[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a dominantly inherited disease of connective tissue with diverse manifestations (Table 1), involving primarily the skeletal, ocular, and cardiovascular systems. Affected individuals may have a characteristic habitus
including tall stature and dolichostenomelia, arachnodactyly, joint laxity, scoliosis, and pectus deformities (Figs. 1 and 2). Patients may have murmurs of aortic or mitral regurgitation. Prompt diagnosis may prevent premature death from aortic dissection
and/or rupture, as well as unnecessary visual loss and skeletal deformity1. Regular examination by appropriate specialists should then be coordinated by a single physician (Table 3) and based on a timetable of care (Table 4).
Table 1.Salient features ofthe Marian syndrome
Figure 1.Typical Marfan habirus with dolichostenomdia, arachnodac-tyly, increased leglength (reduced upper-to-lower segmentratio),
sparse subcutaneous tissue.
Figure 2.Arachnodactyly in a person with typical fearures of MFS.
Table 3.Overview of management
Table 4.Timetable of care
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Blepharophimosis syndrome (BPES) is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the single-exon forkhead transcription factor gene FOXL2 and by genomic rearrangements of the FOXL2 locus. Here, we focus on 92 new intragenic FOXL2 mutations, 34 of which are novel. Specifically, we found 10 nonsense mutations (11%), 13 missense mutations (14%), 40 deletions or insertions leading to a frameshift (43%), and 29 in-frame changes (32%), of which 28 (30%) lead to a polyalanine expansion. This study confirms the existence of two previously described mutational hotspots. Moreover, we gained novel insights in genotype-phenotype correlations, emphasizing the need to interpret genotype-phenotype correlations individually and always in the context of further clinical observations.
Human Mutation 11/2008; 29(11):E205-19. · 5.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Congenital contractural arachnodactyly (CCA) is an extremely rare disease, due to mutations in the FBN2 gene encoding fibrillin-2. Another member of the fibrillin family, the FBN1 gene, is involved in a broad phenotypic continuum of connective-tissue disorders including Marfan syndrome. Identifying not only what is in common but also what differentiates these two proteins should enable us to better comprehend their respective functions and better understand the multitude of diseases in which these two genes are involved. In 1995 we created a locus-specific database (LSDB) for FBN1 mutations with the Universal Mutation Database (UMD) tool. To facilitate comparison of identified mutations in these two genes and search for specific functional areas, we created an LSDB for the FBN2 gene: the UMD-FBN2 database. This database lists 26 published and six newly identified mutations that mainly comprise missense and splice-site mutations. Although the number of described FBN2 mutations was low, the frequency of joint dislocation was significantly higher with missense mutations when compared to splice site mutations.
Human Mutation 10/2008; 30(2):181-90. · 5.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hay-Wells syndrome is a rare form of ectodermal dysplasia, also known as AEC syndrome (Ankyloblepharon filiforme adnatum, Ectodermal effects, Cleft lip/palate). It is inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion with variable expression, featuring congenital abnormalities of skin, hair, teeth, nail, eccrine and mucous glands. We present a three-month-old boy, born to unaffected parents, with typical clinical findings of AEC syndrome. In this boy, a mutation Ile537Thr (c.1610C>T) in the sterile alpha motive (SAM) domain of the TP73L (p63) gene was detected. Because of the broad spectrum of related syndromes such as Rapp-Hodgkin syndrome, Bowen-Armstrong syndrome, CHAND syndrome and epidermolysis bullosa hereditaria, the diagnosis of AEC should be base don both clinical findings and genetic analysis.
Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft 11/2007; 5(10):919-23. · 1.40 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 12-year-old girl presenting with intermittent epigastric pains and diarrhea was referred to our clinic. Diagnostic workup revealed nonfunctional bilateral adrenal pheochromocytomas as well as a neuroendocrine tumor of the pancreatic head. This is the first report on the combination of a neuroendocrine pancreatic tumor with adrenal pheochromocytoma in a pediatric patient with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease.
von Hippel-Lindau disease was confirmed by molecular genetic analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes, which revealed the mutation VHL c. 695 G > A. The family history showed also VHL disease in the mother who carried the same mutation.
Open laparotomy, organ-sparing enucleation of pheochromocytoma, and pylorus-preserving resection of the pancreatic head tumor were successfully performed. After an uneventful postoperative course, the child fully recovered. She was free of further manifestations of VHL disease 30 months after surgery.
Journal of Pediatric Surgery 08/2007; 42(7):1291-4. · 1.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report on three unrelated mentally disabled patients, each carrying a de novo balanced translocation that truncates the autism susceptibility candidate 2 (AUTS2) gene at 7q11.2. One of our patients shows relatively mild mental retardation; the other two display more profound disorders. One patient is also physically disabled, exhibiting urogenital and limb malformations in addition to severe mental retardation. The function of AUTS2 is presently unknown, but it has been shown to be disrupted in monozygotic twins with autism and mental retardation, both carrying a translocation t(7;20)(q11.2;p11.2) (de la Barra et al. in Rev Chil Pediatr 57:549-554, 1986; Sultana et al. in Genomics 80:129-134, 2002). Given the overlap of this autism/mental retardation (MR) phenotype and the MR-associated disorders in our patients, together with the fact that mapping of the additional autosomal breakpoints involved did not disclose obvious candidate disease genes, we ascertain with this study that AUTS2 mutations are clearly linked to autosomal dominant mental retardation.
Human Genetics 06/2007; 121(3-4):501-9. · 4.63 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thrombocytopenia-absent radius (TAR) syndrome is characterized by hypomegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia and bilateral radial aplasia in the presence of both thumbs. Other frequent associations are congenital heart disease and a high incidence of cow's milk intolerance. Evidence for autosomal recessive inheritance comes from families with several affected individuals born to unaffected parents, but several other observations argue for a more complex pattern of inheritance. In this study, we describe a common interstitial microdeletion of 200 kb on chromosome 1q21.1 in all 30 investigated patients with TAR syndrome, detected by microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization. Analysis of the parents revealed that this deletion occurred de novo in 25% of affected individuals. Intriguingly, inheritance of the deletion along the maternal line as well as the paternal line was observed. The absence of this deletion in a cohort of control individuals argues for a specific role played by the microdeletion in the pathogenesis of TAR syndrome. We hypothesize that TAR syndrome is associated with a deletion on chromosome 1q21.1 but that the phenotype develops only in the presence of an additional as-yet-unknown modifier (mTAR).
The American Journal of Human Genetics 03/2007; 80(2):232-40. · 11.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ulnar-mammary syndrome (UMS) is a rare autosomal-dominant disorder caused by mutations in TBX3. The condition is characterized by hypoplasia or aplasia of upper limbs on the ulnar side, mammary glands and nipples, and of apocrine glands in both sexes (MIM #181450). We report on a girl presenting with an UMS like phenotype, a dysmorphic facies, and mental retardation. Mutation analysis of TBX3 and G-banded chromosome analysis from lymphocytes were performed. We used microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) to investigate the patient's genomic DNA for submicroscopic aberrations. No mutation of the TBX3 gene was detected in our patient and chromosome analysis revealed a normal female karyotype (46,XX). Hybridization of a whole-genome tiling path array consisting of more than 36 000 BAC clones revealed an interstitial 1.28 Mb deletion within chromosomal band 12q24.21. The deleted region encompasses one known gene, TBX3. The deletion and haploinsufficiency of TBX3 was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization using BAC clones representing the deletion on the BAC array. To our knowledge, this is the first description of TBX3 haploinsufficiency caused by a genomic deletion in a patient with UMS. We suggest that the UMS phenotype in conjunction with the characteristic facial changes and mental retardation observed in our patient is owing to the deletion of TBX3 and the involvement of neighbouring genes.
European Journal of HumanGenetics 01/2007; 14(12):1274-9. · 4.32 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS) is a well-known autosomal dominant mental retardation syndrome with typical facial and skeletal abnormalities. Previously, we have reported two patients presenting with RSTS and additional clinical features including failure to thrive, seizures, and intractable infections (Bartsch et al. in Eur J Hum Genet 7:748-756, 1999). Recently we identified a third patient with this condition, termed here severe RSTS, or chromosome 16p13.3 deletion syndrome. The three patients died in infancy, and all displayed a specific mutation, a chromosomal microdeletion including the 3'-end of the CREBBP gene. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization and closely spaced DNA probes, we characterized the deletion intervals in these patients and in three individuals with a deletion of CREBBP and typical RSTS. The deleted DNA segments were found to greatly vary in size, spanning from approximately 40 kb to >3 Mb. Four individuals, including the patients with severe RSTS, exhibited deletions containing gene/s in addition to CREBBP. The patients with severe RSTS all had deletions comprising telomeric neighbor genes of CREBBP, including DNASE1, a dominant gene encoding a nuclease that has been associated with systemic lupus erythematodes. Our findings suggest that severe RSTS is distinct from RSTS and represents a novel true contiguous gene syndrome (chromosome 16p13.3 deletion syndrome). Because of the risk of critical infections and high mortality rate, we recommend that the size of the deletion interval should be determined in CREBBP deletion-positive patients with RSTS, especially in young children. Further studies are needed to delineate the clinical spectrum of the new disorder and to clarify the role of DNASE1.
Human Genetics 09/2006; 120(2):179-86. · 4.63 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dyggve-Melchior-Clausen syndrome (DMC) (MIM 223800) and Smith-McCort dysplasia (SMC) (MIM 607326) are rare allelic autosomal recessive spondylo-epi-metaphyseal dysplasias (SEMDs) characterized by similar skeletal manifestations. Both phenotypes have been mapped to chromosome 18q21.1 and mutations in the DYM (dymeclin) gene were identified in 13 families with DMC and in two families with SMC. Most mutations identified in DMC predict a loss of function, while those identified in SMC are mainly missense mutations, presumably associated with residual DYM activity and a less severe phenotype. We studied three consanguineous families from Turkey, Lebanon, and Georgia, one with SMC and two with DMC and identified different homozygous DYM mutations (IVS3 194-1G > A, 938_942delTGTCT) in the DMC families. No mutation was identified in the SMC family, possibly suggesting genetic heterogeneity of this disorder.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 03/2006; 140(5):421-6. · 2.30 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a young girl with microphthalmia, conductive deafness, aortic isthmus stenosis, laryngomalacia, and laryngeal stenosis carrying a de novo supernumerary neocentromeric derivative chromosome 13. For the precise identification and characterization of the eu- and heterochromatic content of the marker chromosome, straightforward molecular cytogenetic analyses were performed, such as chromosome microdissection, FISH with different probes (e.g. wcp, alphoid centromeric probes, BAC), centromere-specific multicolor FISH (cenM-FISH), and multicolor banding (MCB). The analyses demonstrated that the marker consisted of an inverted duplication (partial tetrasomy) of the distal portion of chromosome 13 that was separated from the endogenous chromosome 13 centromere. Using an all-centromere probe and multicolor cenM-FISH, no alpha-satellite DNA hybridization signal was detectable on any portion of the derivative chromosome. The presence of a functional and active neocentromere on the derivative chromosome 13 was confirmed by positive immunofluorescence signals with CENP-C antibodies. BAC-FISH confirmed the cytogenetic localization of the neocentromere in band 13q31.3. Thus the patient had a mosaic conventional karyotype mos 47,XX,+inv dup(13)(qter-->q21.3::q21.3-->q31.3-->neo-->q31.3-->qter)/46,XX .
Cytogenetic and Genome Research 02/2006; 114(3-4):325-9. · 1.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome (SGS) is a disorder of unknown cause comprising craniosynostosis, a marfanoid habitus and skeletal, neurological, cardiovascular, and connective-tissue anomalies. There are no pathognomonic signs of SGS and diagnosis depends on recognition of a characteristic combination of anomalies. Here, we describe 14 persons with SGS and compare their clinical findings with those of 23 previously reported individuals, including two families with more than one affected individual. Our analysis suggests that there is a characteristic facial appearance, with more than two thirds of all individuals having hypertelorism, down-slanting palpebral fissures, a high-arched palate, micrognathia, and apparently low-set and posteriorly rotated ears. Other commonly reported manifestations include hypotonia in at least the neonatal period, developmental delay, and inguinal or umbilical hernia. The degree of reported intellectual impairment ranges from mild to severe. The most common skeletal manifestations in SGS were arachnodactyly, pectus deformity, camptodactyly, scoliosis, and joint hypermobility. None of the skeletal signs alone is specific for SGS. Our study includes 14 mainly German individuals with SGS evaluated over a period of 10 years. Given that only 23 other persons with SGS have been reported to date worldwide, we suggest that SGS may be more common than previously assumed.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 07/2005; 135(3):251-62. · 2.30 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Platyspondylic lethal skeletal dysplasia (PLSD) Torrance type (PLSD-T) is a rare skeletal dysplasia characterized by platyspondyly, brachydactyly, and metaphyseal changes. Generally a perinatally lethal disease, a few long-term survivors have been reported. Recently, mutations in the carboxy-propeptide of type II collagen have been identified in two patients with PLSD-T, indicating that PLSD-T is a type 2 collagen-associated disorder. We studied eight additional cases of PLSD-T and found that all had mutations in the C-propeptide domain of COL2A1. The mutational spectrum includes missense, stop codon and frameshift mutations. All non-sense mutations were located in the last exon, where they would escape non-sense-mediated RNA-decay. We conclude that PLSD-T is caused by mutations in the C-propeptide domain of COL2A1, which lead to biosynthesis of an altered collagen chain (as opposed to a null allele). Similar mutations have recently been found to be the cause of spondyloperipheral dysplasia, a non-lethal dominant disorder whose clinical and radiographical features overlap those of the rare long-term survivors with PLSD-T. Thus, spondyloperipheral dysplasia and PLSD-T constitute a novel subfamily within the type II collagenopathies, associated with specific mutations in the C-propeptide domain and characterized by distinctive radiological features including metaphyseal changes and brachydactyly that set them apart from other type 2 collagenopathies associated with mutations in the triple-helical domain of COL2A1. The specific phenotype of C-propeptide mutations could result from a combination of diminished collagen fibril formation, toxic effects through the accumulation of unfolded collagen chains inside the chondrocytes, and alteration of a putative signaling function of the carboxy-propeptide of type 2 collagen.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 03/2005; 133A(1):61-7. · 2.30 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Congenital nephrotic syndrome (CNS) is clinically and genetically heterogeneous, with mutations in WT1, NPHS1 and NPHS2 accounting for part of cases. We recently delineated a new autosomal recessive entity comprising CNS with diffuse mesangial sclerosis and distinct ocular anomalies with microcoria as the leading clinical feature (Pierson syndrome). On the basis of homozygosity mapping to markers on chromosome 3p14-p22, we identified homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations of LAMB2 in patients from five unrelated families. Most disease-associated alleles were truncating mutations. Using immunohistochemistry and western blotting we could demonstrate that the respective LAMB2 mutations lead to loss of laminin beta2 expression in kidney and other tissues studied. Laminin beta2 is known to be abundantly expressed in the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) where it is thought to play a key role in anchoring as well as differentiation of podocyte foot processes. Lamb2 knockout mice were reported to exhibit congenital nephrosis in association with anomalies of retina and neuromuscular junctions. By studying ocular laminin beta2 expression in unaffected controls, we detected the strongest expression in the intraocular muscles corresponding well to the characteristic hypoplasia of ciliary and pupillary muscles observed in patients. Moreover, we present first clinical evidence of severe impairment of vision and neurodevelopment due to LAMB2 defects. Our current data suggest that human laminin beta2 deficiency is consistently and specifically associated with this particular oculorenal syndrome. In addition, components of the molecular interface between GBM and podocyte foot processes come in the focus as potential candidates for isolated and syndromic CNS.
Human Molecular Genetics 12/2004; 13(21):2625-32. · 7.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To define the range of phenotypic expression in Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS; Franceschetti-Klein syndrome), we performed mutation analysis in the TCOF1 gene in 46 patients with tentative diagnosis of TCS and evaluated the clinical data, including a scoring system. A total of 27 coding exons of TCOF1 and adjacent splice junctions were analysed by direct sequencing. In 36 patients with a clinically unequivocal diagnosis of TCS, we detected 28 pathogenic mutations, including 25 novel alterations. No mutation was identified in the remaining eight patients with unequivocal diagnosis of TCS and 10 further patients, in whom the referring diagnosis of TCS was clinically doubtful. There is no overt genotype-phenotype correlation except that conductive deafness is significantly less frequent in patients with mutations in the 3' part of the open reading frame. Inter- and intrafamilial variation is wide. Some mutation carriers, parents of typically affected patients, are so mildly affected that the diagnosis might be overlooked clinically. This suggests that modifying factors are important for phenotypic expression. Based on these findings, minimal diagnostic criteria were defined: downward slanting palpebral fissures and hypoplasia of the zygomatic arch. The difficulties in genetic counselling, especially diagnosis of family members with a mild phenotype, are described.
European Journal of HumanGenetics 12/2004; 12(11):879-90. · 4.32 Impact Factor