of cases. Multiplexed genotyping can be performed on tissues to identify potentially actionable oncogenic drivers.
    Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer 06/2014; 9(6):892-6. · 4.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives Small cell lung cancers (SCLCs) are characterized by aberrantly-methylated O6-methyl-guanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT). Epigenetic silencing of MGMT is associated with loss of MGMT activity and improved sensitivity to alkylating agents in glioblastomas. We have reported the activity of temozolomide, a non-classical alkylating agent, in patients with relapsed sensitive or refractory SCLCs, given at 75 mg/m2/day for 21 of 28 days. However, prolonged myelosuppression was noted. We therefore evaluated a 5-day dosing schedule of temozolomide and examined MGMT as a predictive biomarker for temozolomide treatment in SCLC. Materials and Methods Patients with sensitive or refractory SCLCs and progression after one or two prior chemotherapy regimens received temozolomide 200 mg/m2/day for 5 consecutive days in 28-day cycles. The primary endpoint was tolerability. We also assessed MGMT promoter methylation status by PCR and MGMT expression by immunohistochemistry in tumor specimens. Results Of 25 patients enrolled, 5 experienced grade 3 or 4 toxicity (anemia, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, and constipation). The partial response rate was 12% [95% CI: 3-31%], with partial responses in 2 refractory patients. We were able to obtain tumor samples for more than half of patients for MGMT testing. Conclusion Temozolomide 200 mg/m2/day for 5 days in 28-day cycles is tolerable and active in patients with relapsed SCLCs. No treatment-limiting prolonged cytopenias were observed, making this our preferred schedule for further studies. Acquisition of archived biospecimens is feasible and necessary in order to continue evaluating the role of MGMT as a predictive biomarker in SCLCs.
    Lung Cancer. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSEIn clinical trials, traditional monitoring methods, paper documentation, and outdated collection systems lead to inaccuracies of study information and inefficiencies in the process. Integrated electronic systems offer an opportunity to collect data in real time. PATIENTS AND METHODS We created a computer software system to collect 13 patient-reported symptomatic adverse events and patient-reported Karnofsky performance status, semi-automated RECIST measurements, and laboratory data, and we made this information available to investigators in real time at the point of care during a phase II lung cancer trial. We assessed data completeness within 48 hours of each visit. Clinician satisfaction was measured.ResultsForty-four patients were enrolled, for 721 total visits. At each visit, patient-reported outcomes (PROs) reflecting toxicity and disease-related symptoms were completed using a dedicated wireless laptop. All PROs were distributed in batch throughout the system within 24 hours of the visit, and abnormal laboratory data were available for review within a median of 6 hours from the time of sample collection. Manual attribution of laboratory toxicities took a median of 1 day from the time they were accessible online. Semi-automated RECIST measurements were available to clinicians online within a median of 2 days from the time of imaging. All clinicians and 88% of data managers felt there was greater accuracy using this system. CONCLUSION Existing data management systems can be harnessed to enable real-time collection and review of clinical information during trials. This approach facilitates reporting of information closer to the time of events, and improves efficiency, and the ability to make earlier clinical decisions.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 04/2013; · 18.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: : Development of acquired resistance limits the utility of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) for the treatment of EGFR-mutant lung cancers. There are no accepted targeted therapies for use after acquired resistance develops. Metastasectomy is used in other cancers to manage oligometastatic disease. We hypothesized that local therapy is associated with improved outcomes in patients with EGFR-mutant lung cancers with acquired resistance to EGFR TKI. : Patients who received non-central nervous system local therapy were identified by a review of data from a prospective biopsy protocol for patients with EGFR-mutant lung cancers with acquired resistance to EGFR TKI therapy and other institutional biospecimen registry protocols. : Eighteen patients were identified, who received elective local therapy (surgical resection, radiofrequency ablation, or radiation). Local therapy was well tolerated, with 85% of patients restarting TKI therapy within 1 month of local therapy. The median time to progression after local therapy was 10 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2-27 months). The median time until a subsequent change in systemic therapy was 22 months (95% CI: 6-30 months). The median overall survival from local therapy was 41 months (95% CI: 26-not reached). : EGFR-mutant lung cancers with acquired resistance to EGFR TKI therapy are amenable to local therapy to treat oligometastatic disease when used in conjunction with continued EGFR inhibition. Local therapy followed by continued treatment with an EGFR TKI is well tolerated and associated with long PFS and OS. Further study in selected individuals in the context of other systemic options is required.
    Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer 03/2013; 8(3):346-51. · 4.55 Impact Factor
  • M Catherine Pietanza, Marc Ladanyi
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    ABSTRACT: Genomic characterization efforts in small-cell lung cancer have been complicated by the paucity of high-quality surgical resection specimens for this aggressive lung cancer subtype that is usually diagnosed at unresectable stages in small biopsies or cytology specimens. Now, two papers report genomic analyses of small-cell lung cancer, highlighting subsets of tumors driven by amplification of FGFR1, SOX2 or MYC family members or by a MYCL1 fusion oncogene, among many other recurrent alterations.
    Nature Genetics 10/2012; 44(10):1074-5. · 35.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: XL647 is an oral small-molecule inhibitor of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases, including endothelial growth factor receptor (EGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, HER2 and Ephrin type-B receptor 4 (EphB4). We undertook an open-label, multi-institutional Phase II study to investigate the efficacy and safety of XL647 in treatment-naive non-small-cell lung cancer patients clinically enriched for the presence of EGFR mutations. Eligibility included patients with advanced-stage treatment-naive lung adenocarcinoma with a known sensitizing mutation of EGFR or patients with at least one of the following criteria: being Asian, female, or having minimal or no smoking history. Two dosing schedules were evaluated; in the "intermittent 5 & 9 dosing" cohort, XL647 350 mg for 5 days every 14 days was given; and in the "daily dosing" cohort, XL647 300 mg daily for 28 days was administered. Tumor EGFR mutation status was determined on available tissue. The primary end point was confirmed objective response rate. Forty-one patients were treated on the intermittent 5 & 9 dosing- and 14 on the daily-dosing schedule. The majority of patients were eligible on the basis of smoking history. The response rate and progression-free survival for the two schedules combined were 20% and 5.3 months (90% confidence interval, 3.7-6.7), respectively. Thirty-eight patients (69%) had material available for mutation testing and 14 EGFR-sensitizing mutations were detected. The response rate and progression-free survival for EGFR-mutation-positive patients were 57% (8/14) and 9.3 months (90% confidence interval, 5.5-11.7). The toxicities were comparable between the two schedules; the most common adverse effects being diarrhea, nausea, and fatigue. XL647 administered on an intermittent or daily-dosing schedule demonstrated antitumor activity in patients with EGFR-activating mutations. The adverse-event profile was similar for the two dosing schedules.
    Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer 05/2012; 7(5):856-65. · 4.55 Impact Factor
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    Maria Catherine Pietanza, Charles M Rudin
    Current problems in cancer 04/2012; 36(3):156-73. · 7.55 Impact Factor
  • Ilya G Glezerman, M Catherine Pietanza
    American Journal of Kidney Diseases 04/2012; 59(4):583. · 5.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neuroendocrine tumor (NET) cell lines frequently express both insulin-like growth factor (IGF) ligand and the cognate IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and, as such, potentially depend on the activation of IGF-1R and its downstream effectors for growth and survival. Preclinical studies suggest that somatostatin analogs and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors exhibit antitumor activity against NETs through inhibition of IGF-1-dependent signaling, suggesting that IGF-1R inhibition may be a promising therapeutic approach to NETs. Therefore, the authors of this report evaluated the safety and efficacy of MK-0646, a fully human monoclonal antibody (MoAb) that binds to the IGF-1R, as monotherapy in patients with metastatic, well-differentiated NETs. A phase 2 study was performed in which patients received intravenous MK-0646 10 mg/kg once weekly over 1 hour. Archived pretreatment tumor tissue was obtained and genotyped for v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, catalytic, alpha polypeptide (PIK3CA); and v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) mutations, and immunohistochemistry was performed to measure the expression IGF-1R. Twenty-five patients received treatment (40% women; median age, 61 years; age range, 37-83 years), including 15 patients with carcinoid tumors and 10 patients with pancreatic NETs. No partial or complete responses were observed. The median progression-free survival was 4.2 months in the pancreatic NET cohort (range, 0.7-6.7 months) and 2.7 months in the carcinoid cohort (range, 2-3 months). Serious adverse events that were potentially related to MK-0646 included grade 3/4 hyperglycemia in 8 of 25 patients (32%), grade 2 hypersensitivity reaction in 1 of 24 patients (4%), and grade 3 lipase elevation in 1 of 25 patients (4%). Despite a compelling preclinical rationale, MK-0646 was inactive as a single agent in well-differentiated NETs. Further studies of MK-0646 as a monotherapy in unselected NETs are unwarranted. Cancer 2012. © 2012 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 03/2012; 118(19):4795-800. · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This phase II study was conducted to assess the efficacy of temozolomide in patients with relapsed small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Patients with disease progression after one or two prior chemotherapy regimens received temozolomide at 75 mg/m(2)/d for 21 days of a 28-day cycle. The primary endpoint was the overall response rate [ORR; complete response (CR) plus partial response (PR)], which was evaluated separately in sensitive and refractory cohorts. In the available tissue, we assessed O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation status by PCR and MGMT expression by immunohistochemistry. Sixty-four patients were accrued: 48 patients in the sensitive cohort and 16 in the refractory group. One CR and 10 PRs were noted in sensitive patients [ORR, 23%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 12%-37%]. Two PRs were seen in the refractory cohort (ORR, 13%; 95% CI, 2%-38%). As second- and third-line treatment, the ORR was 22% (95% CI, 9%-40%) and 19% (95% CI, 7%-36%), respectively. Among patients with target brain lesions, 38% had a CR or PR (95% CI, 14%-68%). Grade ≥3 thrombocytopenia and neutropenia were observed in nine patients (14%). A greater number of cases with methylated MGMT had a response compared to those with unmethylated MGMT (38% vs. 7%; P = 0.08). Temozolomide has activity in relapsed SCLC, particularly for brain metastases. Response to temozolomide may correlate with MGMT methylation in SCLC.
    Clinical Cancer Research 02/2012; 18(4):1138-45. · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) whose tumors harbor epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activating mutations commonly experience significant regressions when treated with erlotinib or gefitinib, they uniformly develop resistance to these agents. The secondary EGFR T790M mutation is found in 50% of patients with acquired resistance. Herein, we studied XL647, an oral small molecule inhibitor of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases, including EGFR, VEGFR2, HER2, and EphB4, in NSCLC patients known or suspected of having tumors harboring T790M. Eligible patients included those with relapsed or recurrent advanced NSCLC who progressed after ≥12 weeks of stable disease or response to erlotinib or gefitinib and/or those patients with a documented EGFR T790M. XL647 300 mg was administered once daily. The primary end point was objective response rate. Pretreatment plasma samples were collected for mutation testing of circulating tumor DNA. Forty-one patients were enrolled; 33 were evaluable for efficacy. One partial response was observed (response rate 3% and 90% confidence interval, 0% to 14%). Of patients whose tumors harbored T790M, 67% (8/12) had progression of disease as best response compared with 14% (3/21) of those without this mutation. Plasma samples from 40 patients were available for mutation testing, 14 (35%) of which were found to have EGFR mutations. The 3% response rate observed did not meet the prespecified threshold to recommend further study of XL647 in patients who develop acquired resistance to erlotinib or gefitinib. Patients with T790M had a significantly worse progression-free survival.
    Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer 01/2012; 7(1):219-26. · 4.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: EGFR-mutant lung cancers are sensitive to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Unfortunately, they develop resistance, often due to acquisition of a second-site mutation (T790M). Current EGFR TKIs select for T790M in preclinical models of acquired resistance. We explored whether all EGFR TKIs similarly select for the T790M mutation using data from early clinical trials and established in vitro models of acquired resistance. We analyzed the clinical characteristics of eight patients with metastatic EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma who were treated first-line with XL647 and then progressed. XL647 is an ATP-competitive inhibitor of EGFR, HER2, KDR, and EPHB4. Additional molecular preclinical studies were performed to characterize resistance. Four patients displayed confirmed partial responses (PRs), three patients had unconfirmed PRs, and one patient displayed stable disease. Only one of five patients' tumor samples available for analysis after disease progression harbored the T790M mutation. Eight patients subsequently received erlotinib, with (n = 3) or without (n = 5) chemotherapy. Three of five patients treated with single-agent erlotinib derived additional benefit, staying on drug up to 9 months. EGFR-mutant PC-9 cells with acquired resistance to XL647 did not harbor the T790M mutation, displayed a distinct mRNA profile from PC-9 cells with T790M-mediated resistance, and were moderately sensitive to erlotinib in growth inhibition assays. Crystal structure analyses of XL647/EGFR T790M did not reveal a different binding mode from that of erlotinib. The findings of this exploratory study suggest that different EGFR TKIs may select for distinct mechanisms of resistance. These results raise the possibility that different EGFR TKIs could be sequentially used to improve outcomes in patients with EGFR-mutant lung cancer. Further work investigating this hypothesis is warranted.
    Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer 12/2011; 7(2):434-42. · 4.55 Impact Factor
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    Ethan Basch, Antonia Bennett, M Catherine Pietanza
    CancerSpectrum Knowledge Environment 12/2011; 103(24):1808-10. · 14.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Phosphoinositide-3-kinase catalytic alpha polypeptide (PIK3CA) encodes the p110α subunit of the mitogenic signaling protein phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). PIK3CA mutations in the helical binding domain and the catalytic subunit of the protein have been associated with tumorigenesis and treatment resistance in various malignancies. Characteristics of patients with PIK3CA-mutant lung adenocarcinomas have not been reported. We examined epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), Kirsten rate sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS), v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), PIK3CA, v-akt murine thymoma vial oncogene homolog 1 (AKT1), v-ras neuroblastoma viral oncogene homolog (NRAS), dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MEK1), and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) in patients with adenocarcinoma of the lung to identify driver mutations. Clinical data were obtained from the medical records of individuals with mutations in PIK3CA. Twenty-three of 1,125 (2%, 95% CI: 1-3) patients had a mutation in PIK3CA, 12 in exon 9 (10 E545K and 2 E542K), and 11 in exon 20 (3 H1047L and 8 H1047R). The patients (57% women) had a median age of 66 at diagnosis (range: 34-78). Eight patients (35%) were never smokers. Sixteen of 23 (70%, 95% CI: 49-86) had coexisting mutations in other oncogenes-10 KRAS, 1 MEK1, 1 BRAF, 1 ALK rearrangement, and 3 EGFR exon 19 deletions. We conclude that PIK3CA mutations occur in lung adenocarcinomas, usually concurrently with EGFR, KRAS, and ALK. The impact of PIK3CA mutations on the efficacy of targeted therapies such as erlotinib and crizotinib is unknown. Given the high frequency of overlapping mutations, comprehensive genotyping should be carried out on tumor specimens from patients enrolling in clinical trials of PI3K and other targeted therapies.
    Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 12/2011; 11(2):485-91. · 5.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pulmonary large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (LCNEC) are aggressive neoplasms with poor prognosis. The role of neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapies in these tumors remains uncertain. We performed a retrospective review of a prospective database. Kaplan-Meier estimates of overall survival (OS) were determined and compared across prognostic factors using log-rank analysis and the Cox proportional hazards model. One hundred patients with resected LCNEC were identified from 1992 to 2008. Of these, 54% were male and 98% current or former smokers (mean 60.3 pack-years). Twenty-two patients received neoadjuvant platinum chemotherapy with a response rate of 68% (15 of 22). Eighty percent (80 of 100) underwent lobectomy and 11% (11 of 100) pneumonectomy with a 90% (90 of 100) complete resection (R0) rate. Seventy-one percent (71 of 100) were stage I-II, and 20 of 71 received platinum adjuvant chemotherapy. Mean OS was 40 months. Univariate factors associated with decreased OS included male gender (p = 0.007), increasing tumor (T) stage (p = 0.004), and stage III-IV disease (p = 0.04). Stage IB patients fared significantly worse than IA (p = 0.006). Multivariate analyses identified male gender (hazard ratio [HR] 2.3, p = 0.007), comorbid pulmonary disease (HR 2.3, p = 0.012), and pathologic stage (HR = 2.2, p = 0.011) as associated with risk of death. Univariate analysis in stage IB-IIIA completely resected (R0) patients receiving combination platinum-based induction and (or) adjuvant chemotherapy showed a trend toward improved OS (median survival 7.4 vs 2 years, p = 0.052). The LCNEC has a high response rate to platinum-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Resected advanced-stage patients receiving combination neoadjuvant and (or) adjuvant chemotherapy may have a survival advantage. These therapies should be considered in resectable patients with LCNEC.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 08/2011; 92(4):1180-6; discussion 1186-7. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pemetrexed is an antifolate agent approved for the treatment of advanced lung cancer. Major side effects include myelosuppression and neutropenia. Three patients developed kidney disease while being treated with maintenance pemetrexed. Kidney biopsy specimens showed tubulointerstitial injury with tubular simplification, shrinkage, loss of brush border, and tubular atrophy in a more advanced case. Kidney function remained impaired, but stable, after discontinuation of pemetrexed therapy in all cases.
    American Journal of Kidney Diseases 08/2011; 58(5):817-20. · 5.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: KRAS mutations are present in 30% of lung adenocarcinomas. Salirasib prevents Ras membrane binding thereby blocking the function of all Ras isoforms. This phase II study determined the activity of salirasib in patients with advanced lung adenocarcinomas with KRAS mutations. Two cohorts of patients with stage IIIB/IV lung adenocarcinoma were eligible: patients with tumors with KRAS mutations who were previously treated with chemotherapy and patients receiving initial therapy who had ≥15 pack-year smoking history. Salirasib was given orally from days 1 to 28 of a 35-day cycle. The primary end point was the rate of nonprogression at 10 weeks. Thirty-three patients were enrolled. Thirty patients had KRAS mutations (23 patients who were previously treated and 7/10 patients who had no prior therapy). Of the previously treated patients, 7 of 23 (30%) had stable disease at 10 weeks, and 4 of 10 (40%) previously untreated patients had stable disease at 10 weeks. No patient had a radiographic partial response (0% observed rate, 95% confidence interval 0-12%). The median overall survival was not reached (>9 months) for previously untreated patients and it was 15 months for patients who received prior chemotherapy. Diarrhea, nausea, and fatigue were the most common toxicities. Salirasib at the current dose and schedule has insufficient activity in the treatment of KRAS mutant lung adenocarcinoma to warrant further evaluation. The successful enrollment of 30 patients with tumors with KRAS mutant lung adenocarcinoma over 15 months at a single site demonstrates that drug trials directed at a KRAS-specific genotype in lung cancer are feasible.
    Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer 08/2011; 6(8):1435-7. · 4.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously reported data on the safety, tolerability, and recommended phase II dose of obatoclax mesylate in conjunction with topotecan in patients with advanced solid tumor malignancies. Preliminary efficacy data suggested activity in patients with recurrent small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Based on these data, we performed a phase II study of obatoclax mesylate plus topotecan in patients with relapsed SCLC to assess efficacy. This was an open-label, single-arm, phase II extension of obatoclax mesylate plus topotecan in patients with relapsed SCLC. Obatoclax mesylate was given intravenously (IV) at a dose of 14mg/m(2) on days 1 and 3 with IV topotecan at 1.25mg/m(2) on days 1-5 of an every 3-week cycle. The primary end-point of this study was overall response rate. Nine patients with recurrent SCLC were enrolled into the first stage of the study. Patients received a median of 2 cycles of treatment. All patients were evaluable for the primary end-point of overall response. There were no partial or complete responses. Five patients (56%) had stable disease. The remaining four patients (44%) developed progressive disease. The most common grade 3 or 4 adverse events included thrombocytopenia (22%), anemia (11%), neutropenia (11%), and ataxia (11%). Obatoclax mesylate added to topotecan does not exceed the historic response rate seen with topotecan alone in patients with relapsed SCLC following the first-line platinum-based therapy.
    Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 05/2011; 74(3):481-5. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: EGFR mutations underlie the sensitivity of lung cancers to erlotinib and gefitinib and can occur in any patient with this illness. Here we examine the frequency of EGFR mutations in smokers and men. We determined the frequency of EGFR mutations and characterized their association with cigarette smoking status and male sex. We tested 2,142 lung adenocarcinoma specimens for the presence of EGFR exon 19 deletions and L858R. EGFR mutations were found in 15% of tumors from former smokers (181 of 1,218; 95% CI, 13% to 17%), 6% from current smokers (20 of 344; 95% CI, 4% to 9%), and 52% from never smokers (302 of 580; 95% CI, 48% to 56%; P < .001 for ever v never smokers). EGFR mutations in former or current smokers represented 40% of all those detected (201 of 503; 95% CI, 36% to 44%). EGFR mutations were found in 19% (157 of 827; 95% CI, 16% to 22%) of tumors from men and 26% (346 of 1,315; 95% CI, 24% to 29%) of tumors from women (P < .001). EGFR mutations in men represented 31% (157 of 503; 95% CI, 27% to 35%) of all those detected. A large number of EGFR mutations are found in adenocarcinoma tumor specimens from men and people who smoked cigarettes. If only women who were never smokers were tested, 57% of all EGFR mutations would be missed. Testing for EGFR mutations should be considered for all patients with adenocarcinoma of the lung at diagnosis, regardless of clinical characteristics. This strategy can extend the use of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors to the greatest number individuals with the potential for substantial benefit.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 05/2011; 29(15):2066-70. · 18.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Germline mutations in the BRCA2 cancer susceptibility gene are associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer (PC). Breast-pancreas cancer families with BRCA1 mutations have also been observed. The influence of a family history (FH) of PC on BRCA mutation prevalence in patients with breast cancer (BC) is unknown. A clinical database review (2000-2009) identified 211 Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) BC probands who 1) underwent BRCA1/2 mutation analysis by full gene sequencing or directed testing for Ashkenazi founder mutations (BRCA1: 185delAG and 5382insC; BRCA2: 6174delT) and 2) had a FH of PC in a first-, second-, or third-degree relative. For each proband, the pretest probability of identifying a BRCA1/2 mutation was estimated using the Myriad II model. The observed-to-expected (O:E) mutation prevalence was calculated for the entire group. Of the 211 AJ BC probands with a FH of PC, 30 (14.2%) harbored a BRCA mutation. Fourteen (47%) of the mutations were in BRCA1 and 16 (53%) were in BRCA2. Patients diagnosed with BC at age ≤ 50 years were found to have a higher BRCA1/2 mutation prevalence than probands with BC who were diagnosed at age > 50 years (21.1% vs 6.9%; P = .003). In patients with a first-, second-, or third-degree relative with PC, mutation prevalences were 15.4%, 15.3%, and 8.6%, respectively (P = .58). In the overall group, the observed BRCA1/2 mutation prevalence was 14.2% versus an expected prevalence of 11.8% (O:E ratio, 1.21; P = .15). BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations are observed with nearly equal distribution in AJ breast-pancreas cancer families, suggesting that both genes are associated with PC risk. In this population, a FH of PC was found to have a limited effect on mutation prevalence.
    Cancer 05/2011; 118(2):493-9. · 5.20 Impact Factor