[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastrin and its precursors act as growth factors for the normal and neoplastic gastrointestinal mucosa. As the hypoxia mimetic cobalt chloride upregulates the gastrin gene, the effect of other metal ions on gastrin promoter activity was investigated. Gastrin mRNA was measured by real-time PCR, gastrin peptides by RIA, and gastrin promoter activity by dual-luciferase reporter assay. Exposure to Zn(2)(+) ions increased gastrin mRNA concentrations in the human gastric adenocarcinoma cell line AGS in a dose-dependent manner, with a maximum stimulation of 55±14-fold at 100 μM (P<0.05). Significant stimulation was also observed with Cd(2)(+) and Cu(2)(+), but not with Ca(2)(+), Mg(2)(+), Ni(2)(+), or Fe(3)(+) ions. Activation of MAPK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathways is necessary but not sufficient for gastrin induction by Zn(2)(+). Deletional mutation of the gastrin promoter identified an 11 bp DNA sequence, which contained an E-box motif, as necessary for Zn(2)(+)-dependent gastrin induction. The fact that E-box binding transcription factors play a crucial role in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), together with our observation that Zn(2)(+) ions upregulate the gastrin gene in AGS cells by an E-box-dependent mechanism, suggests that Zn(2)(+) ions may induce an EMT, and that gastrin may be involved in the transition.
Journal of Molecular Endocrinology 01/2014; 52(1):29-42. · 3.58 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is a lethal condition in patients receiving androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer (PC). Despite numerous studies showing the expression of HIF1α protein under normoxia in PC cell lines, the role of this normoxic HIF1α expression in chemo-resistance and migration has not been investigated previously. As no method is currently available to determine which tumors will progress to CRPC, the role of HIF1α in PC and its potential for predicting the development of CRPC was also investigated.
The effect of HIF1α protein knockdown on chemo-resistance and migration of PC3 cells was assessed by cell counting and Transwell assays, respectively. Translation efficiency of HIF1α mRNA was determined in PC cells using a HIF1α 5'UTR-luciferase construct. Clinical outcomes were correlated following the staining of 100 prostate tumors for HIF1α expression.
The CRPC-like cell lines (PC3 and DU145) expressed more HIF1α protein than an androgen sensitive cell line (LNCaP). Migration rate and chemo-resistance were higher in the PC3 cells and both were decreased when HIF1α expression was reduced. Increased translation of HIF1α mRNA may be responsible for HIF1α overexpression in PC3 cells. Patients whose tumors expressed HIF1α had significantly decreased metastasis-free survival and the patients who were on androgen-deprivation therapy had decreased CRPC-free survival on Kaplan-Meier analysis. On multivariate analysis HIF1α was an independent risk factor for progression to metastatic PC (Hazard ratio (HR) 9.8, p = 0.017) and development of CRPC (HR 10.0, p = 0.021) in patients on androgen-deprivation therapy. Notably the tumors which did not express HIF1α did not metastasize or develop CRPC.
HIF1α is likely to contribute to metastasis and chemo-resistance of CRPC and targeted reduction of HIF1α may increase the responsiveness of CRPCs to chemotherapy. Expression of HIF1α may be a useful screening tool for development of CRPC.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e54251. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastrin and its precursors have been shown to promote mitogenesis and angiogenesis in gastrointestinal tumors. Hypoxia stimulates tumor growth, but its effect on gastrin gene regulation has not been examined in detail. Here we have investigated the effect of hypoxia on the transcription of the gastrin gene in human gastric cancer (AGS) cells. Gastrin mRNA was measured by real-time PCR, gastrin peptides were measured by RIA, and gastrin promoter activity was measured by dual-luciferase reporter assay. Exposure to a low oxygen concentration (1%) increased gastrin mRNA concentrations in wild-type AGS cells (AGS) and in AGS cells overexpressing the gastrin receptor (AGS-cholecystokinin receptor 2) by 2.1 ± 0.4- and 4.1 ± 0.3-fold (P < 0.05), respectively. The hypoxia mimetic, cobalt chloride (300 μM), increased gastrin promoter activity in AGS cells by 2.4 ± 0.3-fold (P < 0.05), and in AGS-cholecystokinin receptor 2 cells by 4.0 ± 0.3-fold (P < 0.05), respectively. The observations that either deletion from the gastrin promoter of the putative binding sites for the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) or knockdown of either the HIF-1α or HIF-1β subunit did not affect gastrin promoter inducibility under hypoxia indicated that the hypoxic activation of the gastrin gene is likely HIF independent. Mutational analysis of previously identified Sp1 regulatory elements in the gastrin promoter also failed to abrogate the induction of promoter activity by hypoxia. The observations that hypoxia up-regulates the gastrin gene in AGS cells by HIF-independent mechanisms, and that this effect is enhanced by the presence of gastrin receptors, provide potential targets for gastrointestinal cancer therapy.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The involvement of the gastrointestinal hormone gastrin in the development of gastrointestinal cancer is highly controversial. Here we demonstrate a positive-feedback loop whereby gastrin, acting via the CCK2 receptor, increases its own expression. Such an autocrine loop has not previously been reported for any other gastrointestinal hormone. Gastrin promoter activation was dependent on the MAP kinase pathway and did not involve Sp1 binding sites or epidermal growth factor receptor transactivation. As the treatment of gastrointestinal cancer cells with amidated gastrin led to increased expression of non-amidated gastrins, the positive-feedback loop may contribute to the sustained increase in circulating gastrins observed in colorectal cancer patients.