[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of our study was to evaluate the quality of histo- and cytomorphological features of PAXgene-fixed specimens and their suitability for histomorphological classification in comparison to standard formalin fixation. Fifteen colon cancer tissues were collected, divided into two mirrored samples and either formalin fixed (FFPE) or PAXgene fixed (PFPE) before paraffin embedding. HE- and PAS-stained sections were scanned and evaluated in a blinded, randomised ring trial by 20 pathologists from Europe and the USA using virtual microscopy. The pathologists evaluated histological grading, histological subtype, presence of adenoma, presence of lymphovascular invasion, quality of histomorphology and quality of nuclear features. Statistical analysis revealed that the reproducibility with regard to grading between both fixation methods was rather satisfactory (weighted kappa statistic (k w) = 0.73 (95 % confidence interval (CI), 0.41-0.94)), with a higher agreement between the reference evaluation and the PFPE samples (k w = 0.86 (95 % CI, 0.67-1.00)). Independent from preservation method, inter-observer reproducibility was not completely satisfactory (k w = 0.60). Histomorphological quality parameters were scored equal or better for PFPE than for FFPE samples. For example, overall quality and nuclear features, especially the detection of mitosis, were judged significantly better for PFPE cases. By contrast, significant retraction artefacts were observed more frequently in PFPE samples. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the PAXgene Tissue System leads to excellent preservation of histomorphology and nuclear features of colon cancer tissue and allows routine morphological diagnosis.
Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology. 08/2014;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pulmonary carcinoids are neuroendocrine tumors histopathologically subclassified into typical (TC; no necrosis, <2 mitoses per 2 mm) and atypical (AC; necrosis or 2 to 10 mitoses per 2 mm). The reproducibility of lung carcinoid classification, however, has not been extensively studied and may be hampered by the presence of pyknotic apoptosis mimicking mitotic figures. Furthermore, prediction of prognosis based on histopathology varies, especially for ACs. We examined the presence of interobserver variation between 5 experienced pulmonary pathologists who reviewed 123 originally diagnosed pulmonary carcinoid cases. The tumors were subsequently redistributed over 3 groups: unanimously classified cases, consensus cases (4/5 pathologists rendered identical diagnosis), and disagreement cases (divergent diagnosis by ≥2 assessors). κ-values were calculated, and results were correlated with clinical follow-up and molecular data. When focusing on the 114/123 cases unanimously classified as pulmonary carcinoids, the interobserver agreement was only fair (κ=0.32). Of these 114 cases, 55% were unanimously classified, 25% reached consensus classification, and for 19% there was no consensus. ACs were significantly more often in the latter category (P=0.00038). The designation of TCs and ACs by ≥3 assessors was not associated with prognosis (P=0.11). However, when disagreement cases were allocated on the basis of Ki-67 proliferative index (<5%; ≥5%) or nuclear orthopedia homeobox immunostaining (+; -), correlation with prognosis improved significantly (P=0.00040 and 0.0024, respectively). In conclusion, there is a considerable interobserver variation in the histopathologic classification of lung carcinoids, in particular concerning ACs. Additional immunomarkers such as Ki-67 or orthopedia homeobox may improve classification and prediction of prognosis.
The American journal of surgical pathology. 07/2014;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In lung cancer, clinically relevant prognostic information is provided by staging. Staging forms the basis for the treatment options and this is briefly summarized in the introduction. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase are biomarkers used for prediction of chemotherapy and prediction of targeted treatment. Other driver biomarkers in lung cancer (point mutations and rearrangements in specific genes including Her2, BRAF, NUT, MET, ROS1, DDR2, FGFR1, KRAS, and PTEN) might potentially provide additional information for clinical decision making. Owing to the low prevalence of mutations in predictive markers, patient numbers in studies are usually small, with the exception of EGFR. These mutations increase our understanding of the biology of lung cancer. Mutation analysis as a basis for treatment choice can have an impressive clinical impact with dramatic responses. However, as yet the impact of these approaches to overall survival is less striking.
Archiv für Pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für Klinische Medicin 01/2014; · 2.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pulmonary neuroendocrine (NE) proliferations are a diverse group of disorders which share distinct cytological, architectural and biosynthetic features. Tumours composed of NE cells are dispersed among different tumour categories in the WHO classification of tumours and as such do not conform to a singular group with regards to treatment and prognosis. This is reflected by the highly variable behaviour of NE proliferations, ranging from asymptomatic, for instance in diffuse idiopathic pulmonary NE cell hyperplasia and tumourlets, to highly malignant cancers such as small cell lung cancer and large cell NE carcinoma. In this review NE proliferations are described as distinct entities ranging from low grade lesions to high grade cancers. The differential diagnoses are considered with each of the entries. Finally, mention is made of tumours which may show some NE features.
Journal of clinical pathology 05/2013; · 2.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autologous T cells genetically modified to express a chimeric antibody receptor (CAR) against carboxy-anhydrase-IX (CAIX) were administered to 12 patients with CAIX-expressing metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Patients were treated in three cohorts with a maximum of 10 infusions of a total of 0.2 to 2.1 × 10(9) CAR T cells. CTC grade 2-4 liver enzyme disturbances occurred at the lowest CAR T cell doses, necessitating cessation of treatment in four out of eight patients in cohorts 1 and 2. Examination of liver biopsies revealed CAIX expression on bile duct epithelium with infiltration of T cells, including CAR T cells. Subsequently four patients were pre-treated with CAIX monoclonal antibody (mAb) G250 to prevent CAR-specific toxicity and showed no liver toxicities and indications for enhanced peripheral T cell persistence. No clinical responses were recorded. This report shows that CAIX-targeting CAR T cells exerted antigen-specific effects in vivo and induced liver toxicity at the lowest dose of 0.2 × 10(9) T cells applied, illustrating the potency of receptor-modified T cells. We provide in-patient proof that the observed "on-target" toxicity is antigen-directed and can be prevented by blocking antigenic sites in off-tumor organs and allowing higher T cell doses.Molecular Therapy (2013); doi:10.1038/mt.2013.17.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is typically defined by the acquisition of a spindle cell morphology in combination with loss of E-cadherin and upregulation of mesenchymal markers. However, by studying E-cadherin inactivation in 38 human breast cancer cell lines, we noted that not all cell lines that had undergone EMT had concomitantly lost E-cadherin expression. We further investigated this discrepancy functionally and in clinical breast cancer specimens. Interestingly, reconstitution of wild-type E-cadherin cDNA in a E-cadherin negative cell line that had undergone EMT (MDA-MB-231) did not revert the spindle morphology back to an epithelial morphology. Neither were changes observed in the expression of several markers known to be involved in the EMT process. Similarly, upregulation of E-cadherin via global DNA demethylation in eleven cell lines that had undergone EMT did not induce a change in cell morphology, nor did it alter the expression of EMT markers in these cells. Next, we extracted genes differentially expressed between cell lines that had undergone EMT versus cell lines that had not undergone EMT. Caveolin-1 was identified to be an excellent marker for EMT, irrespective of E-cadherin status (specificity and sensitivity of 100 %). Consistent with our observations in the breast cancer cell lines, expression of Caveolin-1 identified a subset of basal breast cancers, particularly of metaplastic pathology, and only 50 % of these lacked E-cadherin expression. The discrepancy between E-cadherin loss and EMT was thus reproduced in clinical samples. Together, these results indicate that in human breast cancer loss of E-cadherin is not causal for EMT and even not a necessity.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 01/2013; · 4.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) harbor oncogenic mutations in KIT or platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α. However, a small subset of GISTs lacks such mutations and is termed 'wild-type GISTs'. Germline mutation in any of the subunits of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) predisposes individuals to hereditary paragangliomas and pheochromocytomas. However, germline mutations of the genes encoding SDH subunits A, B, C or D (SDHA, SDHB, SDHC or SDHD; collectively SDHx) are also identified in GISTs. SDHA and SDHB immunohistochemistry are reliable techniques to identify pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas with mutations in SDHA, SDHB, SDHC and SDHD. In this study, we investigated if SDHA immunohistochemistry could also identify SDHA-mutated GISTs. Twenty-four adult wild-type GISTs and nine pediatric/adolescent wild-type GISTs were analyzed with SDHB, and where this was negative, then with SDHA immunohistochemistry. If SDHA immunohistochemistry was negative, sequencing analysis of the entire SDHA coding sequence was performed. All nine pediatric/adolescent GISTs and seven adult wild-type GISTs were negative for SDHB immunohistochemistry. One pediatric GIST and three SDHB-immunonegative adult wild-type GISTs were negative for SDHA immunohistochemistry. In all four SDHA-negative GISTs, a germline SDHA c.91C>T transition was found leading to a nonsense p.Arg31X mutation. Our results demonstrate that SDHA immunohistochemistry on GISTs can identify the presence of an SDHA germline mutation. Identifying GISTs with deficient SDH activity warrants additional genetic testing, evaluation and follow-up for inherited disorders and paragangliomas.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 23 November 2012; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2012.186.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For treatment purposes, distinction between squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma is important. The aim of this study is to examine the diagnostic accuracy on lung cancer small biopsies for the distinction between adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma and relate these to immunohistochemical and KRAS and EGFR mutation analysis. An interobserver study was performed on 110 prospectively collected biopsies obtained by bronchoscopy or transthoracic needle biopsy of patients with non-small cell lung cancer. The diagnosis was correlated with immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis for markers of adeno- (TTF1 and/or mucin positivity) and squamous cell differentiation (P63 and CK5/6) as well as KRAS and EGFR mutation analysis. Eleven observers independently read H&E-stained slides of 110 cases, resulting in a kappa value of 0.55 ± 0.10. The diagnosis non-small cell lung cancer not otherwise specified was given on average on 29.5 % of the biopsies. A high concordance was observed between hematoxylin-eosin-based consensus diagnosis (≥8/11 readings concordant) and IHC markers. In all cases with EGFR (n = 1) and KRAS (n = 20) mutations, adenodifferentiation as determined by IHC was present and p63 staining was absent. In 2 of 25 cases with a consensus diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma, additional stainings favored adenodifferentation, and a KRAS mutation was present. P63 is most useful for distinction between EGFR/KRAS mutation positive and negative patients. In the diagnostic work-up of non-small cell lung carcinoma the limited reproducibility on small biopsies is optimized with immunohistochemical analysis, resulting in reliable delineation for predictive analysis.
Virchows Archiv : The European Journal of Pathology. 10/2012; 461(6):629-638.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite great effort by health organizations worldwide in fighting tuberculosis (TB), morbidity and mortality are not declining as expected. One of the reasons is related to the evolutionary development of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, in particular the Beijing genotype strains. In a previous study, we showed the association between the Beijing genotype and an increased mutation frequency for rifampin resistance. In this study, we use a Beijing genotype strain and an East-African/Indian genotype strain to investigate with our mouse TB model whether the higher mutation frequency observed in a Beijing genotype strain is associated with treatment failure particularly during noncompliance therapy. Both genotype strains showed high virulence in comparison to that of M. tuberculosis strain H37Rv, resulting in a highly progressive infection with a rapid lethal outcome in untreated mice. Compliance treatment was effective without relapse of TB irrespective of the infecting strain, showing similar decreases in the mycobacterial load in infected organs and similar histopathological changes. Noncompliance treatment, simulated by a reduced duration and dosing frequency, resulted in a relapse of infection. Relapse rates were correlated with the level of noncompliance and were identical for Beijing infection and East African/Indian infection. However, only in Beijing-infected mice, isoniazid-resistant mutants were selected at the highest level of noncompliance. This is in line with the substantial selection of isoniazid-resistant mutants in vitro in a wide isoniazid concentration window observed for the Beijing strain and not for the EAI strain. These results suggest that genotype diversity of M. tuberculosis may be involved in emergence of resistance and indicates that genotype-tailor-made treatment should be investigated.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 07/2012; 56(9):4937-44. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To report a large series of solitary and multiple myofibromas with systematic clinicopathological correlations.
We report on 114 patients with myofibromas, 97 of which were solitary and 17 multifocal. The age at presentation ranged from newborn to 70 years. All multifocal myofibromas and 91% of solitary myofibromas occurred in children. The head and neck region was the most common site (n = 43), followed by the trunk (n = 24), lower limbs (n = 14), upper limbs (n = 11), and viscera (n = 4). Solitary and multifocal myofibromas stained positively for smooth muscle actin (SMA) in 95% and 92% of cases, muscle-specific actin (MSA) in 75% and 50% of cases, and desmin in 10% and 14% of cases, respectively. Regressive features were seen in 34 solitary myofibromas and in nine multifocal myofibromas. Most patients were treated with complete excision (n = 79) or partial excision (n = 12). There were no recurrences after treatment.
Solitary and multiple myofibromas are benign tumours that predominantly occur in infancy and childhood. Myofibromas occur especially in the head and neck region, and are characterized by SMA and, to a lesser extent, MSA expression. The clinical course is self-limiting, and local excision appears to be sufficient.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated the optimal alveolar oxygen concentration and inflation pressure during ischemia that reduces lung ischemia-reperfusion injury (LIRI).
Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 66) underwent 150 minutes of left lung ischemia by hilar clamping at an airway inflation pressure (P) of 5 or 30 cm H(2)O and an oxygen (O) concentration of 0%, 30%, or 100% (P(5)O(0), P(5)O(30), P(5)O(100), P(30)O(0), P(30)O(30) and P(30)O(100) groups). Lungs preserved with 0% oxygen were inflated with 100% nitrogen. Measurements of arterial blood gas values, pulmonary compliance, histology, flow cytometry of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were performed on day 2 postoperatively.
Inflation with 30 cm H(2)O resulted in increased partial pressure of arterial oxygen (Pao(2)) and lung compliance, decreased diffuse alveolar damage, and less infiltration of CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocytes and major histocompatibility complex class II-positive (MHCII(+)) antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in the left lung on day 2 compared with clamping at an airway inflation pressure of 5 cm H(2)O. The 100% oxygen groups demonstrated a lower Pao(2) and a decreased pulmonary compliance than 30% oxygen groups. More CD8(+) lymphocytes and MHCII(+) APCs were found in the P(5)O(100) group than in the P(5)O(0) and P(5)O(30) groups.
Alveolar inflation with a pressure of 30 cm H(2)O and an oxygen concentration of 30% decreases the severity of LIRI. The protective effect is mainly due to hyperinflation and, to a lesser extent, through oxygen concentration.
The Journal of heart and lung transplantation: the official publication of the International Society for Heart Transplantation 03/2012; 31(5):531-7. · 3.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mature circulating endothelial cells (CECs) are surrogate markers of endothelial damage/dysfunction. A lack of standardized assays and consensus on CEC phenotype has resulted in a wide variation of reported CEC numbers (4-1300 per mL).
Given the need for a quick, reliable, robust and validated CEC assay at an affordable price, we present a novel approach to enumerate CECs using a multi-parameter flow cytometric (FCM) method without immunological pre-enrichment.
CECs were defined as CD34+, CD45neg, CD146+ and DNA+ events based on the immunophenotype of endothelial cells from vein-wall dissections. As CECs express high levels of CD34, we based our assay on absolute CD34 counts after analyzing all CD34 positive events in a total blood volume of 4 mL needed for a precise enumeration of CECs at a frequency of < 1 cell μL(-1).
The endothelial origin of CECs was confirmed by morphology, immunohistochemistry and gene expression. The new FCM assay was tested in parallel with a validated assay (i.e. CellSearch). CEC levels ranged from 4 to 79 CEC mL(-1) in healthy individuals and were significantly higher in patients with advanced solid malignancies (P = 0.0008) and in patients with hematological malignancies (P < 0.0001).
This flow cytometric method should be useful as a fast and economical assay to enumerate and characterize CECs.
Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 03/2012; 10(5):931-9. · 6.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND.: Squamous carcinoma of the thyroid is a rare aggressive disease, resulting in poor prognosis. METHODS AND RESULTS.: We combined cisplatin with paclitaxel on a weekly basis as induction therapy, achieving a high cumulative dose, in a patient with squamous cell tumor of the thyroid with arterial encasement. After surgery, pathologic examination confirmed a complete resection of the primary tumor with clear margins, revealing a successful induction treatment with chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS.: Our patient now has a recurrence-free survival of >20 months, longer than the mean survival described in the literature.
Head & Neck 01/2012; 34(1):131-4. · 2.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A challenge of cancer therapy is to optimize therapeutical options to individual patients. Cancers with similar histology may show dramatically different responses to therapy, indicating that a refined approach needs to be developed to classify tumors by intrinsic characteristics that may predict response to chemotherapy. Global expression profile-based classification has the potential to identify such tumor-intrinsic subclasses. Pemetrexed effectiveness has been related to the expression of its target thymidylate synthase. The relatively frequent resistance of squamous cell carcinoma to Pemetrexed is correlated with high levels of thymidylate synthase expression.
A global expression profile-based molecular classification of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was performed. Gene expression was used to predict Pemetrexed responsiveness. The distinct molecular attributes of NSCLCs predicted likely to be resistant to Pemetrexed were bioinformatically characterized. We tested if routine immunohistochemical markers can be used to distinguish putative Pemetrexed responders, predicted by gene signatures, from nonresponders.
Ninety NSCLCs were divided into six subclasses by gene expression signatures. The relevance of this novel phenotyping was linked to other tumor characteristics. Two of the subclasses correlated to putative Pemetrexed resistance. In addition, the identified signature genes characterizing putative Pemetrexed responsiveness predicted therapeutic benefit in a subset of squamous cell carcinoma.
Gene expression signatures can be used to identify NSCLC subgroups and have potential to predict resistance to Pemetrexed therapy. We suggest that a combination of classical pathological markers can be used to identify molecular tumor subclasses associated with predicted Pemetrexed response.
Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer 11/2011; 7(1):105-14. · 4.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Because there is no survival benefit of amputation for extremity soft tissue sarcomas (STSs), limb-sparing surgery has become the gold standard. Tumor size reduction by induction therapy to render nonresectable tumors resectable or facilitate function-preserving surgery can be achieved by tumor necrosis factor α (TNF) -based and melphalan-based isolated limb perfusion (TM-ILP). This study reports the long-term results of 231 TM-ILPs for locally advanced extremity STS.
We analyzed 231 TM-ILPs in 208 consecutive patients (1991 to 2005), who were all candidates for functional or anatomic amputation for locally advanced extremity STS. All patients had a potential follow-up of up to 5 years. TM-ILP was performed under mild hyperthermic conditions with 1 to 4 mg of TNF and 10 to 13 mg/L of limb-volume melphalan. Almost all patients (85%) had intermediate- or high-grade tumors.
The overall response rate (ORR) was 71% (complete response, 18%; partial response, 53%). Multifocal sarcomas had a significantly better ORR of 83% (P = .008). The local recurrence rate was 30% (n = 70); local recurrence rates were highest for multifocal tumors (54%; P = .001) and after previous radiotherapy (54%; P < .001). Five-year overall survival rate was 42%. Survival was poorest in patients with large tumors (P = .01) and with leiomyosarcomas (P < .001). Limb salvage rate was 81%.
We demonstrated that TM-ILP results in a limb salvage rate of 81% in patients with locally advanced extremity STS who would otherwise have undergone amputation. Whenever an amputation is deemed necessary to obtain local control of an extremity STS, TM-ILP should be considered.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 09/2011; 29(30):4036-44. · 18.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Testis-sparing surgery might benefit quality of life, but can only be applied with histological examination for the presence of invasive germ cell tumour components, and the precursor carcinoma in situ (CIS). Currently, diagnosis is based on paraffin-embedded tissue, therefore a delay in further surgery is mainly unavoidable. The aim was to develop an intraoperative assessment technique using alkaline phosphatase as a marker.
A total of 4093 snap-frozen samples and matched paraffin-embedded tissue of 1500 patients were included. Besides standard haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, the direct enzymatic alkaline phosphatase reactivity (dAP) test (duration 15 min) was applied on frozen sections, while H&E and immunohistochemistry for detection of OCT3/4, α-fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) and cytokeratin was performed on the paraffin-embedded slides. Endothelial cells served as control for the dAP test. Positive staining was found in all CIS (n=965), seminoma (n=1035) and embryonal carcinoma (n=584), either intratubular, microinvasive or invasive. Differentiated non-seminomas (n=1238) showed variable staining. No staining was identified in spermatocytic seminomas (n=5), testicular lymphomas (n=42), testicular rhabdomyosarcomas (n=7), Leydig cell tumours (n=31), Sertoli-cell-only nodules (n=4), (epi) dermoid cyst (n=16), normal testicular parenchyma (n=116), testicular torsion (n=32) and inflammation of the epididymis (n=19). The dAP test results matched H&E-stained parallel sections, as well paraffin-embedded tissue analysis, including immunohistochemistry.
The dAP test is an informative, reproducible and easy tool to diagnose CIS, (intratubular and microinvasive) seminoma and embryonal carcinoma on frozen tissue sections, being of great value in the context of sparing surgery.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Standard treatment for localized soft tissue sarcoma (STS) is resection plus adjuvant radiotherapy (RTx). In approximately 10% of cases, resection would cause severe loss of function or even require amputation because of the extent of disease. Isolated limb perfusion (ILP) with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and melphalan can achieve regression of the tumor, facilitating limb-saving resection. RTx improves local control but may lead to increased morbidity.
In our database of over 500 ILPs, 122 patients with unifocal STS were treated by ILP followed by limb-sparing surgery. All included patients were candidates for amputation.
Surgery resulted in 69 R0 resections (57%), and in 53 specimens (43%) resection margins contained microscopic evidence of tumor (R1). Histopathological examination revealed >50% ILP-induced tumor necrosis in 59 cases (48%). RTx was administered in 73 patients (60%). Local recurrence rate was 21% after median follow-up of 31 months (2-182 months). Recurrence was significantly less in patients with >50% ILP-induced necrosis versus ≤50% necrosis (7% vs. 33%, P = 0.001). A similar significant correlation was observed for R0 versus R1 resections (15% vs. 28%, P = 0.04). In 36 patients with R0 resection and >50% necrosis, of whom 21 were spared RTx, no recurrences were observed during follow-up.
In patients with locally advanced primary STS, treated with ILP followed by R0 resection, and with >50% ILP-induced necrosis in the resected specimen, RTx is of no further benefit.
Annals of Surgical Oncology 11/2010; 18(2):321-7. · 4.12 Impact Factor