[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have isolated a potent platelet aggregation inducer from the crude venom of Calloselasma rhodostoma (Malayan pit viper), termed rhodoaggretin, with a novel oligomeric structure consisting of a dimer of C-type lectin-like heterodimers. On the basis of its native molecular mass of 66 kDa, and a M(r) of 30 kDa for its disulfide-linked alphabeta-heterodimer, we propose that rhodoaggretin exists as a (alphabeta)2 complex in the native state. We postulate that the di-dimer is stabilized by non-covalent interactions as well as by an intersubunit disulfide bridge between the two alphabeta-heterodimers. This conclusion is based on the following observations: (a) sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of the non-reduced rhodoaggretin gave a major 28 and a minor 52 kDa band. (b) Prior treatment of rhodoaggretin with a limited amount of 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME; 0.1%) resulted in the complete abolishment of the 52 kDa band in SDS-PAGE. (c) Two-dimensional SDS-PAGE in the presence of 3% 2-ME showed that both the 28 and 52 kDa bands gave two bands each with M(r)s of 18 (alpha-subunit) and 15 (beta-subunit) kDa. (d) Mass spectrometric analyses showed that purified rhodoaggretin had a M(r) of 30155.39+/-3.25 Da while its s-pyridylethylated alpha- and beta-subunits had M(r)s of 16535.62+/-2.98 and 15209.89+/-1.61 Da respectively. These molecular weight data suggested the presence of 15 cysteinyl residues in rhodoaggretin as compared to the 14 that are reported for the heterodimeric C-type lectin-like proteins. This extra cysteinyl residue is a candidate for the formation of the intersubunit disulfide bond in the (alphabeta)2 complex. (e) Homology structural modeling studies showed that the extra cysteinyl residue can indeed form a disulfide bond that covalently links the two alphabeta-heterodimers as proposed above.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC or hepatoma) is the most common primary cancer of the liver. It is responsible for approximately one million deaths each year, mainly in underdeveloped and developing countries. The aetiological factors identified in the development of HCC included persistent infection by hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses, and exposure to aflatoxins. Although immunization can protect individuals from being infected by the hepatitis B virus, the early detection of HCC in those who have been infected by the virus remains a challenge. Thus most HCCs present late and are not suitable for curative treatment. Hence there is a tremendous interest and urgency to identify novel HCC diagnostic marker(s) for early detection, and tumour specific disease associated proteins as potential therapeutic targets in the treatment of HCC. Screening for these HCC proteins has been facilitated by proteomics, a key technology in the global analysis of protein expression and understanding gene function. Present and earlier proteome analyses of HCC have used predominantly experimental in vitro systems. The protein expression profiles of several hepatoma cell lines such as HepG2, Huh7, SK-Hep1, and Hep3B have been compared with normal liver, and nontransformed cell lines (Chang and WRL-68), while a comprehensive proteome analysis to create a protein database was carried out for the cell line HCC-M. In the future, proteome analyses utilizing tumour tissues, which reflect the pathological state of HCC more closely, will be undertaken. This work will complement the gene expression studies of HCC which are already underway. Efforts have also been directed at the proteome analysis of hepatic stellate cells, as these cells play an important role in liver fibrosis. Since liver fibrosis is reversible but not cirrhosis, it is of considerable importance to identify therapeutic targets that can slow its progression.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For centuries, the edible nests of Collocalia spp. ("Bird's Nests") have been used as a Chinese delicacy that had been claimed to be an effective health-giving tonic. However, clinical studies indicated that in Singapore, Bird's Nest is the most common cause of food-induced anaphylaxis in children, which could lead to potentially life-threatening allergenic reactions. The purpose of this study was to characterize the major allergens in Bird's Nest by using the combined technologies of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), immunochemistry, N-terminal protein sequencing, and mass spectrometry. Results from the immunostaining of the Western blots of the Bird's Nest 2-DE separated proteins with the sera from allergic patients indicated the presence of a major allergen of 66 kDa. Initial searches of the matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization--time of flight--mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) tryptic peptide masses of the allergen in the SWISS-PROT and NCBI nonredundant databases revealed that this protein was novel. Based on the partial protein sequence information obtained from N-terminal microsequencing and nanoelectrospray-tandem MS, the 66 kDa immunoreactive allergen was found to be homologous to ovoinhibitor, a Kazal-type serine protease inhibitor, which is one of the dominant allergens found in chicken egg white.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, we reported the proteome analysis of a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, HCC-M (Electrophoresis 2000, 21, 1787-1813), using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). From a total of 408 unique spots excised from the 2-DE gel, 301 spots yielded good MALDI spectra. Out of these, 272 spots had matches returned from the database search leading to the identification of these proteins. Here, we report the results on the identification of the remaining 29 spots using nanoelectrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (nESI-MS/MS). First, "peptide tag sequencing" was performed to obtain partial amino acid sequences of the peptides to search the SWISS-PROTand NCBI nonredundant protein databases. Spots that were still not able to find any matches from the databases were subjected to de novo peptide sequencing. The tryptic peptide sequences were used to search for homologues in the protein and nucleotide databases with the NCBI Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST), which was essential for the characterization of novel or post-translationally modified proteins. Using this approach, all the 29 spots were unambiguously identified. Among them, phosphotyrosyl phosphatase activator (PTPA), RNA-binding protein regulatory subunit, replication protein A 32 kDa subunit (RP-A) and N-acetylneuraminic acid phosphate synthase were reported to be cancer-related proteins.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rhodocetin is a novel C-type lectin-related protein (CLP) purified from the venom of Calloselasma rhodostoma. Thus far, it is the only reported CLP whose alpha and beta subunits are not linked by an interdisulfide bond. We report here the isolation of a variant of rhodocetin from a different source of venom. This variant of rhodocetin exhibited a different elution profile in reverse-phase HPLC as compared to the rhodocetin reported in our original publication [Wang et al., (1999), Biochemistry 38, 7584-7593]. Specifically, the alpha subunit of the variant was eluted at a considerably lower percentage of acetonitrile, which suggested a less hydrophobic polypeptide chain as compared to the original rhodocetin. Using a combination of microcharacterization techniques such as peptide mapping, mass spectrometry, and amino acid sequencing, we identified an amino acid substitution, 163K, in the polypeptide chain that could account for the difference in elution behavior of the alpha subunit. In addition, we also found a conserved E88D substitution in the beta chain which was not apparent during reverse-phase HPLC. However, neither of these substitutions resulted in the alteration of the functional properties of the rhodocetin variant.
Journal of Protein Chemistry 08/2001; 20(5):383-90.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An integrated approach in protein discovery through the use of multidisciplinary tools was reported. A novel protein, Hcc-1, was identified by analysis of the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)-M cell proteome. The assembled EST sequence of the 210 amino acid novel protein was subsequently confirmed by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). A total of 687 bp at the 5' untranslated region of Hcc-1 was identified. Promoter activity and several upstream open reading frames (uORFs) were demonstrated at this region. Bioinformatics prediction showed that the first 42 amino acids of the protein is a SAP domain with sequence matches to hnRNP from various vertebrate species. The Hcc-1 protein was localized to the cell nucleus while the gene was localized to chromosome 7q22.1. Hcc-1 cDNA level was increased in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The level was also increased in well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma but decreases as the carcinoma progressed to a poorly differentiated stage.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autoantibodies to double-stranded (ds) DNA are an important diagnostic marker and pathogenic factor for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Identifying dsDNA mimotopes is a way to discover diagnostic and therapeutic candidates for SLE. 'Mono-specific' SLE anti-dsDNA antibodies were obtained by affinity purification using dsDNA-coupled Sepharose column. Using the anti-dsDNA antibodies to screen a phage peptide library, we were able to identify a mimotope that has a motif peptide sequence of RLTSSLRYNP. This chemically synthesized peptide could be recognized by 88% (37 out of 42) of anti-dsDNA antibody-positive SLE sera with a cut-off point at mean + 3 SD of the negative control sera at OD(492). The reaction of the peptide with SLE sera in ELISA was highly correlated with that of dsDNA (r = 0.809, P < 0.0001). Of particular interest, not only dsDNA but also single-stranded (ss) DNA and native RNA could inhibit the binding of the peptide with SLE sera, suggesting that the mimotope is shared by ds and ssDNAs as well as native RNA, whereas denatured RNA was not observed to inhibit the binding. The peptide was also able to elicit an immune response in rabbits and the anti-peptide rabbit serum was observed to cross-react with the peptide, ss and dsDNAs, and ss and dsDNAs could inhibit the binding of the anti-peptide serum and the peptide. However, the inhibition was not obtained with RNA. Our findings demonstrate the potential of the peptide mimic in diagnostic tests of SLE, and in the investigation of anti-DNA antibody origin and of DNA-anti-DNA antibody interaction.
International Immunology 02/2001; 13(2):223-32. · 3.14 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mammalian cells, under typical cultivation conditions, produce large quantities of lactate and ammonia that affect cell growth adversely and result in low cell concentration. Controlled nutrient feeding to maintain low concentrations of glucose and glutamine reduces metabolite production drastically, altering the metabolism of the cells. This metabolic shift results in higher cell concentration in continuous cultures and does not affect the specific productivity of the cells. We have taken a proteomics approach to investigate the differential protein expression with metabolic shift. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry (MS), we have found at least eight differentially expressed spots; two proteins were down-regulated, and the others were up-regulated with metabolic shift. These included metabolic enzymes, the brain form of phosphoglycerate mutase, which was down-regulated, and the precursor of the 23 kDa subunit of NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase, which was up-regulated. Another enzyme, the L1 isozyme of ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase, which is involved in protein turnover and degradation, was also up-regulated in the metabolically altered cells. The remaining down-regulated spot had been identified as two isoforms of cytoplasmic actins, while three of the up-regulated spots were viral GAG polyproteins from various murine viruses. An unidentified protein was also up-regulated in the cells with altered metabolic state. This study shows the potential of using a proteomics approach in deciphering the intracellular changes in cells with physiological changes such as metabolism shift. The new insight into cell metabolism afforded by this analysis will greatly facilitate process optimization of continuous cell cultures.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Currently, one of the most popular applications of proteomics is in the area of cancer research. In Africa, Southeast Asia, and China, hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common cancers, occurring as one of the top five cancers in frequency. This project was initiated with the purpose of separating and identifying the proteins of a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, HCC-M. After two-dimensional gel electrophoresis separation, silver staining, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) analyses, tryptic peptide masses were searched for matches in the SWISS-PROT and NCBI nonredundant databases. Approximately 400 spots were analyzed using this approach. Among the proteins identified were housekeeping proteins such as alcohol dehydrogenase, alpha-enolase, asparagine synthetase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenase. In addition, we also identified proteins with expression patterns that have been postulated to be related to the process of carcinogenesis. These include 14-3-3 protein, annexin, prohibitin, and thioredoxin peroxidase. This study of the HCC-M proteome, coupled with similar proteome analyses of normal liver tissues, tumors, and other hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines, represents the first step towards the establishment of protein databases, which are valuable resources in studies on the differential protein expressions of human hepatocellular carcinoma.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Among snake venom procoagulant proteins, group II prothrombin activators are functionally similar to blood coagulation factor Xa. We have purified and partially characterized the enzymatic properties of trocarin, the group II prothrombin activator from the venom of the Australian elapid, Tropidechis carinatus (rough-scaled snake). Prothrombin activation by trocarin is enhanced by Ca2+, phospholipids, and factor Va, similar to that by factor Xa. However, its amidolytic activity on peptide substrate S-2222 is significantly lower. We have determined the complete amino acid sequence of trocarin. It is a 46,515-Dalton glycoprotein highly homologous to factor Xa and shares the same domain architecture. The light chain possesses an N-terminal Gla domain containing 11 gamma-carboxyglutamic acid residues, followed by two epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domains; the heavy chain is a serine proteinase. Both chains are likely glycosylated: the light chain at Ser 52 and the heavy chain at Asn 45. Unlike other types of venom procoagulants, trocarin is the first true structural homologue of a coagulation factor. It clots snake plasma and thus may be similar, if not identical, to snake blood coagulation factor Xa. Unlike blood factor Xa, it is expressed in high quantities and in a nonhepatic tissue, making snake venom the richest source of factor Xa-like proteins. It induces cyanosis and death in mice at 1 mg/kg body weight. Thus, trocarin acts as a toxin in venom and a similar, if not identical, protein plays a critical role in hemostasis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel platelet aggregation inhibitor, rhodocetin, was purified from the crude venom of Calloselasma rhodostoma. It inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation in a dose-dependent manner, with an IC50 of 41 nM. Rhodocetin has a heterodimeric structure with alpha and beta subunits, which could be separated on a nonreducing denaturing gel or reverse-phase HPLC column. Individually neither subunit inhibited platelet aggregation even at 2.0 microM concentration. Titration and reconstitution experiments showed that, when these subunits are mixed to give a 1:1 complex, most of its biological activity was recovered. The reconstituted complex inhibited platelet aggregation with an IC50 of 112 nM, about 3-fold less effective than the native molecule. Circular dichroism analysis revealed that the reconstituted complex had a spectrum similar to that of the native protein. By using surface plasmon resonance studies, we established that the stoichiometry of binding between the two subunits is 1:1 and the subunits interact with a Kd of 0.14 +/- 0.04 microM. The complete amino acid sequences of the alpha (15956.16 Da, 133 residues) and beta (15185.10 Da, 129 residues) subunits show a high degree of homology with each other (49%) and with the Ca2+-dependent lectin-related proteins (CLPs) (typically 29-48%) isolated from other snake venoms. Unlike the other members of the family in which the subunits are held together by an interchain disulfide bond, rhodocetin subunits are held together only through noncovalent interactions. The cysteinyl residues forming the intersubunit disulfide bridge in all other known CLPs are replaced by Ser-79 and Arg-75 in the alpha and beta subunits of rhodocetin, respectively. These studies support the noncovalent and synergistic interactions between the two subunits of rhodocetin. This is the first reported CLP dimer with such a novel heterodimeric structure.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We provide information on the gene encoding the K+ channel toxin, HmK, of the sea anemone Heteractis magnifica. A series of DNA amplifications by PCR, which included the amplification of the 5'-untranslated region of the gene, showed that an intron of 402 nucleotides separated the sequence that encodes the matured toxin from the signal peptide sequence. A second 264 nucleotide intron interrupted the 5'-untranslated region of the previously reported HmK cDNA. Two possible transcription-initiation sites were identified by primer extension analysis. Corresponding TATA-box consensus sequences, characteristic of a promoter region, were also located from PCR products of uncloned libraries of adaptor-ligated genomic DNA fragments. The coding region for matured HmK is intronless. The same is also true for other sea anemone toxins reported thus far. More notably, a similar intron-exon organization is present in other ion channel-blocking toxins from scorpions implying that molecules having similar functions share a similar organization at the genomic level suggesting a common path of evolution.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new potassium channel toxin, HmK, has been isolated from the sea anemone Heteractis magnifica. It inhibits the binding of [125I]-alpha-dendrotoxin (a ligand for voltage-gated K channels) to rat brain synaptosomal membranes with a Ki of about 1 nM, blocks K+ currents through Kv 1.2 channels expressed in a mammalian cell line, and facilitates acetylcholine release at the avian neuromuscular junction. HmK comprises of 35 amino acids (Mr 4055) with the sequence R1TCKDLIPVS10ECTDIRCRTS20MKYRLNLCRK30TCGSC35. A full assignment of the disulfide linkages was made by using partial reduction with tri(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP) at acid pH and rapid alkylation with iodoacetamide. The disulfide bridges were identified as Cys3-Cys35, Cys12-Cys28, and Cys17-Cys32. A cDNA clone encoding HmK was isolated using RT-PCR from the total RNA obtained from sea anemone tentacles, while the 5'- and 3'-flanking regions of the cDNA were amplified by RACE. The full-length cDNA was 563 bp long and contained a sequence encoding a signal peptide of 39 amino acids. The coding region for matured HmK toxin was cloned and expressed as a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion product in the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli. After affinity purification and cleavage, the recombinant toxin was shown to be identical to native HmK in its N-terminal sequence, chromatographic behavior, and binding to dendrotoxin binding sites on rat brain membranes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A cDNA clone encoding ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1 has been isolated from a rabbit heart cDNA library and sequenced. The 3.485 kb cDNA contains an open reading frame of 1058 amino acid residues which predicts a protein of approx. 118 kDa. The deduced protein sequence exhibits a very high homology to other ubiquitin-activating enzymes identified in a variety of organisms. Northern blot analysis reveals a single transcript of approx. 3.5 kb in all the rabbit tissues examined. The entire coding region of the rabbit E1 cDNA has been expressed as a his-tagged protein. The recombinant protein has been verified by its ability to cross-react with anti-human E1 antibodies. Ubiquitin thiolester assay shows that the recombinant rabbit E1 protein is functional.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1. Makatoxin I (MkTx I) is a new toxin purified from the venom of the scorpion Buthus martensi Karsch. Contractile (excitatory, adrenergic) and relaxant (inhibitory, nitrergic) responses of the rat isolated anococcygeus muscle (Acm) to MkTx I were investigated. 2. MkTx I (0.28 microM) produced a rapid and very marked rise in the tone of the Acm which then gradually wanted to the control baseline. Phentolamine (5 microM), guanethidine (5 microM), tetrodotoxin (2 microM) and reserpine pretreatment in vivo (5 mg kg-1 s.c. at 24 hr and 5 mg kg-1 i.p. at 3 h) completely blocked the contractile responses of the Acm to MkTx I. The responses to noradrenaline (NA) were blocked by phentolamine, but were potentiated by guanethidine. 3. MkTx I (0.28 microM) also marked and rapidly relaxed the tone of the carbachol (CCh; 3 microM), precontracted Acm. The addition of sodium nitroprusside (SNP; 1 microM) also produced a marked and rapid relaxation of the Acm. TTx (2 microM) or NG-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME, 50 microM) markedly inhibited the relaxant responses of the Acm to field stimulation (FS) as well as to MkTx I, but not the responses to SNP. 4. Therefore, the contractile responses of the rat anococcygeus muscle to MkTx I can be attributed to the release of transmitter NA on postjunctional alpha-adrenoceptors, whereas the relaxant responses of the Acm to MkTx I involve the release of nitric oxide as the neurotransmitter which, presumably, results in the activation of the enzyme guanylate cyclase leading to relaxation of the muscle.
Journal of Autonomic Pharmacology 05/1997; 17(2):129-35.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A cDNA clone encoding rabbit E2(32k) was obtained by library screening and PCR. The cDNA contains an open reading frame coding for 238 amino acids which shows an overall identity of 81% to human CDC34, the cell cycle-related ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. A 50% homology to yeast CDC34 within the conserved core domain was also observed. Northern blot analysis indicated that three transcripts existed in all six rabbit tissues examined but their expression levels varied over a wide range. The putative cDNA coding region was highly expressed in Escherichia coli as a his-tagged protein which was purified to homogeneity. The ability of this expressed protein to form a thiolester bond with ubiquitin showed that it was functionally active. The ability of this protein to catalyze the conjugation of ubiquitin to histone H2A and H2B was also examined.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 04/1997; 1351(1-2):231-8. · 4.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Buthus martensi Karsch venom exhibits nitrergic action in rat anococcygeus muscle (ACM). We have purified a novel toxin, makatoxin I (MkTx I), which exhibits nitrergic action, to homogeneity from this venom by a combination of gel-filtration, cation-exchange chromatography, and reverse-phase chromatography. Its purity was assessed by capillary electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Its molecular weight was found to be 7031.71 +/- 2.88 as calculated from electrospray mass spectrographic data. The complete amino acid sequence was elucidated by sequencing of reduced and S-pyridylethylated toxin and a carboxyl-terminal peptide, P55-64, generated by the cleavage of toxin with endoproteinase Lys-C. The complete sequence of MkTx I is GRDAYIADSENCTYTCALNPYCNDLCTKNGAKSGYCQWAGRYGNACWCIDLPDKVPIRISGSCR. This toxin is composed of 64 amino acid residues and contains 8 half-cystine residues. Structurally, MkTx I has high similarity to Bot I and Bot II when compared with toxins from other scorpion species. The effects of MkTx I on nitrergic responses were investigated using the rat isolated ACM mounted in Krebs solution (37 degrees C, 5% CO2 in O2). MkTx I (2 microg/ml) markedly relaxed the carbachol-precontracted ACM; the relaxation was inhibited by the stereoselective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (50 microM). Thus, MkTx I is the first alpha-toxin that can mediate nitrergic responses in the rat isolated ACM.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/1997; 272(13):8320-4. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A phospholipase A2 (OHV A-PLA2) from the venom of Ophiophagus hannah (King cobra) is an acidic protein exhibiting cardiotoxicity, myotoxicity, and antiplatelet activity. The complete amino acid sequence of OHV A-PLA2 has been determined using a combination of Edman degradation and mass spectrometric techniques. OHV A-PLA2 is composed of a single chain of 124 amino acid residues with 14 cysteines and a calculated molecular weight of 13719 Da. It contains the loop of residues (62-66) found in pancreatic PLA2s and hence belongs to class IB enzymes. This pancreatic loop is between two proline residues (Pro 59 and Pro 68) and contains several hydrophilic amino acids (Ser and Asp). This region has high degree of conformational flexibility and is on the surface of the molecule, and hence it may be a potential protein-protein interaction site. A relatively low sequence homology is found between OHV A-PLA2 and other known cardiotoxic PLA2s, and hence a contiguous segment could not be identified as a site responsible for the cardiotoxic activity.
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 03/1997; 338(2):150-6. · 3.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The chromatographic behaviour of recombinant human tumour necrosis factor beta (rhTNF-beta) (pI approximately 9.0) during cation-exchange chromatography at pH 7.5 is investigated. Without prior treatment of the Escherichia coli cell extract with polyethyleneimine (PEI), very little rhTNF-beta was bound to the column. However, upon addition of 5% PEI (100 microliters ml-1) to the cell lysate, rhTNF-beta was shown to bind to cation-exchange columns normally. TNF-beta was readily precipitated from the clarified cell extract by 20% ammonium sulphate, but ony ca. 25% of this precipitate could be re-solubilized for further purification. However, when 5% PEI was included in the solubilization buffer, the balance of the rhTNF-beta could be recovered. It is proposed that charge interaction between rhTNF-beta and nucleic acids in the cell extract is responsible for both of these anomalous phenomena, and that PEI (a cationic polyelectrolyte) was able to disrupt this interaction by displacing rhTNF-beta from the charge complex.
Journal of Chromatography 02/1997; 760(2):165-71. · 4.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Distinct enhancement of antibody-specific clones was apparent during the screening against random peptide libraries with antigen-specific polyclonal antibodies. Several sequence motifs obtained from these screenings were homologous with the primary sequence of myoglobin. Two of these motifs have been confirmed as antigenic determinants by competitive inhibition tests using eight-branched synthetic peptides. One of the peptides has a sequence that corresponds to amino acid residues 42-50, KFDRFKHLK, of the myoglobin sequence. This is a new epitope of myoglobin that is reported for the first time. The epitope is located precisely in the "turn' or "loop' region between helices C and D of the crystal structure of myoglobin. The second antibody binding site has a sequence of DIAAKYKELGYQG, and this is located between residues 141-153, which is the C-terminus of myoglobin. This epitope encompassed two linear epitopes of myoglobin, amino acid residues 145-151 and 147-153, that have been reported earlier based on immunochemical characterisation of cleavage fragments of the protein. These results clearly indicate that epitope mapping using polyclonal antibodies against random peptide libraries can identify new epitopes precisely, as well as confirm epitopes of myoglobin obtained earlier using established methodologies.
International journal of peptide and protein research 12/1996; 48(5):477-85.