Lars Søndergaard

Rigshospitalet, København, Capital Region, Denmark

Are you Lars Søndergaard?

Claim your profile

Publications (96)358.05 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In atrial fibrillation (AF) patients with an increased stroke risk, oral anticoagulation (OAC) is the standard treatment for stroke prevention. However, this therapy carries a high risk of major bleeding. Percutaneous closure of the left atrial appendage (LAA) is suggested as an alternative option for stroke prevention in AF patients with contraindication(s) for OAC treatment.
    Danish medical journal. 08/2014; 61(8):A4879.
  • Source
    Ole De Backer, Lars Lönn, Lars Søndergaard
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: An extensive thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) is a potentially life-threatening condition and remains a technical challenge to surgeons. Over the past decade, repair of aortic arch aneurysms has been accomplished using both hybrid (open and endovascular) and totally endovascular techniques. Thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR) has changed and extended management options in thoracic aorta disease, including in those patients deemed unfit or unsuitable for open surgery. Accordingly, transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is increasingly used to treat patients with symptomatic severe aortic valve stenosis (AS) who are considered at high risk for surgical aortic valve replacement. In this report, we describe the combined surgical and catheter-based treatment of an extensive TAA and aortic valve stenosis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of hybrid TAA repair combined with TAVR. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions 07/2014; · 2.51 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Exercise intolerance is frequent among Fontan patients and an important determinant for quality of life. This study investigated the hemodynamic causes of impaired exercise capacity in Fontan patients with particular focus on the influence of stroke volume index (SVI) and heart rate (HR).
    International journal of cardiology. 06/2014;
  • Source
    Circulation Cardiovascular Interventions 06/2014; 7(3):400-9. · 6.54 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Heart failure with preserved or mildly reduced ejection fraction (HFpEF) is common and, to date, therapeutic options are limited. Increased left atrial pressure is a key contributor to the symptoms associated with HFpEF, particularly during physical activity. We report the 30-day outcome of patients treated with a novel device intended to lower left atrial pressure by creating an 8 mm permanent shunt in the atrial septum.Methods and resultsEleven patients were enrolled in the pilot trial. Key inclusion criteria were: EF >45%; baseline PCWP ≥15 mmHg (rest), or ≥ 25 mmHg (exercise); and ≥1 hospitalization for heart failure within the past 12 months, or persistent NYHA class III/IV for at least 3 months. Mean age, LVEF, and NYHA class were 70 ± 12 years, 57 ± 9%, and 3.2 ± 0.4, respectively. Most patients had significant co-morbidities. The interatrial septal device (IASD) device was implanted using percutaneous trans-septal access via the femoral vein. The device was successfully implanted in all patients. At 30 days, LV filling pressures were significantly reduced by 5.5 mmHg (19.7 ± 3.4 vs. 14.2 ± 2.7; P = 0.005), and NYHA class was improved by two classes in two patients, one class in five patients, and worsened by one class in one patient. No patient developed pulmonary hypertension. Two serious adverse events occurred; heart failure re-hospitalization, and implant malposition successfully treated with a new device.Conclusion Contemporary management of HFpEF patients is confounded by the lack of effective therapies. The use of a device-based approach to reduce left atrial pressure provides a novel means to improve haemodynamic and symptomatic status in HFpEF patients and warrants further investigation.
    European Journal of Heart Failure 06/2014; · 5.25 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation has become an alternative to surgery in higher risk patients with symptomatic aortic stenosis. The aim of the ADVANCE study was to evaluate outcomes following implantation of a self-expanding transcatheter aortic valve system in a fully monitored, multi-centre 'real-world' patient population in highly experienced centres. Patients with severe aortic stenosis at a higher surgical risk in whom implantation of the CoreValve System was decided by the Heart Team were included. Endpoints were a composite of major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE; all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke, or reintervention) and mortality at 30 days and 1 year. Endpoint-related events were independently adjudicated based on Valve Academic Research Consortium definitions. A total of 1015 patients [mean logistic EuroSCORE 19.4 ± 12.3% [median (Q1,Q3), 16.0% (10.3, 25.3%)], age 81 ± 6 years] were enrolled. Implantation of the CoreValve System led to a significant improvement in haemodynamics and an increase in the effective aortic valve orifice area. At 30 days, the MACCE rate was 8.0% (95% CI: 6.3-9.7%), all-cause mortality was 4.5% (3.2-5.8%), cardiovascular mortality was 3.4% (2.3-4.6%), and the rate of stroke was 3.0% (2.0-4.1%). The life-threatening or disabling bleeding rate was 4.0% (2.8-6.3%). The 12-month rates of MACCE, all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and stroke were 21.2% (18.4-24.1%), 17.9% (15.2-20.5%), 11.7% (9.4-14.1%), and 4.5% (2.9-6.1%), respectively. The 12-month rates of all-cause mortality were 11.1, 16.5, and 23.6% among patients with a logistic EuroSCORE ≤10%, EuroSCORE 10-20%, and EuroSCORE >20% (P< 0.05), respectively. The ADVANCE study demonstrates the safety and effectiveness of the CoreValve System with low mortality and stroke rates in higher risk real-world patients with severe aortic stenosis.
    European Heart Journal 03/2014; · 14.10 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Conduction abnormalities (CA) requiring permanent pacemaker (PPM) are a well-known complication after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). This study aimed to determine the incidence of TAVI-related PPM and reevaluate the indications for PPM after the periprocedural period. A total of 258 consecutive patients underwent TAVI with the Medtronic CoreValve (MCV), whereas 24 patients were excluded from the study. TAVI-related PPM was defined as PPM implantation ≤30 days after the procedure and due to atrioventricular block (AVB). Third-degree AVB, second-degree type-II, or advanced second-degree AVB were considered as absolute indications for PPM. The incidence of TAVI-related PPM implantation was 27.4%. Forty-six patients (19.7%) had an absolute indication for PPM, but CA had resolved in 50% beyond the periprocedural period. Electrocardiographic analysis of the patients who did not have a TAVI-related PPM implantation showed that the PR and QRS intervals increased following TAVI, reaching a peak on days 4-6 and 7-9, respectively, before decreasing to near baseline levels. Although the incidence of periprocedural PPM implantation following TAVI was high, most CAs following TAVI tend to resolve after the periprocedural period. This suggests that delaying the decision for PPM implantation after TAVI may reduce the PPM rate.
    The Journal of invasive cardiology 02/2014; 26(2):94-9. · 1.57 Impact Factor
  • International journal of cardiology 01/2014; · 6.18 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Infective endocarditis (IE) following percutaneous pulmonary valve replacement (PPVR) with the Melody valve is rarely reported. Furthermore, there are challenges in this diagnosis; especially echocardiographic evidence of vegetation within the prosthesis may be difficult. This study is a retrospective review of all patients with Melody valve implantation in a tertiary centre. Between November 2006 and November 2012, 43 procedures were performed in 42 patients (mean age 25years, 6-67years). At a median follow-up of 27months (2-66months), six patients were suspected for IE. However, repeated transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) showed no evidence of IE and the patients were diagnosed as possible cases according to the modified Duke's criteria. Two patients did not respond to antibiotic treatment and underwent intra-cardiac echocardiography (ICE), which clearly demonstrated vegetations. These two cases required surgical explantation, while the other four patients were treated medically without complications. IE after Melody valve implantation is uncommon, but difficult to verify since TTE and TEE often cannot demonstrate vegetations inside the stent. ICE should be considered in suspected cases of IE following PPVR with negative TTE and TEE examinations in order to early tailor the best treatment for the individual patient suspected for IE.
    International journal of cardiology 10/2013; · 6.18 Impact Factor
  • EuroIntervention: journal of EuroPCR in collaboration with the Working Group on Interventional Cardiology of the European Society of Cardiology 09/2013; 9(5):650-3. · 3.17 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We aimed to assess the clinical and echocardiographic results of MitraClip implantation in non-central degenerative mitral regurgitation (dMR) compared to central dMR. It is unknown if the use of the MitraClip therapy in non-central dMR is as safe and effective as in central dMR. We analyzed a multicentre registry of 173 patients treated with MitraClip and compared results of central and non-central dMR. Seventy-nine patients (age 79.2±8.0 years, 58.2% males) had dMR. Forty-nine patients (62%) had central dMR with the remainder classified as non-central dMR (n=30, 38%). Patients with non-central dMR had a wider pre-procedural vena contracta (8.5±2.0 vs. 6.9±2.2 mm, p=0.039) and higher systolic pulmonary pressure (57.9±18.0 vs. 47.3±13.0 mmHg, p=0.019). Procedural success was the same in both groups (95.5% central vs. 96.7% non-central, p=0.866). Post-procedural MR and NYHA class at 1 month (MR≤2 96.0% vs. 96.6%, p=0.866 and NYHA ≤II 81.6% vs. 90.0%, p=0.335) and 6 months (95.2% central vs. 91.7% non-central, p=0.679; and NYHA class>II 21.1% vs. 0%. p=0.128) did not differ between groups. There were also no differences in serious post-procedural adverse events; partial clip detachment (central n=1 [2.0%] vs. non-central n=1 [3.3%], p=1.000), death (5.4% central vs. 13.0% non-central, p=0.298) or heart failure admission (10.8% central vs. 8.7% non-central, p=0.791). In experienced centers, MitraClip treatment can be performed safe and effective in both central and non-central dMR.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 08/2013; · 14.09 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aims: A new GORE® septal occluder (GSO) was granted CE mark in Europe in June 2011 for the treatment of patent foramen ovale and atrial septal defect. Major changes have been made to the device and delivery system compared to the HELEX® device. The new delivery system has simplified the implantation procedure and the retrievability of the device after deployment if needed. The design of the GSO has improved the device apposition ability and tissue response whilst keeping its atraumatic design, low septal profile with minimal septal distortion and long-term biocompatibility. The first three clinical cases of GSO use in the world are briefly described and the immediate and short-term outcome of the first eleven patients who underwent PFO or ASD closure using GSO in our centre are reported. Methods and results: The mean age of the eleven patients was 53±9 years and six of them were women. Ten of these patients had patent foramen ovale and one had secundum atrial septal defect. In all the cases, the GSO devices were successfully deployed in the first attempt without any complication. Only one patient had a minor residual shunt detected immediately after the device deployment. All the patients were re-assessed 70±33 days later and no residual shunt was detected in any of them. One of the patients had an episode of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. There was no device fracture found in the six patients who also had a fluoroscopic examination during follow-up. Conclusions: Our initial experience with GSO shows promise in handling and occlusion rate. Larger-scale and longer-term outcome on the performance of GSO is required to ensure safety and efficacy.
    EuroIntervention: journal of EuroPCR in collaboration with the Working Group on Interventional Cardiology of the European Society of Cardiology 06/2013; · 3.17 Impact Factor
  • International journal of cardiology 05/2013; · 6.18 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: We sought to examine the adoption of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in Western Europe and investigate factors that may influence the heterogeneous use of this therapy. BACKGROUND: Since commercialization in 2007, the number of TAVR procedures has grown exponentially. METHODS: The adoption of TAVR was investigated in 11 European countries: Germany, France, Italy, United Kingdom, Spain, Netherlands, Switzerland, Belgium, Portugal, Denmark, and Ireland. Data were collected from two sources: (1) lead physicians submitted nation-specific registry data; (2) an implantation-based TAVR-market tracker. Economic indices such as healthcare expenditure per capita, sources of healthcare funding, and reimbursement strategies were correlated to TAVR utilization. Furthermore, we assessed the extent to which TAVR has penetrated its potential patient population. RESULTS: Between 2007 and 2011, 34,317 patients underwent TAVR. Considerable variation in TAVR utilization existed across nations. In 2011, the number of TAVR implants per million ranged from 6.1 in Portugal to 88.7 in Germany (mean±standard deviation:33±25). The annual number of TAVR implants performed per center across nations also varied widely (range:10-89). The weighted average TAVR penetration rate was low: 17.9%. Significant correlation was found between TAVR use and healthcare spending per capita (r=0.80,p=0.005). TAVR-specific reimbursement systems were associated with higher TAVR use than restricted systems (698±232vs213±112 implants/million ≥75 years,p=0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that TAVR is underutilized in high and prohibitive surgical risk patients with severe aortic stenosis. National economic indices and reimbursement strategies are closely linked with TAVR use and help explain the inequitable adoption of this therapy.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 05/2013; · 14.09 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Palliative treatment with the Fontan procedure has greatly improved survival for children with functionally univentricular heart. Since Fontan performed the first successful operation, the procedure has evolved and is now performed as Total Cavo-Pulmonary Connection (TCPC).An increasing prevalence and longer life expectancy of TCPC patients have raised new challenges. The survivors are often suffering complications such as arrhythmias, myocardial dysfunction, thromboembolic events, neuropsychological deficit, protein-losing enteropathy and reduced exercise capacity. Several causes for the reduced exercise capacity may be present e.g. impaired function of the single ventricle, valve dysfunction and chronotropic impairment, and perhaps also increased pulmonary vascular resistance. Thus, plasma endothelin-1 has been shown to correlate with increased pulmonary vascular resistance and the risk of failing Fontan circulation. This has raised the question of the role for pulmonary vasodilation therapy, especially endothelin receptor antagonist in the management of TCPC patients. METHODS: The TEMPO trial aims to investigate whether Bosentan, an endothelin receptor antagonist, can be administered safely and improve exercise capacity in TCPC patients. The trial design is randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled. Bosentan/placebo is administered for 14 weeks with control visits every four weeks. The primary endpoint is change in maximal oxygen consumption as assessed on bicycle ergometer test. Secondary endpoints include changes in pulmonary blood flow during exercise test, pro brain natriuretic peptide and quality of life. DISCUSSION: We hypothesize that treatment with Bosentan, an endothelin receptor antagonist, can be administered safely and improve exercise capacity in TCPC patients.Trial registrationclinicaltrials.gov NCT01292551.
    BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 05/2013; 13(1):36. · 1.46 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: After the Fontan procedure patients are at risk for reduced quality of life (QoL) and cognitive function. We aimed to assess these important factors in Danish Fontan patients and to compare the results with a group of healthy controls. METHODS: All Fontan patients living in Denmark were identified and invited to participate. QoL was evaluated using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) version 4.0 generic core module in patients <16years and the Short Form 36 questionnaire (SF-36) in patients ≥16years. Cognitive function was evaluated in all patients ≥6years using the Quick Test of Cognitive Speed. To evaluate if QoL correlated with exercise capacity, patients performed a symptom-limited bicycle test. RESULTS: 158 of 179 eligible patients (88%) consented to participate. Median age was 13.9years (IQR: 10.2-19.3). PedsQL scores increased with age but were significantly lower among patients than among controls. SF-36 physical scores were significantly lower in patients compared to controls while psychosocial scores were similar. Cognitive speed was significantly reduced in patients at all ages compared to controls. No significant difference in PedsQL-/SF-36 scores or cognitive speed was found between hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) and non-HLHS Fontan patient. PedsQL-/SF-36 scores in patients ≥10years correlated significantly to cognitive speed but not to peak exercise capacity. CONCLUSION: QoL is reduced in Fontan children compared to their healthy counterparts whereas in patients ≥16years only physical, but not psychosocial QoL is reduced. Cognitive speed was significantly lower in patients at all ages compared to controls.
    International journal of cardiology 04/2013; · 6.18 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Patients with a functionally univentricular heart, palliated a.m. Fontan, consequently have non-pulsatile pulmonary blood flow and are known to have a reduced pulmonary diffusing capacity. However, the cause of this reduction remains unclear. We aimed to assess the possible determinants in the aetiology of a reduced diffusing capacity and also to assess whether it could be increased. Furthermore, we aimed to search for predictors of a reduced diffusing capacity. Material and methods: A total of 87 Fontan patients (mean age 16.3 ± 7.6 years) performed advanced pulmonary function tests and maximal cycle ergometer tests. A total of 10 Fontan patients and nine matched controls performed a supine pulmonary function test after a supine rest. Results: In the sitting pulmonary function test, the mean z-scores were: diffusing capacity, 2.38 ± 1.20; pulmonary capillary blood volume, 2.04 ± 0.80; and alveolar capillary membrane diffusing capacity, 0.14 ± 0.84. In the supine compared with the sitting pulmonary function test, the diffusing capacity increased by 51.7 ± 11.9% in the Fontan group and by 23.3 ± 17.7% in the control group (p < 0.001); moreover, the pulmonary capillary blood volume increased by 48.3 ± 17.4% in the Fontan group and by 20.2 ± 13.9% in the control group (p = 0.001). In a multiple linear regression analysis including the explanatory variables of surgical data and exercise data at rest and peak exercise, the resting cardiac index was an independent predictor of the diffusing capacity (regression coefficient: 0.18, p < 0.001). Conclusions: The pulmonary diffusing capacity was reduced in Fontan patients because of a reduced pulmonary capillary blood volume, whereas the alveolar capillary membrane diffusing capacity was preserved. The diffusing capacity was highly increasable in Fontan patients compared with controls, and the resting cardiac index was an independent predictor of the diffusing capacity.
    Cardiology in the Young 04/2013; · 0.95 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess cancer risk in congenital heart defect patients, with and without Down's syndrome, compared with the general population. METHODS: We identified all patients born and diagnosed with congenital heart defects from 1977 to 2008 using the Danish National Registry of Patients, covering all Danish hospitals. We compared cancer incidence in the congenital heart defect cohort with that expected in the general population (∼5.5 million) using the Danish Cancer Registry, and computed age- and gender-standardised incidence ratios. RESULTS: We identified 15,905 congenital heart defect patients, contributing a total of 151,172 person-years at risk; the maximum length of follow-up was 31 years (median 8 years). In all, 53 patients were diagnosed with cancer, including 30 female and 23 male patients (standardised incidence ratio = 1.63; 95% confidence interval: 1.22-2.13). Risks were increased for leukaemia, brain tumours, and basal cell carcinoma. After excluding 801 patients with Down's syndrome, the standardised incidence ratio was 1.19 (95% confidence interval: 0.84-1.64). In the subgroup of 5660 non-Down's syndrome patients undergoing cardiac surgery or catheter-based interventions, the standardised incidence ratio was 1.45 (95% confidence interval: 0.86-2.29). Conclusion The overall risk of cancer among congenital heart defect patients without Down's syndrome was not statistically significantly elevated. Cancer risk in the congenital heart defect cohort as a whole, including patients with Down's syndrome, was increased compared with the general population, although the absolute risk was low. Studies with longer follow-up and more information on radiation doses are needed to further examine a potential cancer risk associated with diagnostic radiation exposure.
    Cardiology in the Young 01/2013; · 0.95 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Long-term survival after the Fontan procedure shows excellent results but is associated with a persistent risk of arrhythmias and exercise intolerance. We aimed to analyze the current burden of clinically relevant arrhythmia and severe exercise intolerance in Danish Fontan patients and furthermore, to estimate the future burden from analysis of mortality and the current burden related to age. METHODS: All Danish citizens with Fontan completion from 1981 to 2009 were identified (n=235). Surviving patients performed exercise test, Holter monitoring, echocardiography, pulmonary function test, and blood sampling and medical history was retrieved from medical records. RESULTS: Twenty-six (11%) patients died or had heart transplantation (HTx) after a mean (±SD) post-Fontan follow-up of 8.3±5.7years. Excluding perioperative deaths (n=8), a linear probability of HTx-free survival was observed and estimated to 99.1% per year. Prevalence of clinically relevant arrhythmia and severe exercise intolerance increased significantly with age and was found in 32% and 85% of patients ≥20years, respectively. Thus, from survival data and logistic regression models the future prevalence of patients, clinically relevant arrhythmia and severe exercise intolerance were estimated, revealing a considerable augmentation. Furthermore, resting and maximum cardiac index, resting stroke volume index and pulmonary diffusing capacity decreased significantly with age while diastolic and systolic ventricular function was unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of clinically relevant arrhythmia and severe exercise intolerance increased significantly with age in Danish Fontan patients. The future Fontan burden was estimated showing an increase in the prevalence of older patients, clinically relevant arrhythmia, and severe exercise intolerance.
    International journal of cardiology 01/2013; · 6.18 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Degenerative aortic valve (AV) stenosis is the most prevalent heart valve disease in the western world. Surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) has until recently been the standard of treatment for patients with severe AV stenosis. Whether transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) can be offered with improved safety and similar effectiveness in a population including low-risk patients has yet to be examined in a randomised setting. METHODS: This randomised clinical trial will evaluate the benefits and risks of TAVI using the transarterial CoreValve System (Medtronic Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA) (intervention group) compared with SAVR (control group) in patients with severe degenerative AV stenosis. Randomisation ratio is 1:1, enrolling a total of 280 patients aged 70 years or older without significant coronary artery disease and with a low, moderate, or high surgical risk profile. Trial outcomes include a primary composite outcome of myocardial infarction, stroke, or all-cause mortality within the first year after intervention (expected rates 5% for TAVI, 15% for SAVR). Exploratory safety outcomes include procedure complications, valve re-intervention, and cardiovascular death, as well as cardiac, cerebral, pulmonary, renal, and vascular complications. Exploratory efficacy outcomes include New York Heart Association functional status, quality of life, and valve prosthesis and cardiac performance. Enrolment began in December 2009, and 269 patients have been enrolled up to December 2012. DISCUSSION: The trial is designed to evaluate the performance of TAVI in comparison with SAVR. The trial results may influence the choice of treatment modality for patients with severe degenerative AV stenosis.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01057173.
    Trials 01/2013; 14(1):11. · 2.21 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
358.05 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2006–2014
    • Rigshospitalet
      • • Department of Cardiology
      • • Heart Centre
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2004–2014
    • Copenhagen University Hospital
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2013
    • University of Greifswald
      Griefswald, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany
  • 2012–2013
    • Region Hovedstaden
      Hillerød, Capital Region, Denmark
    • Hull and East Yorkshire Hospitals NHS Trust
      • Department of Cardiology
      Hull, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2005–2012
    • Children's Heart Center
      Las Vegas, Nevada, United States
  • 1992–2008
    • University of Copenhagen
      • • Department of Radiology
      • • Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance
      Copenhagen, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 1983–2008
    • IT University of Copenhagen
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 1992–2002
    • Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre
      • Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance
      Hvidovre, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2001
    • Frederiksberg Hospital
      Фредериксберг, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 1998
    • Roskilde University
      • Department of Science, Systems and Models (NSM)
      Roskilde, Zealand, Denmark
  • 1993–1995
    • Center for Magnetic Resonance Research Minnesota, USA
      Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States