[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:To determine the prevalence and incidence of epiretinal membranes (ERM) in eyes with inactive extramacular cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Methods:A case-control report from a longitudinal multicenter observational study the Studies of the Ocular Complications of AIDS (SOCA) Research Group.357 eyes of 270 patients with inactive CMV retinitis and 1084 eyes of 552 patients with no ocular opportunistic infection (OOI) were studied. Stereoscopic views of the posterior pole from fundus photographs were assessed at baseline and year 5 visits for the presence of the macular ERM. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) logistic regression was used to compare the prevalence and 5-year incidence of ERM in eyes with and without CMV retinitis at enrollment. Crude and adjusted logistic regression was performed adjusting for possible confounders. Main outcome measures included the prevalence, incidence, estimated prevalence and incidence odds ratios. Results:The prevalence of ERM at enrollment was 14.8% (53/357) in eyes with CMV retinitis vs. 1.8 % (19/1084) in eyes with no OOI. The incidence of ERM at 5 years was 18.6% (16/86) in eyes with CMV retinitis vs. 2.4% (6/253) in eyes with no OOI. The crude odds ratio (OR) [95% CI] for prevalence was 9.8, [5.5 - 17.5] (p<0.01). The crude OR [95% CI] for incidence was 9.4, [3.2 - 27.9] (p<0.01). Conclusions: A history of extramacular CMV retinitis is associated with increased prevalence and incidence of ERM formation compared to eyes without ocular opportunistic infections in AIDS patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose
This study sought to determine the validity of self-report of prior panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) and focal photocoagulation (FP) compared with fundus photography.
Prospective cohort study.
One thousand three hundred sixty-three type 1 diabetic subjects from the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study, a subset of the 1441 subjects originally enrolled in the multicenter Diabetes Control and Complications Trial.
At each annual visit, subjects were asked by EDIC staff whether they had undergone PRP, FP, or both since the last completed annual clinic visit. Fundus photographs were collected from one quarter of the cohort each year and from the entire cohort at EDIC years 4 and 10. Photographs were graded for the presence and extent of PRP and FP. Seventeen years of subject reporting and photograph grading of PRP and FP were compared in EDIC subjects.
Main Outcome Measures
The κ, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated for subject-reported PRP and FP. Factors influencing subject misreporting were investigated.
For subject reporting, 1244 (96%) of 1296 subjects with gradable photographs accurately reported whether they had a history of PRP in one or both eyes, and 1259 (97.5%) of 1291 with valid photographs correctly reported their history of FP. For PRP and FP, sensitivities were 90.4% and 74.0%, respectively; specificities were 96.0% and 98.8%, respectively; positive predictive values were 75.9% and 80.3%, respectively; negative predictive values were 98.9% and 98.4%, respectively; and κ values were 0.80 and 0.76, respectively. Risk factors associated with misreporting included prior laser for diabetic retinopathy and prior ocular surgery (each P<0.04).
For subjects with type 1 diabetes, in the absence of a clinical examination or fundus photographs, subject self-report could be a reliable tool in a well-monitored study for assessing laser treatment type in diabetic retinopathy.
The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
To compare evaluation by clinical examination with image grading at a reading center for the classification of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema.
Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) and Family Investigations of Nephropathy in Diabetes (FIND) had similar methods of clinical and fundus photograph evaluation. For analysis purposes, the photographic grading scales were condensed to correspond to the clinical scales, and agreement between clinicians and reading center classification were compared.
Six thousand nine hundred and two eyes of ACCORD participants and 3,638 eyes of FIND participants were analyzed for agreement (percent, kappa) on diabetic retinopathy on a 5-level scale. Exact agreement between clinicians and reading center on diabetic retinopathy severity category was 69% in ACCORD and 74% in FIND (kappa 0.42 and 0.65). Sensitivities of the clinical grading to identify the presence of mild nonproliferative retinopathy or worse were 0.53 in ACCORD and 0.84 in FIND. Specificities were 0.97 and 0.96, respectively. Diabetic macular edema agreement in 6,649 eyes of ACCORD participants and 3,366 eyes of FIND participants was similar (kappa 0.35 and 0.41). Sensitivities of the clinical grading to identify diabetic macular edema were 0.44 and 0.53 and specificities were 0.99 and 0.94, respectively.
The results support the use of clinical information for defining broad severity categories but not for documenting small-to-moderate changes in diabetic retinopathy over time.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Changes in retinal vascular caliber measured from digital color fundus photographs have been independently associated with systemic outcomes in epidemiologic studies, but the effect of image resolution and compression on vascular measurements has not been previously evaluated.
To explore image compression, 40 natively digital fundus images were selected with good photo quality, high spatial resolution, and no previous image compression. Using Adobe Photoshop, these images were compressed at progressively higher levels up to 147:1, and then retinal vascular caliber was measured at each level using semiautomated software. To examine resolution, 40 fundus photographs acquired on high-resolution film were scanned with settings corresponding to 10, 7, 5, 3, and 1 megapixel fundus cameras. After adjusting for scale factor, vascular caliber was measured at each level of resolution. Data were analyzed by comparing the calculated central retinal arteriole equivalent (CRAE) and the central retinal venular equivalent (CRVE) of the original and altered images, using repeated measures ANOVA.
CRAE became significantly wider with increasing levels of compression at the 25:1 threshold (~1 μm wider, P < 0.001) and was ~5 μm wider with 147:1 compression. CRVE also increased, but less than CRAE. Using 7 (megapixel)-MP resolution as the standard, CRVE was significantly narrower at the 5-MP simulation (~2 μm, P < 0.001) and was ~12 μm narrower at the 1-MP simulation. CRAE also decreased, but less than CRVE.
Increasing digital image file compression and decreasing fundus image spatial resolution led to skewed measurements of the retinal vascular caliber.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate relationships between retinal vessel caliber and tests of visual function among people with AIDS.
Longitudinal, observational cohort study.
We evaluated data for participants without ocular opportunistic infections at initial examination (baseline) in the Longitudinal Studies of the Ocular Complications of AIDS (1998-2008). Visual function was evaluated with best-corrected visual acuity, Goldmann perimetry, automated perimetry (Humphrey Field Analyzer), and contrast sensitivity (CS) testing. Semi-automated grading of fundus photographs (1 eye/participant) determined central retinal artery equivalent (CRAE), central retinal vein equivalent (CRVE), and arteriole-to-venule ratio (AVR) at baseline. Multiple linear regression models, using forward selection, sought independent relationships between indices and visual function variables.
Included were 1250 participants. Smaller AVR was associated with reduced visual field by Goldmann perimetry (P = .003) and worse mean deviation (P = .02) on automated perimetry and possibly with worse pattern standard deviation (PSD) on automated perimetry (P = .06). There was a weak association between smaller AVR and worse CS (P = .07). Relationships were independent of antiretroviral therapy and level of immunodeficiency (CD4+ T lymphocyte count, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] RNA blood level). On longitudinal analysis, retinal vascular indices at baseline did not predict changes in visual function.
Variation in retinal vascular indices is associated with abnormal visual function in people with AIDS, manifested by visual field loss and possibly by reduced CS. Relationships are consistent with the hypothesis that HIV-related retinal vasculopathy is a contributing factor to vision dysfunction among HIV-infected individuals. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether changes in indices predict change in visual function.
American Journal of Ophthalmology 03/2012; 153(3):428-433.e1. DOI:10.1016/j.ajo.2011.08.027 · 3.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate relationships between retinal vessel caliber, AIDS-related factors, and mortality.
Longitudinal, observational cohort study.
We evaluated data for participants without ocular opportunistic infections at initial examination (baseline) in the Longitudinal Studies of the Ocular Complications of AIDS (1998-2008). Semi-automated evaluation of fundus photographs (1 eye/participant) determined central retinal artery equivalent (CRAE), central retinal vein equivalent (CRVE), and arteriole-to-venule ratio (AVR) at baseline. Multiple linear regression models, using forward selection, identified independent relationships between indices and various host- and disease-related variables.
Included were 1250 participants. Mean follow-up for determination of mortality was 6.1 years. Smaller CRAE was related to increased age (P < .001) and hypertension (P < .001); larger CRAE was related to lower hematocrit (P = .002). Larger CRAE and CRVE were associated with black race (P < .001). Larger CRVE was related to smoking (P = .004); smaller CRVE was related to age (P < .001) and higher mean corpuscular volume (P = .001). We observed the following relationships with AIDS-associated factors: smaller CRAE and larger CRVE with history of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART; P < .001); and larger CRAE with lower CD4+ T lymphocyte count (P = .04). We did not identify independent relationships with human immunodeficiency virus RNA blood levels. There was a 12% (95% CI, 2%-21%) increase in mortality risk per quartile of decreasing AVR (P = .02).
Variations in retinal vascular caliber are associated with AIDS-specific factors and are markers for increased mortality risk. Relationships are consistent with the hypothesis that the vasculature is altered by known atherogenic effects of chronic HAART or the prolonged inflammatory state associated with AIDS.
American Journal of Ophthalmology 03/2012; 153(3):434-444.e1. DOI:10.1016/j.ajo.2011.08.028 · 3.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies have used central retinal arteriolar (CRAE) and central retinal venular (CRVE) calibers, measured from images produced with computerized image analysis, to detect risk factors for systemic diseases. The authors explored suboptimal image focus as a possible contributing factor to artificially larger vascular caliber measurements.
From the reading center image collections, 30 digital retinal images were selected for optimum quality. Image analysis software was used to derive nine progressively blurred versions of the originals. IVAN measurement software was used to measure CRAE and CRVE in the original and the blurred series derived from them. To check the adequacy of the simulation, progressively defocused series of images were taken of several volunteers.
For CRAE, each level of simulated blurring produced a statically significant increase in apparent vessel caliber from the original (P<0.01, Wilcoxon signed rank test). For an average CRAE of 160 μm, mean broadening with minimal/moderate/severe blurring was 3 μm/12 μm/33 μm. For CRVE, every blurring level beyond the first was found to be significant (P<0.01). From an average CRVE of 200 μm, mean broadening ranged from 0 to 11 μm with minimal to severe blurring. Analysis of the progressively defocused series taken of volunteers yielded similar results overall.
Suboptimal focus can result in erroneously larger vessel caliber measurements. Slight blurring has a minimal effect, but more severe blurring has a progressively greater effect.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe the transition to digital imaging and assess any impact on ocular disease classification.
Film and digital images, acquired by certified photographers, were evaluated independently according to standard procedures for the following: image quality, presence of cytomegalovirus retinitis lesions, and their extent and proximity from disk and macula. Intergrader agreement within the digital medium was also assessed.
Among the 15 eyes with cytomegalovirus retinitis, the mean difference between film and digital images for linear distance of lesion edge to disk was 0.02 disk diameters, for distance to center of macula was -0.04 disk diameters, and area covered by cytomegalovirus retinitis was 0.95 disk area. There was no statistically significant difference in distance and area measurements between media. Intergrader agreement in measurements of digital images was excellent for distance and area estimated.
Our results suggest that digital grading of cytomegalovirus retinitis in Longitudinal Studies of the Ocular Complications of AIDS is comparable with that from film regarding disease classification, measurements, and reproducibility. These findings provide support for continuity of grading data, despite the necessary transition in imaging media.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare diabetic retinopathy (DR) severity as evaluated by digital and film images in a long-term multicenter study, as the obsolescence of film forced the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications Study (DCCT/EDIC) to transition to digital after 25 years.
At 20 clinics from 2007 through 2009, 310 participants with type 1 diabetes with a broad range of DR were imaged, per the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) protocol, with both film and digital cameras. Severity of DR was assessed centrally from film and tonally standardized digital cameras. For retinopathy outcomes with greater than 10% prevalence, we had 85% or greater power to detect an agreement κ of 0.7 or lower from our target of 0.9.
Comparing DR severity, digital vs film yielded a weighted κ of 0.74 for eye level and 0.73 for patient level ("substantial"). Overall, digital grading did not systematically underestimate or overestimate severity (McNemar bias test, P = .14). For major DR outcomes (≥3-step progression on the ETDRS scale and disease presence at ascending thresholds), digital vs film κ values ranged from 0.69 to 0.96 ("substantial" to "nearly perfect"). Agreement was 86% to 99%; sensitivity, 75% to 98%; and specificity, 72% to 99%. Major conclusions were similar with digital vs film gradings (odds reductions with intensive diabetes therapy for proliferative DR at EDIC years 14 to 16: 65.5% digital vs 64.3% film).
Digital and film evaluations of DR were comparable for ETDRS severity levels, DCCT/EDIC design outcomes, and major study conclusions, indicating that switching media should not adversely affect ongoing studies.
Archives of ophthalmology 06/2011; 129(6):718-26. DOI:10.1001/archophthalmol.2011.136 · 4.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Imaging of the retinal complications of diabetes mellitus is rapidly changing from the emergence of new technology such as optical coherence tomography. In particular, the characterization of diabetic macular edema is much easier for the clinician and there are new, more sensitive clinical research end points. However, our understanding of structure-functional relationships remains suboptimal and the classification of macular edema by optical coherence tomography continues to evolve. The classification of diabetic retinopathy severity continues to rely upon fundus photography, although the transition from film to digital photography presents both challenges and advantages.
Current Diabetes Reports 05/2011; 11(4):236-43. DOI:10.1007/s11892-011-0203-1 · 3.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare agreement between mosaicked and seven field photographs for classification of the diabetic retinopathy (DR) severity.
Mosaic digital (MosD) images were compared with seven field stereo film (7FF) and stereo digital (7FD) photographs from a 152-eye cohort with full-spectrum Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy severity levels for agreement on severity level, DR presence with ascending severity thresholds, DR index lesion presence, and classification repeatability.
There was a substantial agreement classifying the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study DR severity level between MosD and 7FF (kunweighted = 0.59, klinear weighted = 0.83), MosD and 7FD (κ = 0.62, κ weighted = 0.86), and 7FD and 7FF (κ = 0.62, κ weighted = 0.86) images. Marginal homogeneity analyses found no significant difference between MosD and 7FF (P = 0.44, Bhapkar's test). Kappa between MosD and 7FF ranged from 0.75 to 0.91 for the presence or absence of DR at 8 ascending severity thresholds. Repeatability among readers using MosD images was similar to repeatability among those using 7FF or 7FD. Repeatability among readers using MosD and 7FF images at various severity thresholds was similar. Kappa between MosD and 7FF grading for identifying DR lesions ranged from 0.61 to 1.00.
Mosaic images are generally comparable with standard seven-field photographs for classifying DR severity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microalbuminuria is a common diagnosis in the clinical care of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Long-term outcomes after the development of microalbuminuria are variable.
We quantified the incidence of and risk factors for long-term renal outcomes after the development of microalbuminuria in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC) study. The DCCT randomly assigned 1441 persons with type 1 diabetes to intensive or conventional diabetes therapy, and participants were subsequently followed up during the observational EDIC study. During the DCCT/EDIC study, 325 participants developed incident persistent microalbuminuria (albumin excretion rate, ≥30 mg/24 h at 2 consecutive study visits). We assessed their subsequent renal outcomes, including progression to macroalbuminuria (albumin excretion rate, ≥300 mg/24 h at 2 consecutive visits), impaired glomerular filtration rate (estimated glomerular filtration rate, <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) at 2 consecutive study visits), end-stage renal disease, and regression to normoalbuminuria (albumin excretion rate, <30 mg/24 h at 2 consecutive visits).
The median follow-up period after persistent microalbuminuria diagnosis was 13 years (maximum, 23 years). Ten-year cumulative incidences of progression to macroalbuminuria, impaired glomerular filtration rate, end-stage renal disease, and regression to normoalbuminuria were 28%, 15%, 4%, and 40%, respectively. Albuminuria outcomes were more favorable with intensive diabetes therapy, lower glycated hemoglobin level, absence of retinopathy, female sex, lower blood pressure, and lower concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides. Lower glycated hemoglobin level, absence of retinopathy, and lower blood pressure were also associated with decreased risk of impaired glomerular filtration rate.
After the development of persistent microalbuminuria, progression and regression of kidney disease each commonly occur. Intensive glycemic control, lower blood pressure, and a more favorable lipid profile are associated with improved outcomes.
Archives of internal medicine 03/2011; 171(5):412-20. DOI:10.1001/archinternmed.2011.16 · 17.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate digital photography parameters affecting comparability with the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) film protocol for diabetic retinopathy (DR) severity grading.
ETDRS protocol photographs and four variations of digital images (uncompressed stereoscopic, compressed stereoscopic, uncompressed monoscopic, and uncompressed monoscopic wide-angle mosaic) of 152 eyes were independently evaluated by using ETDRS classifications. Digital formats were compared to film and each other for agreement on severity level, DR presence at ascending threshold, presence of the DR index lesion, and repeatability of grading. Study parameters included image resolution sufficient to distinguish small lesions, color balancing of digital images to film, documenting essential ETDRS classification retinal regions, similar magnification, and supplementary green-channel viewing.
The κ statistic was substantial or near substantial between all digital formats and film for classifying severity levels (κ = 0.59-0.62; κ(w) [linear weighted] = 0.83-0.87). The distribution of DR levels in all digital formats was not significantly different from that of the film (Bhapkar test, P = 0.09-0.44). The κ among digital formats for severity level was also substantial or near substantial (κ = 0.58-0.76, κ(w) = 0.82-0.92). Differences between digital formats and film for grading severity level, severity threshold, or index lesions were not significant. The repeatability of grading between readers using film and all digital formats was also similar.
Digital format variations compared favorably with film for DR classification. Translating film characteristics (resolution, color/contrast) and protocol (magnification, retinal regions) to digital equivalents and augmentation of full color with green-channel viewing most likely contributed to the results.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess agreement between evaluations of monoscopic and stereoscopic digital images versus stereo film photographs in diabetic macular edema (DME).
A 152-eye group of digital monoscopic macular images (seven-field sets and wide-angle mosaics) were compared with digital stereoscopic images (uncompressed and compressed seven-field sets) and stereo 35-mm film photos (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study protocol) for the presence of hard exudates (HE), retinal thickening (RT), clinically significant macular edema (CSME), and RT at the center of the macular (RTCM).
Agreement, according to the κ statistic, was almost perfect in identifying HE and RT between all digital formats and stereo film (HE, κ = 0.81-0.87; RT, κ = 0.87-0.92). Distribution in all digital formats was not significantly different from that in film (Bhapkar test: HE, P = 0.20-0.40; RT, P = 0.06-1.0). CSME and RTCM grading differences were either significant or trended toward significance. The readers detected CSME and RTCM in film images more often than in digital formats. In identifying DME features, agreement between evaluations of monoscopic digital formats and film was similar to that between stereo digital formats and film, and the performance of uncompressed images versus film was similar to that of compressed images versus film. Repeatability between readers was similar in evaluations of film and all digital formats. Repeatability in identifying RTCM was lower than that of other DME components in film and all digital formats.
Stereoscopic digital formats are equivalent to monoscopic for DME evaluation, but digital photography is not as sensitive as film in detecting CSME and RTCM.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine the grading (interrater) reliability of the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) Clinical Lens Grading System (ARLNS).
Evaluation of diagnostic test or technology.
One hundred fifty volunteers (284 eyes).
Participants with lens opacities of varying severity were independently graded at the slit lamp for cataract severity by 2 examiners (retinal or anterior segment specialists) using the ARLNS, which employs 3 standard photographs of increasing severity for classifying each of the 3 major types of opacity. Lens photographs were taken and graded at a reading center using the more detailed AREDS System for Classifying Cataracts from photographs.
The Pearson correlation, weighted-kappa, and limits-of-agreement statistics were used to assess the interrater agreement of the gradings.
Examinations were performed on 284 lenses (150 participants). Tests of interrater reliability between pairs of clinicians showed substantial agreement between clinicians for cortical and posterior subcapsular opacities and moderate agreement for nuclear opacities. A similar pattern and strength of agreement was present when comparing scores of retinal versus anterior segment specialists. Interrater agreement between clinical and reading center gradings was not as great as inter-clinician agreement.
Interrater agreements were in the moderate to substantial range for the clinical assessment of lens opacities. Inherent differences in cataract classification systems that rely on slit lamp vs photographic assessments of lens opacities may explain some of the disagreement noted between slit lamp and photographic gradings. Given the interrater reliability statistics for clinicians and the simplicity of the grading procedure, ARLNS is presented for use in studies requiring a simple, inexpensive method for detecting the presence and severity of the major types of lens opacities.
The authors have no proprietary or commercial interest in any of the materials discussed in this article.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess agreement between digital and film photography for research classification of diabetic retinopathy severity.
Digital and film photographs from a 152-eye cohort with a full spectrum of Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) severity levels were assessed for repeatability of grading within each image medium and for agreement on ETDRS discrete severity levels, ascending severity thresholds, and presence or absence of diabetic retinopathy index lesions, between digital and 35-mm slides (film). Digital photographs were color balanced to match film.
There was substantial agreement (κ = 0.61, κ(w) [linear weighted] = 0.87) in classification of ETDRS diabetic retinopathy severity levels between digital images and film. Marginal homogeneity analyses found no significant difference in frequency distributions on the severity scale (P = 0.21, Bhapkar test). The κ results ranged from 0.72 to 0.95 for presence or absence of eight ascending diabetic retinopathy severity thresholds. Repeatability of grading between readers viewing digital images was equal to or better than that obtained with film (pair-wise interreader κ for digital images ranged from 0.47 to 0.57 and for film from 0.43 to 0.57. The κ results for identifying diabetic retinopathy lesions ranged from moderate to almost perfect. Moderate agreement of intraretinal microvascular abnormalities and venous beading between digital images and film accounted for slightly lower concordance for severity thresholds ≥47 and for slightly lower interreader agreement within digital and film images at severity thresholds ≥43 and ≥47.
Under controlled circumstances, digital photography can equal the reliability of 35-mm slides for research classification of ETDRS severity level.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare research grading of diabetic retinopathy (DR) severity level from compressed digital images versus uncompressed images and film.
Compressed (JPEG2000, 37:1) digital images (C) were compared with uncompressed digital (U) and film (F) stereoscopic photographs from a 152-eye cohort with full-spectrum Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study severity levels for agreement on severity level, DR presence with ascending severity threshold, presence of DR index lesions, and repeatability of grading.
Classification of Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study severity levels from C images agreed substantially with results from F images (κ = 0.60, κ(w) [linear weighted] = 0.86) and uncompressed digital images (κ = 0.76, κ(w) = 0.92). For agreement of uncompressed digital versus F images, κ = 0.62 and κ(w) = 0.86. Distribution of Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study levels was not significantly different between C and F images (P = 0.09, Bhapkar's test for marginal homogeneity). For presence/absence of DR at 8 ascending severity thresholds, agreement between C and F was "almost perfect" (κ ≥ 0.8). Agreement on severity level between readers with C images was at least as good as that with uncompressed digital image or F. Repeatability of severity threshold grading between readers was similar using C or F images. For identifying individual DR lesions, agreement between C and F ranged from "moderate" to "perfect." Agreement of grading venous beading from C was slightly lower than from F.
Full Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study scale DR severity level grading using C images is comparable to that using U images or film.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: We investigated whether intensive glycemic control, combination therapy for dyslipidemia, and intensive blood-pressure control would limit the progression of diabetic retinopathy in persons with type 2 diabetes. Previous data suggest that these systemic factors may be important in the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy. Methods: In a randomized trial, we enrolled 10,251 participants with type 2 diabetes who were at high risk for cardiovascular disease to receive either intensive or standard treatment for glycemia (target glycated hemoglobin level, <6.0% or 7.0 to 7.9%, respectively) and also for dyslipidemia (160 mg daily of fenofibrate plus simvastatin or placebo plus simvastatin) or for systolic blood-pressure control (target, <120 or <140 mm Hg). A subgroup of 2856 participants was evaluated for the effects of these interventions at 4 years on the progression of diabetic retinopathy by 3 or more steps on the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Severity Scale (as assessed from seven-field stereoscopic fundus photographs, with 17 possible steps and a higher number of steps indicating greater severity) or the development of diabetic retinopathy necessitating laser photocoagulation or vitrectomy. Results: At 4 years, the rates of progression of diabetic retinopathy were 7.3% with intensive glycemia treatment, versus 10.4% with standard therapy (adjusted odds ratio, 0.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51 to 0.87; P=0.003); 6.5% with fenofibrate for intensive dyslipidemia therapy, versus 10.2% with placebo (adjusted odds ratio, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.42 to 0.87; P=0.006); and 10.4% with intensive blood-pressure therapy, versus 8.8% with standard therapy (adjusted odds ratio, 1.23; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.79; P=0.29). Conclusions: Intensive glycemic control and intensive combination treatment of dyslipidemia, but not intensive blood-pressure control, reduced the rate of progression of diabetic retinopathy. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and others; ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00000620 for the ACCORD study and NCT00542178 for the ACCORD Eye study.) N Engl J Med 2010;363:233-44.
New England Journal of Medicine 07/2010; 363(3):233-244. DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa1001288 · 55.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess agreement between monoscopic and stereoscopic photography for research classification of the severity of diabetic retinopathy (DR).
Monoscopic digital (MD) images were compared with stereo digital (SD) and film (SF) photographs from a 152-eye cohort with full-spectrum Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) severity levels for agreement on severity level, DR presence with ascending severity threshold, presence of DR index lesions, and repeatability of grading.
There was substantial agreement classifying ETDRS DR severity levels between MD and SF (kappa = 0.65, kappa(w) [linear weighted] = 0.87), MD and SD (kappa = 0.66, kappa(w) = 0.87), and SD and SF (kappa = 0.62, kappa(w) = 0.86) images. Marginal homogeneity analyses found no significant difference between MD and SF images (P = 0.53, Bhapkar test). The kappa agreement between MD and SF ranged from 0.80 to 0.94 for the presence or absence of eight ascending DR severity thresholds. Repeatability between the readers of the MD images was equal to or better than that of the readers of SD or SF images. Severity threshold grading repeatability between readers was similar with the MD and SF images. The kappa agreement between MD and SF for identifying diabetic retinopathy lesions ranged from moderate to almost perfect. The kappa comparisons showed that performance of grading new vessels on the disc in MD images was slightly lower than that with the SF images.
Monoscopic photography can equal the reliability of stereo photography for full ETDRS DR severity scale grading.