[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adult patients with mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalating clinical trial and were randomly assigned to receive three injections of either the LEISH-F1+MPL-SE vaccine (consisting of 5, 10, or 20 μg recombinant Leishmania polyprotein LEISH-F1 antigen+25 μg MPL(®)-SE adjuvant) (n=36) or saline placebo (n=12). The study injections were given subcutaneously on Days 0, 28, and 56, and the patients were followed through Day 336 for safety, immunological, and clinical evolution endpoints. All patients received standard chemotherapy with sodium stibogluconate starting on Day 0. The vaccine was safe and well tolerated, and induced both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. Furthermore, intracellular cytokine staining showed an increase in the proportion of memory LEISH-F1-specific IL-2(+) CD4 T-cells after vaccination, which was associated with clinical cure. This clinical trial shows that the LEISH-F1+MPL-SE vaccine is safe and immunogenic in patients with ML.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Forty-four adult patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, controlled, dose-escalating clinical trial and were randomly assigned to receive three injections of either the LEISH-F1+MPL-SE vaccine (consisting of 5, 10, or 20 μg recombinant Leishmania polyprotein LEISH-F1 antigen+25 μg MPL-SE adjuvant) (n=27), adjuvant alone (n=8), or saline placebo (n=9). The study injections were given subcutaneously on Days 0, 28, and 56, and the patients were followed through Day 336 for safety, immunological, and clinical evolution endpoints. All patients received chemotherapy with meglumine antimoniate starting on Day 0. The vaccine was safe and well tolerated. Nearly all vaccine recipients and no adjuvant-alone or placebo recipients demonstrated an IgG antibody response to LEISH-F1 at Day 84. Also at Day 84, 80% of vaccine recipients were clinically cured, compared to 50% and 38% of adjuvant-alone and placebo recipients. The LEISH-F1+MPL-SE vaccine was safe and immunogenic in CL patients and appeared to shorten their time to cure when used in combination with meglumine antimoniate chemotherapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Healthy Colombian adult volunteers with no history of leishmaniasis were evaluated for evidence of previous subclinical infection with Leishmania based on the Montenegro skin test (MST). Twelve MST-positive subjects were enrolled in an open-label, uncontrolled clinical trial (the "MST-positive trial") and received three injections of the LEISH-F1+MPL-SE vaccine (consisting of 10 microg recombinant Leishmania polyprotein LEISH-F1 antigen [TSA+LmSTI1+LeIF]+25 microg MPL-SE adjuvant). Sixty-eight MST-negative subjects were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial (the "MST-negative trial") and were randomly assigned to receive three injections of either the vaccine (n=34), 10 microg LEISH-F1 protein alone (n=17), or saline placebo (n=17). In both trials, the study injections were given subcutaneously on Days 0, 28, and 56, and subjects were followed for safety and immunological endpoints. The LEISH-F1+MPL-SE vaccine was safe and well tolerated in MST-positive and MST-negative subjects. In both trials, an IFN-gamma response to the LEISH-F1 antigen at Day 84 was observed in more than half of the vaccine recipients. In the MST-negative trial, the IFN-gamma response was significantly more frequent and of greater magnitude in vaccine recipients than in protein-alone or placebo recipients. An IgG antibody response to LEISH-F1 was observed in all vaccine recipients. In both trials, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to LEISH-F1 was observed in most of the vaccine recipients. In the MST-negative trial, DTH was significantly higher in vaccine than placebo recipients. These clinical trials of the first defined vaccine for leishmaniasis show that the LEISH-F1+MPL-SE vaccine is safe and immunogenic in healthy subjects with and without evidence of previous subclinical infection with Leishmania.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present here the identification and characterization of Leishmania sterol 24-c-methyltransferase (SMT), as well as data on protection of mice immunized with this Ag formulated in MPL-SE. Serological evaluation revealed that SMT is recognized by VL patients. C57BL/6 mice immunized with this vaccine candidate plus MPL-SE showed Ag-specific Th1 immune responses characterized by robust production of IFN-gamma upon specific Ag re-exposure in vitro. Upon challenge with L. infantum, mice immunized with SMT plus MPL-SE showed significant lower parasite burdens in both spleens and livers compared with non-immunized mice or mice injected with adjuvant alone. The results indicate that SMT/MPL-SE can be an effective vaccine candidate for use against VL.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Leishmania-derived recombinant polyprotein Leish-111f or its three component proteins, thiol-specific antioxidant (TSA), Leishmania major stress-inducible protein 1 (LmSTI1), and Leishmania elongation initiation factor (LeIF), have previously been demonstrated to be efficacious against cutaneous or mucosal leishmaniasis in mice, nonhuman primates, and humans. In this study we demonstrate that Leish-111f is also a vaccine antigen candidate against visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania infantum. We evaluated the immune response and protection induced by Leish-111f formulated with monophosphoryl lipid A in a stable emulsion (Leish-111f+MPL-SE) and demonstrated that mice developed strong humoral and T-cell responses to the vaccine antigen. Analysis of the cellular immune responses of immunized, uninfected mice demonstrated that the vaccine induced a significant increase in CD4(+) T cells producing gamma interferon, interleukin 2, and tumor necrosis factor cytokines, indicating a Th1-type immune response. Experimental infection of immunized mice and hamsters demonstrated that Leish-111f+MPL-SE induced significant protection against L. infantum infection, with reductions in parasite loads of 99.6%, a level of protection greater than that reported for other vaccine candidates in animal models of VL. Taken together, our results suggest that this vaccine represents a good candidate for use against several Leishmania species. The Leish-111f+MPL-SE product we report here is the first defined vaccine for leishmaniasis in human clinical trials and has completed phase 1 and 2 safety and immunogenicity testing in normal, healthy human subjects.
Infection and Immunity 10/2007; 75(9):4648-54. · 4.07 Impact Factor