Ling Qin

University of Yamanashi, Kōfu-shi, Yamanashi-ken, Japan

Are you Ling Qin?

Claim your profile

Publications (29)87.48 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Though accumulating literature implicates that cytokines are involved in the pathophysiology of mental disorders, the role of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) in learning and memory functions remains unresolved. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of IL-6 on amygdala-dependent fear learning. Adult Wistar rats were used along with the auditory fear conditioning test and pharmacological techniques. The data showed that infusions of IL-6, aimed at the amygdala, dose-dependently impaired the acquisition and extinction of conditioned fear. In addition, the results in the Western blot analysis confirmed that JAK/STAT was temporally activated-phosphorylated by the IL-6 treatment. Moreover, the rats were treated with JSI-124, a JAK/STAT3 inhibitor, prior to the IL-6 treatment showed a significant decrease in the IL-6-induced impairments of fear conditioning. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the learning behavior of rats in the auditory fear conditioning could be modulated by IL-6 via the amygdala. Furthermore, the JAK/STAT3 activation in the amygdala seemed to play a role in the IL-6 mediated behavioral alterations of rats in auditory fear learning.
    Behavioural Brain Research 09/2014; · 3.33 Impact Factor
  • Renjia Zhong, Ling Qin, Yu Sato
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Several decades of research have provided evidence that the basal ganglia are closely involved in motor processes. Recent clinical, electrophysiological, behavioral data have revealed that the basal ganglia also receive afferent input from the auditory system, but the detailed auditory response characteristics have not yet reported. The present study aimed to reveal the acoustic response properties of neurons in parts of the basal ganglia. We recorded single-unit activities from the putamen (PU) and globus pallidus (GP) of awake cats passively listening to pure-tones, click-trains and natural sounds. Our major findings are: 1) Responses in both PU and GP neurons were elicited by pure-tone stimuli, while PU neurons had lower intensity thresholds, shorter response latencies, shorter excitatory duration and larger response magnitudes than GP neurons. 2) Some GP neurons showed a suppressive response lasting throughout the stimulus period. 3) Both PU and GP had a low ability to follow the periodically repeated click stimuli. Most of neurons only showed a phasic response at the stimulus onset and offset. 4) In response to natural sounds, PU also showed a stronger magnitude and shorter duration of excitatory response than GP. The selectivity for natural sounds was low in both nuclei. 5) Non-biological environmental sounds were more efficient to evoke neural responses in PU and GP than the vocalizations of con-species and other species. Our results provide insights into how acoustic signals are processed in the basal ganglia and revealed the distinction of PU and GP in sensory representation.
    Journal of Neurophysiology 02/2014; · 3.30 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sound envelope plays a crucial role in perception: ramped sounds (slow attack and quick decay) are louder in strength and longer in subjective duration than damped sounds (quick attack and slow decay) even if they are equal in intensity and physical duration. To explain the asymmetrical perception, the perceptual constancy hypothesis supposes that the listener eliminates the slow decay of damped sounds from the judgment of perception, while the persistence of perception hypothesis supposes asymmetrical neural responses after the source has stopped. To understand neural mechanisms underlying the perceptual asymmetry, we explored response properties of the primary auditory cortex (A1) neurons during ramped and damped stimuli in awake cats. We found two distinct types of cell tuned to specific features of the sound envelope: edge cells sensitive to the temporal edge, such as quick attack and decay, while slope cells sensitive to slow attack and decay. The former needs a short (< 2.5 ms) period of stimulus duration for evoking maximal peak responses, while the latter needs a long (20 ms) period, suggesting that the timescale of processing underlies differential sensitivity between the cell types. The findings suggest that perceptual constancy is not yet be executed at A1 because the specific cells distinguishing the direction of amplitude change (attack or decay) are lacking in A1. On the other hand, there is evidence of persistence of perception: overall response duration during ramped sound reached 1.4 times longer than that during damped sound, originating mainly from the response asymmetry of the edge cell (sensitive to the quick decay of ramped sounds but not to the slow decay of damped sounds), and neuronal persistence of excitation after the termination of ramped sounds was substantially longer than that of damped sounds, corresponding to the psychological evidence of persistence of perception.
    Neuroscience 10/2013; · 3.12 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Neural representation of acoustic stimuli in the mammal auditory cortex (AC) has been extensively studied using anesthetized or awake nonbehaving animals. Recently, several studies have shown that active engagement in an auditory behavioral task can substantially change the neuron response properties compared with when animals were passively listening to the same sounds; however, these studies mainly investigated the effect of behavioral state on the primary auditory cortex and the reported effects were inconsistent. Here, we examined the single-unit spike activities in both the primary and nonprimary areas along the dorsal-to-ventral direction of the cat's AC, when the cat was actively discriminating click-trains at different repetition rates and when it was passively listening to the same stimuli. We found that the changes due to task engagement were heterogeneous in the primary AC; some neurons showed significant increases in driven firing rate, others showed decreases. But in the nonprimary AC, task engagement predominantly enhanced the neural responses, resulting in a substantial improvement of the neural discriminability of click-trains. Additionally, our results revealed that neural responses synchronizing to click-trains gradually decreased along the dorsal-to-ventral direction of cat AC, while nonsynchronizing responses remained less changed. The present study provides new insights into the hierarchical organization of AC along the dorsal-to-ventral direction and highlights the importance of using behavioral animals to investigate the later stages of cortical processing.
    Journal of Neuroscience 08/2013; 33(32):13126-37. · 6.91 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: For humans and animals, the ability to discriminate speech and conspecific vocalizations is an important physiological assignment of the auditory system. To reveal the underlying neural mechanism, many electrophysiological studies have investigated the neural responses of the auditory cortex to conspecific vocalizations in monkeys. The data suggest that vocalizations may be hierarchically processed along an anterior/ventral stream from the primary auditory cortex (A1) to the ventral prefrontal cortex. To date, the organization of vocalization processing has not been well investigated in the auditory cortex of other mammals. In this study, we examined the spike activities of single neurons in two early auditory cortical regions with different anteroposterior locations: anterior auditory field (AAF) and posterior auditory field (PAF) in awake cats, as the animals were passively listening to forward and backward conspecific calls (meows) and human vowels. We found that the neural response patterns in PAF were more complex and had longer latency than those in AAF. The selectivity for different vocalizations based on the mean firing rate was low in both AAF and PAF, and not significantly different between them; however, more vocalization information was transmitted when the temporal response profiles were considered, and the maximum transmitted information by PAF neurons was higher than that by AAF neurons. Discrimination accuracy based on the activities of an ensemble of PAF neurons was also better than that of AAF neurons. Our results suggest that AAF and PAF are similar with regard to which vocalizations they represent but differ in the way they represent these vocalizations, and there may be a complex processing stream between them.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e52942. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Previously we investigated representations of human vowels in the primary auditory cortex (A1) of awake cats [Qin, et al., J. Neurophysiol., 99, 2305–2319, 2008]. Herein we develop an auditory model with a multichannel neural pathway to replicate such representations in A1 neurons. The model consists of seven blocks: the basilar membrane (BM), inner hair cell (IHC), primary auditory nerve (AN), ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN), inferior colliculus (IC), medial geniculate body (MGB), and A1. Weighted summations across the channels are introduced into the VCN, IC, MGB, and A1 blocks because lateral inhibition is observed for these connections. We evaluated the constructed model by simulating the responses of A1 neurons to human vowels. The output from the model of five Japanese vowels successfully represented the formants of vowels. Because this model generates pulse trains similar to neural firings in A1 neurons, it can be used to convert acoustical signals into electrical stimuli as part of an auditory brain–machine interface for individuals with severe hearing impairment.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Understanding the physiological role of the auditory cortex (AC) in acoustic perception is an essential issue in auditory neuroscience. By comparing sound discrimination behaviors in animals before and after AC lesion, many studies have demonstrated that AC is necessary for the perceptual process of human vowels and animal vocalizations, but is not necessary to discriminate simple acoustic parameters such as sound onset, intensity and duration. Because a lesion study cannot fully reveal the function of AC under normal conditions, in this study, we combined electrophysiological recording and psychophysical experiments on the same animal to investigate whether AC is involved in a simple auditory task. We recorded the neural activities of the primary auditory cortex (A1) using implanted electrodes, while freely-moving cats performed a tone-detection task in which they were required to lick a metal tube to obtain a food reward after hearing a tone pip. The performance of the cats' behavioral response increased with the increase of tone intensity, and the neural activities of A1 covaried with the behavioral performance. Also, whether the tone-detection behavior was interfered by a wideband noise was dependent on whether the tone-evoked neural response was masked by the noise-evoked response. Our results did not support that A1 neurons directly associate with the cat's behavioral decision; instead, they may mainly generate a neural representation of stimulus amplitude for further processing to determine whether a tone occurred or not.
    Behavioural brain research 06/2012; 232(1):114-23. · 3.22 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to clarify stimulus pulse parameters effective to elicit behaviors of cats trained to detect electric pulse stimuli through chronically implanted electrodes in the primary auditory cortex. One or two pulse parameters were systematically shifted from the standard stimulus consisting of constant-current pulses of amplitude 80 μA, duration 0.2 ms, number of pulses 33, and rate 200 Hz (compatible with interpulse interval 5 ms). Interaction between the pulse amplitude and pulse duration was investigated: although the proportion of stimulus detection responses increased with increasing phase charge (pulse amplitude×pulse duration), a combination of relatively high amplitude during short pulse duration elicited a higher proportion of detection responses when phase charge was constant. Interaction between the number of pulses and interpulse intervals was investigated. We found that the proportion of detection responses is explained by the linear function of two factors, overall charge (phase charge×the number of pulses) and train duration: the proportion of detection responses increased with increasing overall charge and decreasing train duration. Interaction between pulse amplitude and the number of pulses was investigated. We again found that the proportion of detection responses is explained by the linear function of overall charge and train duration in the amplitude-number shift paradigm. Thus, the behavior performance (proportion of detection responses) is a linear time function of overall charge and train duration regardless of the stimulus paradigm. We believe that the findings will contribute to the development of auditory cortex implants for transfer of auditory information directly to the brain.
    Neuroscience 03/2012; 206:81-8. · 3.12 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Responses of primary auditory cortex (A1) neurons to frequency-modulated (FM) tones are heterogenic in awake cats. These neurons include tonic and phasic cells, which show sustained and phasic responses, respectively. FM responses of phasic cells increase as the sweep speed during the frequency modulation increases. In contrast, tonic cell responses decrease with an increase in the sweep speed. To explain the FM responses of A1 neurons, we developed an auditory model with a multichannel neural pathway. The model consists of seven blocks: the basilar membrane (BM), the inner hair cell (IHC), the primary auditory nerve (AN), the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN), the inferior colliculus (IC), the medial geniculate body (MGB), and the A1 neuron. Weighted summations across the channels were introduced to the VCN, IC, MGB, and A1 blocks because lateral inhibition is observed in these connections. The model output successfully replicated physiological data of the response patterns and the peak–speed relationship in the FMresponses. This model can be used to convert acoustical signals into electrical stimuli as part of an auditory brain–machine interface for individuals with severe hearing impairments.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Repeated acoustic events are ubiquitous temporal features of natural sounds. To reveal the neural representation of the sound repetition rate, a number of electrophysiological studies have been conducted on various mammals and it has been proposed that both the spike-time and firing rate of primary auditory cortex (A1) neurons encode the repetition rate. However, previous studies rarely examined how the experimental animals perceive the difference in the sound repetition rate, and a caveat to these experiments is that they compared physiological data obtained from animals with psychophysical data obtained from humans. In this study, for the first time, we directly investigated acoustic perception and the underlying neural mechanisms in the same experimental animal by examining spike activities in the A1 of free-moving cats while performing a Go/No-go task to discriminate the click-trains at different repetition rates (12.5-200 Hz). As reported by previous studies on passively listening animals, A1 neurons showed both synchronized and non-synchronized responses to the click-trains. We further found that the neural performance estimated from the precise temporal information of synchronized units was good enough to distinguish all 16.7-200 Hz from the 12.5 Hz repetition rate; however, the cats showed declining behavioral performance with the decrease of the target repetition rate, indicating an increase of difficulty in discriminating two slower click-trains. Such behavioral performance was well explained by the firing rate of some synchronized and non-synchronized units. Trial-by-trial analysis indicated that A1 activity was not affected by the cat's judgment of behavioral response. Our results suggest that the main function of A1 is to effectively represent temporal signals using both spike timing and firing rate, while the cats may read out the rate-coding information to perform the task in this experiment.
    PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(10):e25895. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Brain machine interface (BMI) is one of useful techniques to compensate the deteriorated sensory functions. For the purpose of aid of auditory impediment, we have developed a sound-stimulus signal conversion interface for an auditory BMI that is based on the response of primary auditory cortex (A1) cells. In A1 neuron responses, amplitude-modulated (AM) sound is encoded as spike rate information of the tonic response, and frequency-modulated (FM) sound is encoded as the order of active place in the brain. In signal processing, the sound signals were divided into frequency bands by using a digital filter bank for FM sound. The separate signals were then converted to pulse train signals to deal with AM. In this manner, a voice-pulse conversion method that is based on A1 neuron response to AM and FM sound was constructed. Additionally, in order to examine which frequency band division method was suitable for vowel identification, we got the self-organizing map to learn the number of pulses for each output channel. The result showed that the exponential processing was best. Under the condition, the formant information is left behind and the classification of vowels is possible.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Auditory temporal cues are very important in the perception of speech; nevertheless, the neural correlates underlying even a simple temporal task, such as interval discrimination, remain unclear, mainly due to the lack of comparable data of psychophysical and electrophysiological experiments in the same species. To address this, we measured both behavioral and neural responses in cats. Cats' ability to discriminate differences in sound intervals was tested by presenting two identical pure tone markers interrupted by intervals ranging from 10 to 320ms duration. All three subjects could accurately discriminate tones of 80-320ms interval from those of 10ms interval (correct rate>75%), but could not discriminate 20-40ms interval from 10ms interval. Neural responses to the same stimuli were recorded in the primary auditory cortex (A1) of three others awake cats. Consistent with previous studies, we found that the majority of A1 neurons showed a suppressed response to the second tone, and the amount of suppression generally increased with the decrease of intertone interval. Neurometric analysis revealed that neural responses could be used to discriminate the intertone interval, while discrimination performance was dependent on temporal precision to read the neural information. When spike activities were analyzed by 100ms bin size, 80% of neurometric functions matched the cats' psychometric function, suggesting a possible correlation between A1 activities and interval perception.
    Behavioural brain research 12/2010; 215(1):28-38. · 3.22 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Neural responses to frequency modulated (FM) sweeps have been well investigated in single-units using electrophysiological recording methods. However, rare psychophysical experiments were conducted to investigate behavioral discrimination of FM-sweeps in the same species used in physiological experiments. Also, the previous studies have not focused on how the population of cortical neurons works together to encode the direction of FM-sweeps. To investigate the relation between the behavioral perception of FM direction and the population coding, we examined the cat's capability to discriminate the upward and downward FM-sweeps and recorded the neural responses to the same stimuli from the primary auditory cortex (A1) in different awake cats. We found that cats showed high performance to detect the change of direction of FM-sweeps, which linearly swept between 0.1 and 16kHz in 40-160ms duration; however, the behavioral performance obviously deteriorated when the sweeps were shortened to 10-20ms. Physiological results indicated that the upward sweeps elicited a temporal sequence of responses among the A1 neurons, in which neurons tuning to low-frequencies responded earlier and those tuning to high-frequencies later, while the response sequence was reversed when A1 was driven by the downward sweeps. The rank-order of response latencies could provide a reliable discrimination of the FM direction, and the discrimination performance paralleled with the cat's behavioral performance. Our result suggests that the relative response timings in A1 contain enough information used by subsequent processing stages to make the decision of FM direction.
    Behavioural brain research 11/2010; 217(2):315-25. · 3.22 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Systemic administration of salicylate at high doses can induce reversible tinnitus and hyperacusis in humans and animals. For this reason, a number of studies have investigated the salicylate-induced changes of neural activity in the auditory cortex (AC); however, most previous studies of the AC were conducted on brain slices or anesthetized animals, which cannot completely represent the actual conditions. Few efforts have been made to examine the neural activity of awake animals, and only recorded the local field potential (LFP) of the AC. In this study, we recorded neural spike activities from chronically implanted electrodes in the primary AC (A1) of awake cats, and investigated the changes of neural responses to pure-tone and click-train stimuli after systemic injection of 200 mg/kg salicylate. We found that sound-evoked spike activities were significantly increased from 1 h after salicylate administration, and the increase of neural responses lasted longer than 3 days with a peak at 12 h. Salicylate not only increased the amplitude of transient responses at the onset and offset of pure-tone stimuli, but also induced a sustained response during the prolonged stimulus period and a late response at ∼100 ms after stimulus offset. The significant enhancement of neural responses was observed over the entire tested frequency range (0.1-16 kHz) with a relative peak in the band of 3.2-9.6 kHz. The capability of exhibiting spikes synchronizing with successive clicks was also enhanced. All these effects were more apparent when the neurons were driven by high intensity sounds. Salicylate-administration also decreased the mean spontaneous rate in A1 units, and the decrease of spontaneous rate was larger in the units with a high initial spontaneous rate. Our data confirm that salicylate can modulate the neural activity at the cortical level and provide more information for understanding the mechanism of salicylate-induced tinnitus.
    Neuroscience 10/2010; 172:232-45. · 3.12 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sound duration is important for distinguishing auditory object. Previous studies on the neural representation of duration have usually lacked psychophysical data obtained from the same species; hence, the correspondence between neural and behavioral discrimination of duration remains obscure. We addressed this issue in cats by using the signal detection theory to investigate both neural activities in the primary auditory cortex (A1) and the cat's behavioral performance. We found that 320 ms duration can be well discriminated from 10 ms duration by some A1 neurons with specific response patterns: sustained response extended proportionally with the increase of stimulus duration and the On-Off response synchronizing stimulus onset and offset. Neurons with only On response cannot discriminate duration. The discrimination performance of both sustained and On-Off responses deteriorated as the target duration decreased from 320 to 20 ms and the percentage of discriminative neurons (correct rate >0.75) decreased from 40 to 2%. Compared with the psychophysical results, we found that the psychometric functions of cats well matched the neurometric functions of most sustained-response neurons and a small number of On-Off-response neurons. Pooling the spikes of multiple units improved neural discrimination, which may be attributable to the salience (noise reduction) of the responses in pooled data. Our results suggest that the sustained and Off responses of A1 neurons underlie the duration discrimination behavior of cats.
    Journal of Neuroscience 12/2009; 29(50):15650-9. · 6.91 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Primary auditory cortex (AI) neurons show qualitatively distinct response features to successive acoustic signals depending on the inter-stimulus intervals (ISI). Such ISI-dependent AI responses are believed to underlie, at least partially, categorical perception of click trains (elemental vs. fused quality) and stop consonant-vowel syllables (eg.,/da/-/ta/continuum). Single unit recordings were conducted on 116 AI neurons in awake cats. Rectangular clicks were presented either alone (single click paradigm) or in a train fashion with variable ISI (2-480 ms) (click-train paradigm). Response features of AI neurons were quantified as a function of ISI: one measure was related to the degree of stimulus locking (temporal modulation transfer function [tMTF]) and another measure was based on firing rate (rate modulation transfer function [rMTF]). An additional modeling study was performed to gain insight into neurophysiological bases of the observed responses. In the click-train paradigm, the majority of the AI neurons ("synchronization type"; n = 72) showed stimulus-locking responses at long ISIs. The shorter cutoff ISI for stimulus-locking responses was on average ~30 ms and was level tolerant in accordance with the perceptual boundary of click trains and of consonant-vowel syllables. The shape of tMTF of those neurons was either band-pass or low-pass. The single click paradigm revealed, at maximum, four response periods in the following order: 1st excitation, 1st suppression, 2nd excitation then 2nd suppression. The 1st excitation and 1st suppression was found exclusively in the synchronization type, implying that the temporal interplay between excitation and suppression underlies stimulus-locking responses. Among these neurons, those showing the 2nd suppression had band-pass tMTF whereas those with low-pass tMTF never showed the 2nd suppression, implying that tMTF shape is mediated through the 2nd suppression. The recovery time course of excitability suggested the involvement of short-term plasticity. The observed phenomena were well captured by a single cell model which incorporated AMPA, GABAA, NMDA and GABAB receptors as well as short-term plasticity of thalamocortical synaptic connections. Overall, it was suggested that ISI-dependent responses of the majority of AI neurons are configured through the temporal interplay of excitation and suppression (inhibition) along with short-term plasticity.
    BMC Neuroscience 03/2009; 10:10. · 3.00 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We investigated how the primary auditory cortex (AI) neurons encode the two major requisites for auditory scene analysis, i.e., spectral and temporal information. Single-unit activities in awake cats AI were studied by presenting 0.5-s-long tone bursts and click trains. First of all, the neurons (n=92) were classified into 3 types based on the time-course of excitatory responses to tone bursts: 1) phasic cells (P-cells; 26%), giving only transient responses; 2) tonic cells (T-cells; 34%), giving sustained responses with little or no adaptation; and 3) phasic-tonic cells (PT-cells; 40%), giving sustained responses with some tendency of adaptation. Other tone-response variables differed among cell types. For example, P-cells showed the shortest latency and smallest spiking jitter while T-cells had the sharpest frequency tuning. PT-cells generally fell in the intermediate between the two extremes. Click trains also revealed between-neuron-type differences for the emergent probability of excitatory responses (P-cells>PT-cells>T-cells) and their temporal features. For example, a substantial fraction of P-cells conducted stimulus-locking responses, but none of the T-cells did. f(r)-dependency characteristics of the stimulus locking resembled that reported for "comodulation masking release," a behavioral model of auditory scene analysis. Each type neurons were omnipresent throughout the AI and none of them showed intrinsic oscillation. These findings suggest that: 1) T-cells preferentially encode spectral information with a rate-place code and 2) P-cells preferentially encode acoustic transients with a temporal code whereby rate-place coded information is potentially bound for scene analysis.
    Brain research 02/2009; 1265:80-92. · 2.46 Impact Factor
  • Neuroscience Research 01/2009; 65. · 2.20 Impact Factor
  • Ling Qin, Jingyu Wang, Yu Sato
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Previous studies in anesthetized animals reported that the primary auditory cortex (A1) showed homogenous phasic responses to FM tones, namely a transient response to a particular instantaneous frequency when FM sweeps traversed a neuron's tone-evoked receptive field (TRF). Here, in awake cats, we report that A1 cells exhibit heterogeneous FM responses, consisting of three patterns. The first is continuous firing when a slow FM sweep traverses the receptive field of a cell with a sustained tonal response. The duration and amplitude of FM response decrease with increasing sweep speed. The second pattern is transient firing corresponding to the cell's phasic tonal response. This response could be evoked only by a fast FM sweep through the cell's TRF, suggesting a preference for fast FM. The third pattern was associated with the off response to pure tones and was composed of several discrete response peaks during slow FM stimulus. These peaks were not predictable from the cell's tonal response but reliably reflected the time when FM swept across specific frequencies. Our A1 samples often exhibited a complex response pattern, combining two or three of the basic patterns above, resulting in a heterogeneous response population. The diversity of FM responses suggests that A1 use multiple mechanisms to fully represent the whole range of FM parameters, including frequency extent, sweep speed, and direction.
    Journal of Neurophysiology 09/2008; 100(3):1622-34. · 3.30 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Ling Qin, Jing Yu Wang, Yu Sato
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Previous investigation of neural responses to cat meows in the primary auditory cortex (A1) of the anesthetized cat revealed a preponderance of phasic responses aligned to stimulus onset, offset, or envelope peaks. Sustained responses during stationary components of the stimulus were rarely seen. This observation motivates further investigation into how stationary components of naturalistic auditory stimuli are encoded by A1 neurons. We therefore explored neuronal response patterns in A1 of the awake cat using natural meows, time-reversed meows, and human vowels as stimuli. We found heterogeneous response types: approximately 2/3 of units classified as "phasic cells" responding only to amplitude envelope variations and the remaining 1/3 were "phasic-tonic cells" with continuous responses during the stationary components. The classification was upheld across all stimuli tested for a given cell. The differences of phasic responses were correlated with amplitude-envelope differences in the early stimulus portion (<100 ms), whereas the differences between tonic responses were correlated with ongoing spectral differences in the later stimulus portion. Phasic-tonic cells usually had a characteristic frequency (CF) <5 kHz, which corresponded to the dominant spectral range of vocalizations, suggesting that the cells encode spectral information. Phasic cells had CFs across the tested frequency range (<16 kHz). Instantaneous firing rates for natural and time-reversed meows were different, but mean rates for different categories of stimuli were similar. Evidence for cat's A1 preferring conspecific meows was not found. These functionally heterogeneous responses may serve to encode ongoing changes in sound spectra or amplitude envelope occurring throughout the entirety of the sound stimulus.
    Journal of Neurophysiology 05/2008; 99(5):2305-19. · 3.30 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

208 Citations
87.48 Total Impact Points


  • 2003–2013
    • University of Yamanashi
      • • Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering
      • • Faculty of Medicine
      Kōfu-shi, Yamanashi-ken, Japan
  • 2012
    • China Medical University (PRC)
      • Department of Physiology
      Shenyang, Liaoning, China