L H Lam

The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong

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Publications (5)10.65 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The effects of long-term chronic ketamine treatment on the intestine and the liver were studied in the ICR mice which had daily intraperitoneal injection of ketamine at 30 mg/kg per day for 7 months. The intestine showed no significant pathology after treatment but had a decrease of the positive sites of proliferative cell nuclear antigen in the mucosae of the intestines after ketamine and ketamine plus alcohol (added in the last month) treatment. No significant apoptosis (via TUNEL) nor necrosis (via lactic acid dehydrogenase) was detected in the intestines of all control and ketamine-treated groups, with the exception of an increase of lactic acid dehydrogenase in the mucosae of the intestines of the ketamine plus alcohol group. In the liver, loss of glycogen was observed in animals after ketamine and ketamine plus alcohol treatment, in addition to the pathology reported in a previous work. The decrease in quantity of glycogen in the liver reflected either a failure of glycogen synthesis from glucose or an increase of glycogenolysis in the liver.
    Microscopy Research and Technique 05/2012; 75(9):1170-5. · 1.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: White button mushroom extract was examined in this study on (1) its potential effect on angiogenesis in chorioallantoic culture and (2) its recovering effect on the skin after injury in the ICR mice. Methods used included TUNEL assay on apoptosis, immunohistochemistry for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), and immune factor CD4 and western blotting. The results of chorioallantoic culture showed that the mushroom treatment led to significant increase in densities of VEGF sites. In the skin injury, ICR mice model increased EGF, PCNA, and collagen fibers, along with decrease of TUNEL positive apoptotic cells and limited reaction of TGF-β and CD4 indicated that white button mushroom extract appeared to have beneficial effects on skin in regeneration and after injury. Microsc. Res. Tech. 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Microscopy Research and Technique 05/2012; 75(10):1334-40. · 1.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chinese medicine has a long history of several thousand years. The main form of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is composite, i.e. a mixture of up to 10 medicinal products. Thus a composite prescription of 4-5 kinds of Chinese medicinal products may contain several hundred kinds of chemical composition. The active ingredients and clinical efficacy of which are difficult to characterize. We aim to review the Chinese literature of TCMs with neuroprotective effects. We illustrate with our study on Pien Tze Huang (PZH) the use of in vivo tests in the study of composite TCM. Our results show evidence that PZH might have neuropreventive effects in rats.
    Current Medicinal Chemistry 08/2011; 18(23):3590-4. · 3.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ketamine, an injectable anesthetic, is also a popular recreational drug used by young adults worldwide. Ketamine is a non-competitive antagonist of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor, which plays important roles in synaptic plasticity and neuronal learning. Most previous studies have examined the immediate and short-term effects of ketamine, which include learning and cognitive deficits plus impairment of working memory, whereas little is known about the long-term effects of repeated ketamine injections of common or usual recreational doses. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the deficits in brain functions with behavioral tests, including wire hang, hot plate and water maze tests, plus examine prefrontal cortex apoptotic markers, including Bax, Bcl-2 and caspase-3, in mice treated with 6 months of daily ketamine administration. In our study, following 6 months of ketamine injection, mice showed significant deterioration in neuromuscular strength and nociception 4 hours post-dose, but learning and working memory were not affected nor was there significant apoptosis in the prefrontal cortex. Our research revealed the important clinical finding that long-term ketamine abuse with usual recreational doses can detrimentally affect neuromuscular strength and nociception as part of measurable, stable and persistent deficits in brain function.
    Human & Experimental Toxicology 11/2010; 30(9):1287-96. · 1.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stroke caused by brain ischemia is the third leading cause of adult disability. Active prevention and early treatment of stroke targeting the causes and risk factors may decrease its incidence, mortality and subsequent disability. Pien Tze Huang (PZH), a Chinese medicine formula, was found to have anti-edema, anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic effects that can prevent brain damage. This study aims to investigate the potential mechanisms of the preventive effects of Pien Tze Huang on brain damage caused by chronic ischemia and hypertensive stroke in rats. The effects of Pien Tze Huang on brain protein expression in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) and stroke prone SHR (SHRsp) were studied with 2-D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometric analysis with a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF)/TOF tandem mass spectrometer and on brain cell death with enzyme link immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunostaining. Pien Tze Huang decreased cell death in hippocampus and cerebellum caused by chronic ischemia and hypertensive stroke. Immunostaining of caspase-3 results indicated that Pien Tze Huang prevents brain cells from apoptosis caused by ischemia. Brain protein expression results suggested that Pien Tze Huang downregulated QCR2 in the electron transfer chain of mitochondria preventing reactive oxygen species (ROS) damage and possibly subsequent cell death (caspase 3 assay) as caused by chronic ischemia or hypertensive stroke to hippocampus and cerebellum. Pien Tze Huang showed preventive effects on limiting the damage or injury caused by chronic ischemia and hypertensive stroke in rats. The effect of Pien Tze Huang was possibly related to prevention of cell death from apoptosis or ROS/oxidative damage in mitochondria.
    Chinese Medicine 10/2010; 5:35. · 2.34 Impact Factor