[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transient transformation has been a useful procedure for characterization of proteins and their functions in plants, including analysis of protein-protein interactions. Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation of Nicotiana benthamiana by leaf infiltration has been widely used due to its ease and high efficiency. However, in Arabidopsis this procedure has been challenging. Previous studies suggested that this difficulty was caused by plant immune responses triggered by perception of Agrobacterium. Here, we report a simple and robust method for Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation in Arabidopsis. AvrPto is an effector protein from the bacterial plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae that suppresses plant immunity by interfering with plant immune receptors. We used transgenic Arabidopsis plants that conditionally express AvrPto under the control of a dexamethasone (DEX)-inducible promoter. When the transgenic plants were pretreated with DEX prior to infection with Agrobacterium carrying a β-glucuronidase (GUS, uidA) gene with an artificial intron and driven by the CaMV 35S promoter, transient GUS expression was dramatically enhanced compared to that in mock-pretreated plants. This transient expression system was successfully applied to analysis of the subcellular localization of a cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) fusion and a protein-protein interaction in Arabidopsis. Our findings enable efficient use of Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation in Arabidopsis thaliana.
The Plant Journal 02/2012; 69(4):713-9. · 6.58 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Arabidopsis RPS2 is a typical nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat resistance protein, which indirectly recognizes the bacterial effector protein AvrRpt2 and thereby activates effector-triggered immunity (ETI). Previously, we identified two hypersensitive induced reaction (AtHIR) proteins, AtHIR1 (At1g09840) and AtHIR2 (At3g01290), as potential RPS2 complex components. AtHIR proteins contain the stomatin/prohibitin/flotillin/HflK/C domain (also known as the prohibitin domain or band 7 domain). In this study, we confirmed that AtHIR1 and AtHIR2 form complexes with RPS2 in Arabidopsis and Nicotiana benthamiana using a pulldown assay and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) analysis. Arabidopsis has four HIR family genes (AtHIR1-4). All AtHIR proteins could form homo- and hetero-oligomers in vivo and were enriched in membrane microdomains of the plasma membrane. The mRNA levels of all except AtHIR4 were significantly induced by microbe-associated molecular patterns, such as the bacterial flagellin fragment flg22. Athir2-1 and Athir3-1 mutants allowed more growth of Pto DC3000 AvrRpt2, but not Pto DC3000, indicating that these mutations reduce RPS2-mediated ETI but do not affect basal resistance to the virulent strain. Overexpression of AtHIR1 and AtHIR2 reduced growth of Pto DC3000. Taken together, the results show that the AtHIR proteins are physically associated with RPS2, are localized in membrane microdomains, and quantitatively contribute to RPS2-mediated ETI.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2011; 286(36):31297-307. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Arabidopsis thaliana calmodulin binding protein 60g (CBP60g) contributes to production of salicylic acid (SA) in response to recognition of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) such as flg22, a fragment of bacterial flagellin. Calmodulin binding is required for the function of CBP60g in limiting growth of the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola (Pma) ES4326 and activation of SA synthesis. Here, we describe a closely related protein, SARD1. Unlike CBP60g, SARD1 does not bind calmodulin. Growth of Pma ES4326 is enhanced in sard1 mutants. In cbp60g sard1 double mutants, growth of Pma ES4326 is greatly enhanced, and SA levels and expression of PR-1 and SID2 are dramatically reduced. Expression profiling placed the CBP60g/SARD1 node between the PAD4/EDS1 and SA nodes in the defense signaling network, and indicated that CBP60g and SARD1 affect defense responses in addition to SA production. A DNA motif bound by CBP60g and SARD1, GAAATTT, was significantly over-represented in promoters of CBP60g/SARD1-dependent genes, suggesting that expression of these genes is modulated by CBP60g/SARD1 binding. Gene expression patterns showed a stronger effect of cbp60g mutations soon after activation of a defense response, and a stronger effect of sard1 mutations at later times. The results are consistent with a model in which CBP60g and SARD1 comprise a partially redundant protein pair that is required for activation of SA production as well as other defense responses, with CBP60g playing a more important role early during the defense response, and SARD1 to playing a more important role later.
The Plant Journal 05/2011; 67(6):1029-41. · 6.58 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: RNA-binding proteins (RBP) can control gene expression at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Plants respond to pathogen infection with rapid reprogramming of gene expression. However, little is known about how plant RBP function in plant immunity. Here, we describe the involvement of an RBP, Arabidopsis thaliana RNA-binding protein-defense related 1 (AtRBP-DR1; At4g03110), in resistance to the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. AtRBP-DR1 loss-of-function mutants showed enhanced susceptibility to P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Overexpression of AtRBP-DR1 led to enhanced resistance to P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 strains and dwarfism. The hypersensitive response triggered by P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 avrRpt2 was compromised in the Atrbp-dr1 mutant and enhanced in the AtRBP-DR1 overexpression line at early time points. AtRBP-DR1 overexpression lines showed higher mRNA levels of SID2 and PR1, which are salicylic acid (SA) inducible, as well as spontaneous cell death in mature leaves. Consistent with these observations, the SA level was low in the Atrbp-dr1 mutant but high in the overexpression line. The SA-related phenotype in the overexpression line was fully dependent on SID2. Thus, AtRBP-DR1 is a positive regulator of SA-mediated immunity, possibly acting on SA signaling-related genes at a post-transcriptional level.